Hoses and Nozzles

Quasar 3C 273, which resides in an elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo. Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA.

Oct 14, 2019

Consensus astronomers see only kinetic effects when observing remote galaxies.

A previous Picture of the Day reported that there are two gamma ray lobes extending beyond the Milky Way’s core. The formations are about 65,000 light-years in diameter, and are indications that Birkeland currents are creating z-pinches in galactic plasmas. Intense electromagnetic fields in those filamentary structures accelerate electrons until they can approach light speed. Those electrons emit synchrotron radiation, which is often interpreted as gamma-rays in space.

Some celestial objects shine so brightly that they are thought by astronomers to be the most intense energy sources in the Universe. Phenomena like quasars, Gamma-ray Bursters (GRB), Fast Radio Bursters (FRB), and blitzars—the latter three are short-lived, however. How they are generated is not known.

Quasars, or, quasi-stellar radio sources, shine with a continuous output. Astronomer Maarten Schmidt identified the first radio quasar, 3C 273, in 1963. However, there was a problem with his observation: its radio wave spectrum was anomalous—he could not identify which elements created the Fraunhofer lines that he saw. He then concluded that they were actually hydrogen gas absorption lines that were red-shifted. Since all of those sources are detected through the use of redshift theory, many “explanations” are necessary, in order to keep alive the idea that Doppler-shifted Fraunhofer lines can be used as a convenient yard stick.

Modern astronomers believe that supermassive black holes promote the accumulation of interstellar material that is compressed and heated until it shines in the high frequency electromagnetic spectrum, often emitting gamma-rays. Jets from the superheated gas and dust that are aligned with Earth are called blazars, “…and in a flare they can emit as much radiation as a million billion suns.”

Blazars and quasars are both active galaxy nuclei, thought to be supermassive black holes with accretion disks and plasma jets (electrons) perpendicular to the accretion disk. As mentioned, astronomers think that blazars are more powerful and more variable than quasars, because they see their plasma jets head on. Quasar jets, on the other hand, are viewed at an angle.

Laboratory experiments reveal that the easiest way to accelerate electrons to high velocity is in an electric field. Electric charge flow in plasma generates electromagnetic fields that constrict the current channel. Electric filaments remain coherent over long distances and can transmit power through space. Those filaments are the jets seen in galaxies and stars, with concentrations of energy at various points.

Synchrotron radiation is emitted by the constricted elements in Birkeland currents, and it is that radiation that is mistaken for gamma-rays, X-rays, and extreme ultraviolet light along the lengths of blazar jets. If redshift is not a viable theory, then quasars and blazars are not “billions of light-years” away, so are most likely not so powerful.

Stephen Smith

The Thunderbolts Picture of the Day is generously supported by the Mainwaring Archive Foundation.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email