tpods of 2019 archive

← 2018 tpods

The Hundred Years War The Fires of Tamatea and 1348 AD.

The Hundred Years War The Fires of Tamatea and 1348 AD.

Mar 18, 2019 Mankind’s greatest killer plague: What controls human destiny? Around 1340 AD began a series of wars between England and France that lasted over a century. It was made famous by Shakespeare in his inventive but glorious Saint Crispin’s day speech by Henry the fifth at the Battle ...
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Mega-Tsunamis, Chinese Junks and Port Phillip Bay

Mega-Tsunamis, Chinese Junks and Port Phillip Bay

Ancient Chinese junk. Artist unknown. Mar 15, 2019 Editor's note: The Picture of the Day will be on a brief hiatus until Wednesday, March 20. In the interim, please enjoy these articles from the archives. The Australian Bunurong tribe recorded the catastrophic formation of Melbourne’s Port Phillip Bay in their ...
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Mergers and Spinoffs

Mergers and Spinoffs

Galaxy cluster Abell 1689. Credit: NASA, ESA, and B. Siana and A. Alavi, University of California. Click to enlarge. Mar 14, 2019 High temperatures in galaxy clusters are an enigma. Astronomers use gravity as their primary explanation for most energetic events, like high temperatures in the galaxy cluster shown above ...
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Rocky Rings

Rocky Rings

1.72 million square kilometer Caloris Basin on Mercury. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington. Mar 13, 2019 Many celestial bodies display multi-ringed formations. Mare Orientale can be found near the western rim of the Moon, making it difficult to see from Earth. It has a nearly ...
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Solar Sphere

Solar Sphere

X-ray image looking toward the center of the Milky Way covering about 64 million cubic light-years. Credit: NASA/UMass/D.Wang et al. Mar 12, 2019 The Solar System travels through space in an electromagnetic bubble. "In order to understand the phenomena in a certain plasma region, it is necessary to map not ...
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Ant Gun

Ant Gun

The Ant Nebula in infrared. Credit: Hojoe & the ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator. Mar 11, 2019 The Herschel space observatory operated between 2009 and 2013. The Herschel Space Observatory was launched on May 14, 2009 into an orbit around LaGrange point L2 (behind Earth in relation to the Sun). Herschel’s ...
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Recent Renovation

Recent Renovation

The bones from thousands of animals, representing hundreds of species from all over the world, are found in Agate Fossil Beds National Monument. Mar 8, 2019 Earth's surface is not what it was a short time ago. That Earth and the Solar System experienced catastrophic events, perhaps as little as ...
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An Electric Wreath in Space

An Electric Wreath in Space

The Rosette Nebula, approximately 5,000 light-years from Earth. The nebula is a cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases, with several massive stars at its heart. Credit: Nick Wright, Keele University. Click to enlarge. March 7, 2019 The Rosette Nebula reveals its plasma structure. "I turn my eyes ...
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Filaments of Reason

Filaments of Reason

The center of the Milky Way from the Very Large Array. A radio filament is left of center in the image. Credit: NSF/VLA/UCLA/M. Morris et al. Mar 6, 2019 Lightning phenomena vary in magnitude. "Thunder is good, thunder is impressive; but it is lightning that does the work."--- Mark Twain ...
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Frozen Moon

Frozen Moon

A scale comparison of the Earth, the Moon, and the Galilean Moons. Credit: NASA/Walter Mysers. Mar 5, 2019 Liquid water on Europa? The Space Shuttle Atlantis launched the Galileo spacecraft on October 18, 1989. After a six year flight, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. After eight ...
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Potato Pancake

Potato Pancake

Ultima Thule's weird shape. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute/National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Click to animate. Mar 4, 2019 Ultima Thule continues to confound astronomers. According to a recent press release, (486958) 2014 MU69, otherwise known as Ultima Thule, is not shaped like a snowman. The newest images ...
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Water, Water, Everywhere?

Water, Water, Everywhere?

