Eye of the Storm, Part 9

Ground Currents
by Andrew Hall

In the past few chapters of Eye of the Storm, we’ve looked at surface conductive discharge and the landforms it creates. Ground-to-ground, surface conductive discharges formed river channels, fractured the land with arc blast, built mountains, ripped them apart, and induced electric winds that competed in a global plasma storm on our ancient planet.

We’ve discussed how surface conductive discharges match the description of dragons in myth. How they must be discharges from an alternating current superimposed with a direct current bias that forces its path across Earth’s surface-electric field, blasting its way in fits and starts as resonant frequencies built and relaxed, bifurcating the current in reactive power surges.

The electric field is from a build-up of charge on continental surfaces due to capacitance in the continental plates. We’ve discussed how such discharges emanate from beneath Earth’s crust through a continental fringing field. Capacitance dictates there must also be a charge built on the opposite side of the plate which creates the potential difference.

This does not mean one side of the continental plate is all positive and one side negative. Ionization of native materials generates plasma, which by definition is a mixture of positive and negative charge. But plasma self organizes, producing regions of high intensity, positive or negative bias, surrounded by shells of weaker plasma. Coherent structures evolve as waves of energy pass through at varying frequencies, forming patterns of compression and rarefaction in the fashion that sonic vibrations produce cymatics.

Potentials oscillate between regions of high intensity, sometimes spiking to extreme levels from harmonic feedback and constructive interference in the manner of circuits commonly referred to as RLC circuits in electronics. It’s the spikey surges that send sparks flying. We’ll now discuss the underbelly of North America from where these sparks originated and what we can infer about its features.

In keeping with Eye of the Storm protocol, we’ll use Earth’s geology, the planet Jupiter, and the fractal self-similarities of charge diffusion as our living laboratory for evidence.

It’s San Andreas’ Fault

As discussed in the previous chapters, river channels align with faults that are cracks in the Earth caused by the intense heat, pressure, and charge depletion of an arc blast from surface conductive discharges. They are literally the dragon’s footprint. But not all dragon prints result in river channels. In some places, surface conductive discharges created faults that were later buried, or somehow isolated from a watershed, so no river resulted. The San Andreas Fault is one such beast.

It was created in the same discharge event that created the Colorado River: a resonant frequency reactive discharge that sent a filament of induced current northwest, while the main line current of the Colorado filament turned 90 degrees east to the Colorado Plateau.

This filament is the San Andreas fault system, extending from the Gulf of California along the western fringe of the continent to the Juan de Fuca Plate. The fault follows precisely a portion of continental plate boundaries surrounding the Pacific known as the “Ring of Fire.”

What this means is the San Andreas fault is the result of a surface conductive, branch filament of the Colorado discharge, induced along the plate boundary. This branch formed a parallel circuit with the Colorado River branch, thus forming a parallel RLC circuit. The parallel RLC circuit has the characteristic ability to amplify frequency to the point of producing resonant frequency, reactive power discharges, which is what we see along the Colorado River. Not all dragons are parallel circuits, so the Colorado/San Andreas system has some exceptional features and may be unique, at least on Earth.

The fact that the San Andreas is a filament of current discharging along this path can be demonstrated by looking at a real-life dragon in action. Of course, this means looking to Jupiter where a similar circuit is in action right now.

Capacitance forces a mirror response to sub-surface charge accumulation on the continental surface and in the atmosphere. So the landscape and atmosphere reflect the ground currents. This image of a long oval storm system on Jupiter has been presented before, in Chapter 7, as an analog for the storm that created the San Joaquin Valley in California, and its ring of mountains including the Sierra Nevada range. The red line traces (approximately) the San Andreas fault analog that exists beneath Jupiter’s clouds in the same geometry. It rides next to long, thin, dark filaments making “French curves” in the clouds.

