The Dynamic Sun

The latest image of the Sun from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Credit: NASA/SDO.

Dec 15, 2020

The Sun is a plasma phenomenon.

The Solar Dynamics Observatory records coronal holes as they move across the Sun’s photosphere, causing storms of charged particles to blast toward Earth. Heliophysicists believe that coronal holes are regions of “open magnetic fields”.

The Sun’s temperature in its core is conventionally thought to be more than 15 million Celsius, with compressive strain greater than 340 billion times Earth’s atmospheric pressure. 700 million tons of hydrogen are said to fuse into helium every second.

The surface of the Sun is the photosphere, followed by the chromosphere, and then the corona. The chromosphere is about 2000 kilometers above the photosphere and is a very thin layer compared to the Sun’s diameter of 1.4 million kilometers. Plasma density in the chromosphere is low, more than a million times less dense than Earth’s atmosphere. Temperatures vary from 6000 Celsius near the photosphere to less than 4000 Celsius in its middle regions.

One of the Sun’s great mysteries is why its temperature rises to 20,000 Celsius at the top of the chromosphere. However, the greatest mystery of all is why the corona is two million Celsius! Why does the hottest region of the Sun begin at an altitude of 4000 kilometers, extending over a million kilometers from its surface, without any significant temperature drop?

Electricity flowing out of the Sun is balanced by electric charge flowing into it. Changes in temperature include changes in magnetic field polarity and electric field strength. Instead of open magnetic fields (magnetic reconnection), Electric Universe advocates propose that the Sun is connected to the galaxy by Birkeland current “transmission lines”. Therefore, its puzzling characteristics are most likely demonstrating fluctuations in electric charge arriving from the Milky Way’s generator.

The Sun is a positively charged electrode in a circuit, while the negatively charged electrode is located far beyond the planetary orbits. The “virtual cathode” is known as the heliopause. Birkeland current filaments slowly move through the Solar System, supplying more or less power to an electric circuit that includes the Sun. The energy powering the Sun is focused from outside and not expelled from inside a thermonuclear core, so its inverted temperature gradient conforms to an electric discharge. The Sun is a gigantic electrical entity, not a ball of hot hydrogen gas.

As mentioned, in the electric model of stars, the Sun is a positively charged electrode in a circuit, while the negatively charged electrode is located far beyond the planetary orbits. The “virtual cathode” is known as the heliopause. The electric solar model predicts that sunspots, flares, coronal holes, and all other solar activity comes from fluctuations in galactic electricity.

Data from the now defunct Ulysses spacecraft, and confirmed by SDO’s ultraviolet studies, reveal that the solar wind speed varies inversely with coronal temperature—a completely unexpected result, since the opposite was predicted.

Electric Universe advocate Wal Thornhill wrote:

“Clearly, in the immense volume of the heliosphere an unmeasurably small drift of electrons toward the Sun and ions away from the Sun (the solar wind) can satisfy the electrical power required to light the Sun. It is only when we get very close to the Sun that the current density becomes appreciable and plasma discharge effects become visible. The enigma of the Sun’s millions-of-degrees corona above a relatively ‘stone cold’ photosphere is immediately solved when the Sun’s power comes from the galaxy and not the center of the Sun!”

In the electric model of the Sun, its electric field is strongest in the coronal holes, since protons are accelerated away. Outside of coronal holes, where the electric field is weak, protons move more aimlessly, resulting in more collisions. That random movement equates to temperature. Therefore, the solar wind is fastest where the corona appears coolest and is slowest where it appears hottest.

Stephen Smith

The Thunderbolts Picture of the Day is generously supported by the Mainwaring Archive Foundation.

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