January 29, 2020
Why is this red giant so puzzling?
Betelgeuse is one of the 10 largest stars. If it occupied the Sun’s position, its outer envelope would exceed Jupiter’s mean orbital diameter. It is so diffuse, however, that the orbits of the inner planets might not be affected.
Red giant stars like Betelgeuse are relatively cool, but extremely bright, so they are thought to be large. However, in an Electric Universe, since they possess broad coronae, red giants might be small inside their energetic atmospheres. Betelgeuse is only about 2900 Celsius, so it creates problems with the thermonuclear model of stars. Such a cool temperature should not harbor an extreme radiative output.
Red giants are old, as astronomers measure age, since the so-called “main sequence” theory states that stars go through a well-established evolution. That evolution is said to follow a path that depends on thermonuclear fusion: hydrogen gas is compressed in a star’s core until it fuses into heavier elements. Therefore, a star’s mass and its spectrum are thought to indicate its age, because the ratios of different elements is said to provide an idea of how long it took to convert its original substance into those other elements.
Betelgeuse is notable for gigantic “bubbles of hot gas” that are in constant motion—bubbles as large as the star itself. Since it has been observed to eject massive amounts of stellar material, greater than six-times its diameter, it has been proposed that Betelgeuse is undergoing violent vertical oscillations just beneath its surface. It is that energetic motion that is causing the “hot gas” to blast into space, just as bubbles in boiling water erupt with puffs of steam.
Recently, the massive star is reported to be shrinking—or, at least, dimming, causing some confusion in astronomical circles. Since Betelgeuse is a variable star, that behavior is not unexpected. Sunspots are seen on its surface. However, there are only two of them occupying over one-third of its area. They are said to be the signature of heat transfer from the interior through “matter convection”In other words, the star is acting like a pot of boiling water—a strictly mechanical phenomenon.
The Electric Star theory provides another explanation. An explanation that relies on the electrical connection stars have with their galactic neighborhood, and with the Universe. Stars shine because electricity flows through each galaxy. As written many times, stars can be thought of as giant spheres of electricity. It is this simple hypothesis that best matches observational evidence.
As mentioned above, red giant stars are relatively cool but extremely bright, so they are interpreted to be quite large. Dr. Donald Scott proposes that the “giant” characteristic is a result of a large corona and not because the stellar disc is oversized.
Physicist and Electric Universe advocate Wal Thornhill also proposes an electrical model for Betelgeuse, and red supergiant stars, in general. Electric currents in space are primarily due to the flow of electrons through interstellar plasma, and not the movement of positive ions. This means that stars are lacking in electrons because of a charge separation process. Stars can be considered “positive anodes in a galactic glow discharge.” Therefore:
“Red stars are those stars that cannot satisfy their hunger for electrons from the surrounding plasma. So the star expands the surface area over which it collects electrons by growing a large plasma sheath that becomes the effective collecting area of the stellar anode in space. The growth process is self-limiting because, as the sheath expands, its electric field will grow stronger. Electrons caught up in the field are accelerated to ever-greater energies. Before long, they become energetic enough to excite neutral particles they chance to collide with, and the huge sheath takes on a uniform ‘red anode glow.’ It becomes a red giant star.”
Betelgeuse is an electric star, and the bright regions are areas where electric currents are flowing with the greatest Amperage.
The Thunderbolts Picture of the Day is generously supported by the Mainwaring Archive Foundation.