These dark filaments are where low-level winds dive beneath higher shelf clouds to feed the jet stream that follows the discharge creating the fault. Where it meets the branching Garloc fault, it created a triangle of Venturi winds. Similar faults or currents are embedded in the Sierra Range (not highlighted) where you can see dark filaments in the clouds).

In other words, you are seeing a dragon from above, the jet-stream being a charged plasma wind generated by induction along the path of the ground current. It takes an identical path through the storm system that the San Andreas does due to the fractal symmetry of charge diffusion in similar circuits.

Two similar circuits will create similar patterns of charge diffusion. Never exact, but similar, like fingerprints and snowflakes. Both circuits create paths of current with capacitance and inductance that forms self-similar diffusion patterns in the form of weather and discharge. The difference in size between Earth and Jupiter doesn’t matter. The processes are all scalable. And the difference in chemistry matters little because the patterns are formed by charge diffusion that is regulated by the circuit. The circuit dictates the plasma behavior and arranges the chemistry to suit. One could say the circuit creates itself, like Escher’s hand that draws a hand that draws itself.

As far as Jupiter is concerned, what this means is that there are crustal ground currents on Jupiter that form circuits geometrically similar to certain ground currents on Earth. We have zero direct evidence for what constitutes “ground” on Jupiter, but the evidence that ground currents are there is in the shape and actions of the clouds. Capacitance between ground and atmosphere dictates the presence of ground currents, producing self-similar storms in feedback with currents in the atmosphere.

Why Earth and Jupiter should have geometrically similar electrical circuits within their crusts may seem a ridiculous coincidence if you accept the consensus views on planetary formation. So don’t.

Planets are formed as drops and bubbles spit out of bigger planets, or stars. Drops and bubbles are fractal entities shaped by electrical bonding — surface tension, that is, or spherical capacitance. It should be no surprise that complex fractal bubbles will also have complex fractal surface features.

Fractals being self-similar and planets everywhere being drops and bubbles, they should all display similar features. But you will not see the similarities if you categorize and analyze them as solid or gaseous structures, or as thermodynamic or chemical entities, or as gravitational bodies caused by wiggly space-time. They only make sense if you analyze them as circuits. Then, it not only makes sense, it yields real, useful knowledge to see Earth and Jupiter with nearly exact fractal symmetries.

Ground Current Loops

The presence of the San Andreas Fault also betrays that the plate boundary hides a Telluric, or sub-surface current, formed by charge accumulation beneath the plate in the fringing field along the plate’s edge. We’ll now look at the evidence for this sub-surface current. We can’t see what’s beneath the crust, but we can make some assumptions based on surface features.

We know sub-surface currents must generate heat given resistance in the ground, so we can expect to find volcanoes and seismic activity concentrated along these currents. And so we do:

Charge collects within and beneath the continental plates because they present a sheet of dielectric matter to energy flowing in and out of the Earth. As charge collects beneath the plates, it migrates and concentrates at the plate boundaries. The fringing field at the plate boundary is the reason. The transition from thick continental plate to thinner oceanic plate, or any cracks in the plate, creates a fringing field that provides better conduction for the pent-up charge beneath the plates to escape.

But the potential still has to be large enough to make a spark to close the gap across the fringing field. And in the meantime, the fringing field accumulates charge. Filaments of current are induced along the length of the fringing fields at the plate boundaries by Earth’s magnetic and electric fields, forming circuits. You should notice that the plate boundaries connect in continuous, looping circuits.

To illustrate, one of the better examples is the Caribbean Plate, or more precisely, the Caribbean Current Loop.

The Caribbean Loop

The Caribbean seafloor displays deep trenches aligned with island arcs, which run parallel to each other — even around bends. Volcanic island chains and oceanic trenches are magnetic expressions of a sub-surface current. Volcanic islands appear to one side of the current, and deep trenches appear on the other.

