A Whale of a Time

Galaxy NGC 4631, the “Whale Galaxy”. Credit: Composite image by Jayanne English of the University of Manitoba, with NRAO VLA radio data from Silvia Carolina Mora-Partiarroyo and Marita Krause of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy. The optical data were from the Mayall 4-meter telescope, collected by Maria Patterson and Rene Walterbos of New Mexico State University. Arpad Miskolczi of the University of Bochum provided the software code for tracing the magnetic field lines.

Dec 30, 2019

Revealing the underlying structure of galaxies.

Electric filaments expand through space. Sometimes they explode, releasing plasma accelerated almost to the speed of light. Galactic jets erupt from the opposite poles of some galaxies, terminating in energetic clouds that emit X-rays, gamma rays, radio waves, and extreme ultraviolet light. Such phenomena are best described using plasma science and not kinetics. Astrophysicists see magnetic fields in galaxies and galactic clusters but not the underlying electricity, so they are unable to explain them.

How galaxies evolve might be the result of plasma discharges forming coherent filaments. Why stars in galaxies tend to form long arcs is a puzzle that conventional astrophysicists have yet to address. No hypothesis can explain the configuration of barred spirals and elliptical whirlpools that congregate in million-light-year clusters. However, the fact that field-aligned currents flow through galaxies, as seen in the image of NGC 4631, means that they are Birkeland currents. Birkeland currents, as Electric Universe theory postulates, are the initiators of galactic evolution.

Talking about electromagnetic fields as if they are “things” that can twist and tangle, or become trapped, is a failure to understand what electromagnetism is and how it is expressed. There are no magnetic field lines. What astronomers reify to create their theories are schematic representations used to plot electromagnetic fields. They are no more real in space than lines of latitude or longitude are on the surface of the Earth.

Hannes Alfvén said that galaxies are like Michael Faraday’s invention, the homopolar motor. A homopolar motor is driven by magnetic fields induced in a circular conducting plate. The plate is mounted between the poles of an electromagnet, causing it to spin at a rate proportional to the input current. Galaxies most likely spin due to the same effect: electromagnetic energy flowing into them. As Electric Sky author, retired Professor of Electrical Engineering Dr. Donald Scott, explains, counter-rotating Birkeland currents are the sine qua non of galactic morphology.

Galaxies move within an electric circuit that connects the Universe from beginning to end. Primal electric forces are orders of magnitude greater than gravity. Birkeland currents attract one another in a linear relationship that can be up to thirty-nine orders of magnitude more powerful. That means they are the strongest long-range attractors in the Universe. Electric currents flowing through dusty plasma sustain the magnetic fields detected in stars and galaxies.

Stephen Smith

The Thunderbolts Picture of the Day is generously supported by the Mainwaring Archive Foundation.

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