Black Monster

Artist’s impression of the quasar Pōniuāʻena, starting with a seed black hole 100 million years after the Big Bang (left), then growing into a billion solar mass black hole 700 million years after the Big Bang (right). Credit: International Gemini Observatory/NOIRLab/NSF/AURA/P. Marenfeld.

June 27, 2020

Black holes continue to elude detection by the most powerful telescopes.

It is assumed that matter falling into a black hole is accelerated and subsequently compressed until it is ultimately destroyed inside the so-called “event horizon”. It is that process that is said to create quasars: conventionally thought to be rings of hot dust and gas circling a black hole.

According to a recent press release, a quasar, “Pōniuāʻena”, is far too large and powerful for the time period in which it is supposed to exist. Quasars are conventionally thought to be powered by supermassive black holes. Astronomers believe that the Universe is 13.7 billion years old, and that some events, like star formation or black hole production, should only take place during certain epochs. Pōniuāʻena, is too bright and too energetic to exist in what is supposed to be a few million years after the Big Bang.

“Pōniuāʻena is the most distant object known in the Universe hosting a black hole exceeding one billion solar masses,” said Jinyi Yang, lead author of the study.

Electric star theory suggests that no concentrated gravity from hypothetical objects is necessary. Classical electromagnetism does not depend on the supernatural physics of black holes. Plasma discharge events are commonly known to generate high-energy light. The more electric charge, the higher the frequency of light will be emitted. Supply enough power and X-rays are generated. Instead of “accretion” disks surrounding cosmic plasma discharge phenomena, they are expulsion disks, common in such energetic systems.

For example, infrared and X-ray telescopes confirm the existence of a plasma-focus plasmoid at the Milky Way’s core. The formation is the heart of a galactic circuit. X radiation from the plasmoid is similar to that given off by highly excited stars, indicating extreme electrical stress. The electric field acts as a particle accelerator.

In a galactic circuit, electrical power flows inward along the spiral arms and is stored in the central plasmoid. When the plasmoid reaches a threshold density, it discharges, usually along the galaxy’s spin axis. This process can be replicated with a plasma focus device.

The discharge forms a jet of neutrons, heavy ions, and electrons. Neutrons decay to form concentrations of matter that appear as quasars. Electromagnetic forces confine the jet to thin filaments that remain coherent for thousands of light-years. The jet usually ends in double layers that extend for many times the size of the galaxy, radiating copiously in radio frequencies. Diffuse electric charge then flows toward the galaxy’s equatorial plane and spiral back toward the core.

Z-pinches in plasma filaments form plasmoids that become stars and galaxies. Electricity is responsible for the birth of stars, and when the current density gets too high the double layers in the circuit catastrophically release their excess energy and appear as gamma ray bursts or X-rays or flares.

X-rays and gamma rays in space are not created in gravity fields. Laboratory experiments most easily produce them by accelerating charged particles through an electric field. No gigantic masses compressed into tiny volumes are necessary, and they are easily generated with the proper models.

Stephen Smith

The Thunderbolts Picture of the Day is generously supported by the Mainwaring Archive Foundation.

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