The sub-surface current does not produce trench and volcano chains directly. They are formed by eddy currents in the solenoid-like, coaxial magnetic field surrounding the current. Think of a subsurface Birkeland Current, with the added effect of iron in the ground magnifying the magnetic field and its eddy currents. The effect is described by Lenz’s Law, which is a special case of Faraday’s Law of Induction.

Surface evidence of a ring current beneath the Caribbean Sea.

To induce eddy currents, according to Lenz’ Law the conductor itself had to be in motion across the Earth’s magnetic field, generating helical eddy currents in the coaxial magnetic field around the moving conductor.

Eddy currents generate heat due to resistance in the material where the currents form. Eddy currents form around the moving conductor, melting the surrounding rock and creating magma chambers. Lorentz Force, or the drag effect of a moving conductor through a magnetic field, which is a magnetic reaction in the opposing direction, pushes volcanoes up on one side and depresses the crust into the molten chamber on the other, creating a trench at the trailing edge of the moving conductor.

There is no actual conductor, like a copper wire, but it’s the movement of a filament of current, which is moving in reaction to electromagnetic forces, that burns and melts its way through the crust.

Given that islands are to the inside of the trench, the right-hand rule indicates the Caribbean Loop Current ran counter-clockwise during formation of the Caribbean plate.

The movement of the current also dredged seafloor, piling it into non-volcanic islands along its path, aided by incomprehensible tsunamis. The violence of this event cannot be overstated.

Similar current loops can be found at the horn of South America and the Indonesian archipelago.

Evidence the current moved is also displayed in the sinuous curvatures of the trench and island chains. Note the image, where the filament dragged south, its momentum amplified the eddy currents, heating the crust to build the Cuban island chain along an “S” shaped curve, before locking its position in a straight line at Jamaica.

One of the likely reasons current loops make these lateral moves is because the sides of the loop flow in opposite directions, and the magnetic polarity of the coaxial eddy currents are opposite and attract, narrowing the loop like a hangman’s noose. The magnetic field attraction eventually meets electric field repulsion from the opposing current vectors, which snaps the current into balance in parallel lines. The tip of the loop accumulates the highest charge density, so even though it’s the region that moves the least, its high potential burns neat little arcs of volcanoes.

The sinuous pattern shows how charge density spread in longitudinal waves through the moving filament as it met resistance. It’s similar to how tension and compression travel in waves through a steel spring. It forms a sine curve, with the greatest amount of volcanism, trenching and dredging at the inflections, where momentum changed greatest, amplifying the magnetic induction of eddy currents.  The deepest trenches show where the current came to rest, and momentum suddenly decelerated to zero, as an electromagnetic balance was achieved across the loop structure.

Lateral current movements of this type can be found all over the world. The momentum change in the current produces distinctive arcs of deep depressions and volcanic island chains in the oceans. On land, tell-tale lakes, mountains chains, rivers, volcanoes and maar craters align themselves in the same patterns.

Where the Caribbean Loop joins the Ring of Fire, the juncture is called a “triple junction.” Triple junctions occur at the plate boundaries. For instance, the Rivera Triple Junction is where the Rivera Plate meets the Eastern Pacific Rise. Triple junctions are known hot spots for volcanic and seismic activity and magnetic anomalies.

Since there are triple junctions along the North American plate, it begs the question: are there current loops connected to these junctions beneath the continental plate?

The North American Current Loop

Let’s examine North America. The Ring of Fire is the obvious path of a subsurface current because it forms a lineament of volcanoes from Alaska to Central America.

There are three other major lineaments in North America’s interior. Yellowstone super-volcano is one end of a curving lineament of volcanoes in a trend that forms a part of the Snake River Valley across southern Idaho.

To the south is a string of volcanic fields called the Jemez Lineament. The Jemez Lineament extends diagonally from the Pinacate Volcanic field in Sonora, Mexico, northeast across Arizona, to the border between Colorado and New Mexico.

