Feb 12, 2019
There are no discrete magnetic field lines.
According to a recent press release, researchers from the Centre de physique théorique (CNRS/École Polytechnique) believe that twisted magnetic fields called, “flux ropes” become trapped in a “cage”, causing explosions of “magnetic energy” on the Sun. An “…entanglement of magnetic force lines twisted together like a hemp rope…” causes solar explosions known as solar flares.
Right away, readers will note a major problem with conventional theories about the Sun. Talking about electromagnetic fields as if they are “things” that can twist and tangle, or become trapped, is a failure to understand what electromagnetism is and how it is expressed. There are no magnetic field lines. What astronomers reify to create their theories are schematic representations used to plot electromagnetic fields. They are no more real in space than lines of latitude or longitude are on the surface of the Earth.
Coronal arches penetrate the Sun’s plasma sheath, or double layer region, where its primary source of electrical energy resides. As written recently, powerful electric currents form secondary magnetic fields. If the current grows too strong, the double layer explodes, interrupting the charge flow. The sudden discharge causes solar flares and gigantic prominence eruptions. Electric Universe theories about the Sun are based on the fact that celestial bodies are immersed in plasma and are connected by electric circuits. Since it is electrically connected to the galaxy, electric charge flows into the Sun from its galactic circuit, so it is in a constant state of flux.
Jacobsen and Carlqvist wrote in 1964 that double layers can store electromagnetic energy. They found that electric fields accelerate charged particles with up to 10^14 electron volts per unit charge. That idea was further refined by Alfvén and Carlqvist in 1967:
“Already in the 1950s, it was realized that the phenomenon of solar flares might have an electromagnetic origin and that the flare energy is likely to be stored as magnetic energy in the solar atmosphere. It was not an easy task, however, to explain how the stored magnetic energy could be released, within the short time observed, from the hot solar atmosphere that was usually considered to have an almost infinite conductivity. Hence, the mechanism for energy release in flares naturally became a main subject of our study.”
Double layers develop on the Sun as electricity flows through its plasmas. An electric field appears between regions of opposite charge. A “Langmuir burst” can occur when stored electric charge is catastrophically released. Heliophysicists incorrectly refer to those explosive bursts as “magnetic reconnection”.
Magnetic reconnection does not acknowledge double layers, which must exist between two differing plasma fields. Hannes Alfvén was critical of “moving” field lines because the motion of magnetic field lines is inherently meaningless. An electromagnetic field is a vector function of space coordinates and time. Individual field lines cannot be identified with any particular field line as it changes over time because they are conventions that must be carefully applied.
Retired Professor of Electrical Engineering, Dr. Donald Scott, wrote:
“Astrophysicists ignore Alfvén’s work. They attempt to arrive at a de novo explanation for the release of such energy by embracing the notion that the motion and interaction of magnetic field lines is its root cause. They expound on the (basically false) idea that magnetic fields are ‘frozen into’ plasma, and by moving and breaking, these lines carry the plasma along and spew it out into space. Alfvén ridiculed this explanation by saying, ‘A magnetic field line is by definition a line which is everywhere parallel to the magnetic field. If the current system changes, the shape of the magnetic field line changes but it is meaningless to speak about a translational movement of magnetic field lines.'”