Article 11 : Are some ideas in today’s science ready for retirement? – Part 2


by Rev Nicholas Sykes

“Dark Matter” and “Dark Energy” are concepts only a few decades old. They are seen to be mathematically necessary in a Gravitational Universe. This is because the model of the cosmos that we have constructed cannot work without them. The biggest problem, however, about both these supposed necessary components of our universe, which together are now stated to account for 96% of it, is that they have never been observed – and many scientists are content to consider them to be unobservable. So the first question must be, Why are today’s cosmologists so insistent that they exist at all?

Dark Matter

“Dark Matter” was first postulated by Fritz Zwicky in 1933, who wished to account for the speed of rotation of the galaxies that occur in clusters. Just as the sun holds together the planets revolving round it so, the gravitational model proposes, the innermost mass of a cluster of galaxies holds together the outer galaxies as they revolve. The trouble is, that the estimated mass of the inner parts of the cluster is not by a long way enough to provide the necessary attractive force of gravitation to do the job of holding together the outermost galaxies – they revolve too quickly for that and without extra mass within the cluster providing the attraction, would fly out of their galactic orbital path.

A similar effect occurs for individual galaxies. Assuming the gravitational mass to be due only to the visible matter of the galaxy, stars far from the centre of galaxies are observed to have much higher angular velocities than gravitational stability would allow.

The solution to the difficulty, said the theorists, is to propose that extra matter exists besides what is actually detected but which will have the same gravitational property as the ordinary matter that can be detected. The name given for for this extra but undetectable matter was “Dark Matter”. Although the hypothesis of dark matter became the most popular theory explaining these astronomical observations of galaxies and galaxy clusters, there has been neither direct observational evidence nor confirmation for it.

Some other theories have been proposed to explain these velocity observations without the need for a vast amount of undetected matter, but none of these theories has achieved widespread credence. The Electric Universe paradigm, however, is distinguished from all such Gravitational Universe assumptions, in that the observed velocities become explainable from uncomplicated electrical principles.

Recalling the “Occam’s razor” principle that simpler explanations are, other things being equal, generally better than more complex ones, both “dark matter” and the variety of unaccepted alternative explanations of observed galactic velocities necessary for a Gravitational Universe can all be discarded when the new paradigm is adopted. “Dark Matter” cannot survive in an Electric Universe paradigm not only because its existence is unconfirmed after years of search for it, but because it is unnecessary.

Stephen Smith explains how such velocities are a natural part of the Electric Universe, whose proponents share a different view regarding the nature of the cosmos. The astrophysicist Hannes Alfvén came up with an “electric galaxy” theory as early as 1981. Alfvén observed that galaxies resemble the homopolar motors invented by Michael Faraday. A homopolar motor is driven by magnetic fields induced in a circular aluminium plate or some other conductive metal. The metal plate is placed between the poles of an electromagnet that causes it to spin at a rate proportional to the input current.

Galactic discs behave like the conductive plates in a homopolar motor. Birkeland currents flow within the galactic disks, powering their stars. The galaxies are, in turn, powered by intergalactic Birkeland currents that are detectable by the radio signals they induce. Since Birkeland currents are drawn toward each other in a 1/r linear relationship, dark matter can be dispensed with when electric currents flowing through dusty plasma are recognized as providing the attractive force that is otherwise unaccountable in a gravitational model of the universe and its galaxies.

Dark Energy

As if one unobserved entity – dark matter – to balance the equations for a Gravitational Universe were not enough, cosmologists have actually seen the necessity for two of them, behaving differently. The second one, more tendentious even than the first, is called “Dark Energy”, which must provide a whopping 70% of the universe. Dr. Donald Scott depicts this as “a hypothetical form of energy that supposedly permeates all of space and which produces a force that acts in opposition to gravity.” It is needed, Scott explains, in order to give a mathematical accounting for the conclusion that the expansion of the universe appears to be accelerating, while yet the gravity of its matter only attracts and cannot repel.

“Dark energy” is a concept devoid of physicality and, against all known properties of physical substances, necessarily provides a mirror-image sort of “gravitation” that repels instead of attracting. If dark matter and dark energy did indeed exist, this would mean that there was only some 4% of the mass of the universe that could be accounted for by observation. Imagine a student instructing his examiner that he must only see 4% of the answers he had written down!

The ideas of dark matter and dark energy are the signal to the rational thinker of the failure both of General Relativity and the Big Bang followed by expansion concepts, which, as we may be beginning to see, are generated by the inadequacy of the Gravitational Universe theory. O William of Ockham, where is thy razor? Like Dark Matter, Dark Energy cannot survive, through lack of physical confirmation, lack of necessity and, it must be said, lack of good sense, in an Electric Universe. But we will have to proceed to the concept of the supposed Big Bang and the expanding universe before the fall of dark energy becomes fully apparent.

This and the other articles in this series have been published by Cayman Net News

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Bishop Nicholas Sykes

Nicholas JG Sykes, B Sc, Dip Ed, MTS Taught in mainly public schools and a teachers college for over 20 years, in Jamaica, the Cayman Islands and the United Kingdom in science and mathematics, as well as religious education, becoming the chairman of the Association of Science Teachers of Jamaica in 1979. Ordained priest in 1976 and consecrated bishop in 2012, currently the Rector of St. Alban's Anglican Church, George Town, immediate past Secretary of the Cayman Ministers' Association, and member of the Cayman Islands Human Rights Commission. Authored the book “The Dependency Question - a study of Church and State in the Cayman Islands” and numerous articles. Happily married for over 40 years to wife Winnifred, with three adult children born in Jamaica, and several grandchildren.