Essential Guide to the EU – Chapter 4
Electromagnetism

4.1  The Electromagnetic Field Equation Scientists attempt to explain physical systems in terms of mathematical models which describe and predict the behavior of the system. For example, Kepler explained the movement of the planets with his three laws. In the same way, plasma behavior is governed by the electromagnetic field …

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Essential Guide to the EU – Chapter 2
Magnetic and Electric Fields in Space

2.1 The Strength of Gravity and Electric Forces Gravity is a relatively very weak force.  The electric Coulomb force between a proton and an electron is of the order of 1039 (that’s 1 with 39 zeros after it) times stronger than the gravitational force between them. We can get a …

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Essential Guide to the EU – Chapter 1
Distances in Space

1.1  Distances to Stars When we look up into the night sky and see all the stars, many of which are suns similar to our own, they look fairly close together. But they’re not really close at all. The extent of space between them is huge. Distance is an important …

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Essential Guide to the EU – Introduction

The New Picture of Space Now more than ever, the exploration of our starry Universe excites the imagination. Never before has space presented so many pathways for research and discovery. New observational tools enable us to “see” formerly-invisible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the view is spectacular. Telescope images …

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