It’s bisected by a northwest-to-southeast lineament of volcanoes that include the San Francisco Peaks and the Uinkaret volcanoes on the North Rim of Grand Canyon.

With all of these plotted together on one map, a pattern begins to emerge that implies there is a current loop beneath North America. Plotted, the Jemez and San Francisco Peak volcanic lineaments produce an almost perpendicular cross pattern, juxtaposed symmetrically across the Colorado Plateau from the volcanoes of the Yellowstone complex and aligned with the Ring of Fire.

The Jemez lineament aims directly to the Guadalupe Micro-plate to the southwest and to the arc of the Great Lakes to the Northeast.

The loop appears to circle the Great Lakes and points back to the Black Hills in South Dakota, which appears to be an inflection point. From there it points to the Juan de Fuca plate in a direct line through Yellowstone.

It has a similar shape and size to the Caribbean current loop, with the base of the loop wider than the tip.

Similar to the Caribbean Loop, there is a significant depression at the tip. In this case the Great Lakes, but they reside on the inside of the loop, whereas ocean trenches are outside of the Caribbean Loop.

And where the Caribbean Loop has volcanic islands inside the curve of the loop, the North American Loop has maar craters (see “The Maars of Pinacate“), which is a type of volcanic action forming a series of circular lakes outside the arc of the Great Lakes.

Maars are volcanoes created by steam and other gases exploding instead of spewing ash and lava. Smaller such expressions are known as karsts and breccia pipes. They are all forms of diatremes and are often mined for uranium and precious metals, which the eruption leaves behind in the throat of the tube. The surface result is a crater instead of a cinder cone and is typically filled with water.

The implication is that the loop current lies below aquifers that erupted in steam, creating the maars. And that the volcanic expression is to the outside of the loop, depressions to the inside, so current circulates north-to-south in this loop — opposite to the Caribbean Loop.

The shape of the Great Lakes, especially Lake Superior, show the sinuous shape of ground current movement. It appears the loop narrowed or swung to the south until the southern leg aligned to the Jemez Lineament.

The Yellowstone volcano lineament is a half-circle and also appears to be from ground current movement. In this case, the movement appears to be north from the Monterrey Micro-plate to the Juan de Fuca triple junction. If so, this widened the base of the loop, with the pivot point of the shift at the Black Hills of South Dakota.

How the Earth Thinks

The electrical structure of these small loop currents, and the junctions with large polar loops like the Ring of Fire, forms a circuit called an Operational Amplifier, commonly called an Op-Amp. An Op-Amp is a type of current loop. However, there is one key ingredient to an Op-Amp that makes it special: a direct current (DC) connection to the loop, which amplifies the gain of output to input current by as much as one-hundred-thousand. It can then be manipulated with additional circuitry —  resistance, inductance and capacitance in various configurations — to perform all kinds of tricks.

They can be made to oscillate, amplify, or invert. Op-Amps are at the heart of circuitry such as the old Hewlett-Packard calculator used in college to perform complex math. Op-Amps did the adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing of inputs to give outputs needed to get a grade.

So, how does Nature insert this DC current into the loop? Lightning. Lightning strikes DC pulses into the ground. In the environment we’re exploring, lightning struck continuously. Long enough and powerful enough to draw supersonic winds and matter to build mountains, like the Black Hills of South Dakota, which is an inflection point in the loop.

From that inflection point, the Yellowstone volcano aligns with lightning generated mountains of Sacajawea Peak and the Black Hills along the sub-surface current path.

If the Op-Amp needs a shot of DC current, Nature organizes itself to provide by stirring a storm that spits lightning in the appropriate place, thereby fulfilling its fractal pattern requirements. Escher’s hands.

I won’t go into detail about how Op-Amps work. There are plenty of books about them. There is one attribute certain Op-Amps have that I want to point out. Properly configured, the bridge between the triple junctions experiences a low, almost zero current relative to the current outside the junctions and in the loop. This corresponds to the “bridge” region of the Ring of Fire between the Mendocino Triple Junction and the Guadelupe Micro-plate, where there are but a few sparsely spread volcanoes.