Mount Sharp in Gale Crater. Credit: NASA/JPL Caltech/MSSS/Planetaria. Mar 1, 2019 Liquid water is thought to be abundant in the Solar System, especially on Mars. NASA launched the Mars Science Laboratory, otherwise known as "Curiosity" on November 26, 2011. Curiosity is currently rolling through Gale Crater, located just southwest of ...
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Constant Confusion

Constant Confusion

How astronomers measure the Hubble constant. Credits: NASA, ESA, A. Feild (STScI), and A. Riess (STScI/JHU). Click to enlarge. Feb 28, 2019 In 1997, two teams of astronomers studying Type 1a supernovae found there was “something wrong” with their observations. Type 1a supernovae are a sub-class of stellar explosions involving ...
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Warped Theories

Warped Theories

Sagittarius A* at the center of the Milky Way. Credit: NASA/CXC/MPE/G.Ponti et al; Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss Feb 27, 2019 Inside of a black hole, astronomers believe that matter occupies no volume, yet maintains a gravitational force so great that no light can escape its event horizon. They are “black” holes, because ...
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Electric Aurorae

Electric Aurorae

Illustration of three THEMIS satellites and Earth's magnetosphere. Credit: NASA Feb 26, 2019 There is an electrical structure called a magnetotail extending away from Earth for millions of kilometers. In 1966, the U.S. Navy satellite, TRIAD, recorded electromagnetic disturbances as it passed over Earth’s poles and through the Van Allen ...
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Fusion Confusion

Fusion Confusion

Coronal holes on the Sun. Credit: Solar Dynamics Observatory, ESA/ROB via helioviewer.org. Feb 25, 2019 Coronal holes are the source of fast solar winds that can produce geomagnetic storms on Earth. The thermonuclear model of the Sun proposes that the temperature in its core is more than 15 million Celsius, ...
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Cut the Dust

Cut the Dust

Supernova Remnant G54. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/CXC/ESA/NRAO/J. Rho (SETI Institute). Feb 22, 2019 Stars are formed from charged particles. "Men think highly of those who rise rapidly in the world; whereas nothing rises quicker than dust, straw, and feathers."--- Lord Byron Immanuel Kant, the 18th Century philosopher, suggested that stars, in general, ...
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How's the Weather?

How’s the Weather?

The first images of this dark vortex are from the Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) program, a long-term Hubble project that annually captures global maps of our solar system's four outer planets. Credit: NASA, ESA, and M.H. Wong and A.I. Hsu (UC Berkeley). Feb 21, 2019 Neptune's clouds contradict consensus ...
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Ice Moon

Ice Moon

Europa's numerous rilles. Credit: NASA/JPL. Feb 20, 2019 A new mission to Europa. The Galileo spacecraft entered orbit around Jupiter in December 1995. When it ran out of maneuvering fuel, the 320 kilogram probe was incinerated by the Jovian atmosphere, so that it would not crash into one of Jupiter’s ...
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Forbidden Doughnut

Forbidden Doughnut

The Milky Way's plasma torus. Image by Ryan Cameron. Feb 19, 2019 A ring of galactic plasma. There is a twisted ring of material surrounding the nucleus of Galaxy Centaurus A; an “active galaxy” that exhibits axial jets and a doughnut-shaped plasma discharge. Active galaxies are brighter than other galaxies ...
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Opportunity is Dead

Opportunity is Dead

Opportunity looked back over its own tracks on August 4, 2010. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech. Feb 18, 2019 The Mars Exploration Rover (MER B) Opportunity traveled across the face of Mars for 15 years. Opportunity was launched on July 7, 2003 and after a six month journey, it bounced to a landing ...
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Eternal Winter

Eternal Winter

Dione (near) and Enceladus (far). Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute. Feb 15, 2019 This small moon is said to be covered with powdery snow. The Cassini mission is now over. However, more data continues to be analyzed, particularly those observations of various moons, including Enceladus. Enceladus was named after one of ...
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Cassini's Legacy

Cassini’s Legacy

False-color image of Saturn's sunlit horizon, where a thin haze can be seen along the limb. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute. Feb 14, 2019 Data from the now defunct Cassini mission provides more clues to Saturn's environment. Cassini-Huygens was launched from Cape Canaveral on October 15, 1997. Its primary mission was to ...
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A Titan's Daughters

A Titan’s Daughters

The seven brightest stars in the Pleiades: Alcyone, Celaeno, Electra, Maia, Merope, Taygeta and Sterope. Feb 13, 2019 The Seven Sisters, or M45, is a misty cluster of stars. Commonly known as the Pleiades, modern astronomers believe that constellation's stars were born in the same nebular cloud about 100 million ...
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Imaginary Lines

Imaginary Lines

A theoretical multilayer magnetic cage (orange and pink) in which a so-called "magnetic rope" (blue) develops. Credit: © Tahar Amari et al. / Centre de physique théorique (CNRS/École Polytechnique). Feb 12, 2019 There are no discrete magnetic field lines. According to a recent press release, researchers from the Centre de ...
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