January 13, 2020
When asking, “what are stars?”, the question might seem self-evident, since they are almost always described as intensely bright, burning balls of hydrogen gas.
Any particular star’s size, therefore its gravitational attraction, is what conventional astronomers say holds the planets in their orbits. Stellar fusion fire is also supposed to be the motivating force that sends energy on a million-year journey before it is emitted from its surface.
The accepted theory for how stars are born involves gravity and kinetic energy. Billions of years before any particular shining star was born, it started out as a wispy cloud a thousand times less dense than a puff of smoke. One thing that puzzles astronomers about the process is what caused the condensation of such insubstantial clouds?
Most astrophysicists think that a supernova explosion might generate shock waves that can pass through proto-stellar clouds, forcing the particles to collide and clump together. Gravity then takes up its familiar position, eventually pulling the cloud into a structure dense enough for fusion to take place.
So-called “protoplanetary disks” surround many stars, indicating (according to theory) that they are young, since older stars would have already absorbed the dust and gas. What they think of as “older” stars do not exhibit the specific infrared frequencies that are supposed to indicate disks.
It is not the intent of this paper to analyze stellar ages and the conventional viewpoints that determine them. Suffice to say, stellar diagrams that attempt to establish age according to color and temperature are missing important points. If other electrical factors are added, temperature and brightness become a matter of externally applied electric currents and not internally generated fusion energy. The differences in the two concepts are not trivial, especially when they are used to explain other observations. It is an entirely new paradigm.
In an Electric Universe, gravity, density, compression, and mechanical phenomena, in general, give way to the effects of plasma. The stars are not hot, dense balls of hydrogen being crushed into helium and electromagnetic radiation by gravitational pressure. Rather, they are isodense balls of plasma, with fusion taking place on their surfaces. Since they are the same density throughout, with no superdense fusion cores, their mass estimates are most likely being seriously overstated by papers written from the consensus.
The Electric Universe definition of “plasma” is not the conventional one of “ionized gas.”
“Plasma,” as theorist Mel Acheson wrote, “is an emergent (i.e., higher-level or statistical-level) orderliness of complex electrical forces: such properties as filamentation, long-range attraction and short-range repulsion, braiding, characteristic velocities, formation and decay of plasmoids, and identity of properties at different scales.”
Electric stars aren’t begotten in nebular clouds, their progenitor is charge separation. Everything in the Universe—99.99% to be more precise—is ionized to some degree, therefore it is plasma. Positive ions and negative electrons move within plasma in ways not governed by gravity, although gravity might cause some heavy positive ions to create a charge surplus in one volume of space over another. When that happens, a weak electric field develops.
An electric field, no matter how weak, initiates an electric current that generates a magnetic field. Those fields interact with the magnetic fields generated by other currents. In images from space, as well as in high-speed photographs of plasma activity in the laboratory, those currents are seen to form twisted pairs of filaments, called Birkeland currents. Birkeland currents follow magnetic fields and draw charged material from their surroundings with a force 39 orders of magnitude greater than gravity. Magnetic fields pinch the ultra-fine dust and plasma into heated blobs of matter called plasmoids.
As the effect, called a “z-pinch”, increases, the electric field intensifies, further increasing the z-pinch. The compressed blobs form spinning electrical discharges. At first they glow as dim red dwarfs, then blazing yellow stars, and finally they might become brilliant ultraviolet arcs, driven by the electric currents that generated them.
The Thunderbolts Picture of the Day is generously supported by the Mainwaring Archive Foundation.