Compared to the Cascades and Olympics, or the profusion of large volcanoes in Mexico, only Mt. Shasta, Lassen, Mammoth and a few anemic lava flows fill out the bridge section. The relatively low density and magnitude of volcanoes is evidence that current was restricted along the bridge, just like an Op-Amp.

Rupert Sheldrake, are you listening?

But the bigger take on all this is that the Earth is a computer. There is no other conclusion to draw when there are op-amps all over the circuit, clicking and switching currents around. The Earth works as a coherent circuit. It’s a circuit within a bigger circuit centered on the Sun. And it has circuits within it, shaping the continents and weather.

There is no “butterfly effect. A butterfly doesn’t stir 300 mph tornadoes. It’s one of the fallacies of modern science that leads to accepting abstract and frivolous ideas. There are fluctuations in signal strength Earth receives from the solar system. Earth is a ball of energy and matter, and when it gets extra energy it stores some in the matter. As Earth’s balance with the solar system oscillates, as it must, skin effects take place as Earth’s matter absorbs and releases energy. Those skin effects are geology and weather, and they are driven by capacitance as energy flows between Earth’s layers of matter.

Ionization and induced currents are the natural result. We have been looking at the physical evidence. There is nothing described in these chapters that is implausible, or unscientific. It is what is expected on a planet. It’s what physics predicts if the inquiry begins with the proper framework.

The next chapter will be the last one for the Eye of the Storm project. We’ll summarize and draw some final conclusions.

Additional Resources by Andrew Hall:

Surface Conductive Faults | Thunderblog

Arc Blast — Part One | Thunderblog

Arc Blast — Part Two | Thunderblog

Arc Blast — Part Three | Thunderblog

The Monocline | Thunderblog

The Maars of Pinacate, Part One | Thunderblog

The Maars of Pinacate, Part Two | Thunderblog

Nature’s Electrode | Thunderblog

The Summer  Thermopile | Thunderblog

Tornado — The Electric Model | Thunderblog

Lightning-Scarred Earth, Part 1 | Thunderblog

Lightning-Scarred Earth, Part 2 | Thunderblog

Sputtering Canyons, Part 1 | Thunderblog

Sputtering Canyons, Part 2 | Thunderblog

Sputtering Canyons, Part 3 | Thunderblog

Eye of the Storm, Part 1 | Thunderblog

Eye of the Storm, Part 2 | Thunderblog

Eye of the Storm, Part 3 | Thunderblog

Eye of the Storm, Part 4 | Thunderblog

Eye of the Storm, Part 5 | Thunderblog

Eye of the Storm, Part 6 | Thunderblog

Eye of the Storm, Part 7 | Thunderblog

Eye of the Storm, Part 8 | Thunderblog

EU2017 Andy Hall 150X165 (AF)

Andrew Hall is a natural philosopher, engineer, and writer. A graduate of the University of Arizona’s Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering College, he spent thirty years in the energy industry. He has designed, consulted, managed, and directed the construction and operation of over two and a half gigawatts of power generation and transmission, including solar, gasification, and natural gas power systems. From his home in Arizona, he explores the mountains, canyons, volcanoes, and deserts of the American Southwest to understand and rewrite an interpretation of Earth’s form in its proper electrical context. Andrew was a speaker at EU2016, EU2017 and the EUUK2019 conferences. He can be reached at hallad1257@gmail.com or thedailyplasma.blog

Disclosure: The proposed theories are the sole ideas of the author, as a result of observation, experience in shock and hydrodynamic effects, and deductive reasoning. The author makes no claims that this method is the only way mountains or other geological features are created. 

Ideas expressed in Thunderblogs do not necessarily express the views of The Thunderbolts Project or T-Bolts Group Inc.

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