May 16, 2019
More reified abstractions.
“There’s a hole in the bucket, dear Liza, dear Liza,
There’s a hole in the bucket, dear Liza, a hole.”
— Traditional folk song.
Almost twenty years ago, astronomers believe they discovered that the Universe is expanding. Redshift observations of distant galaxies appeared to indicate that the Universe is expanding faster today than it did in the past. Since the data did not fit into models of the Big Bang, the existence of a negative pressure on gravitational fields was proposed. “Negative gravity” was not something they were prepared to defend, so the force was later called, “dark energy” because, like “dark matter” it cannot be detected with any instrument.
Rather than accepting that “anomalies” in their observations exist because the Big Bang theory is faulty, astronomers resort to increasingly arcane ideas involving extra dimensions a lá string theory, or that space is getting bigger.
A previous Picture of the Day commented on the discovery of a “cosmic void” based on the detection of a lower temperature region in space. As the redshift-equals-distance theory indicates, the void extends for more than a billion light-years. It is these “supervoids,” in conjunction with multiple galactic superclusters, that lead astrophysicists to believe they have a confirmation for dark energy.
Regions of greater density in the Universe are said to increase the gravitational energy imparted to microwave emissions from deep space. Conversely, lower density regions (voids) are thought to weaken the signals, because there is reduced mass. Looking at microwave signals from telescopes like the Very Large Array, there appears to be a wide expanse where microwave radiation possesses a larger energy curve than it should exhibit. The problems associated with the Cosmic Microwave Background are not the topic of this paper. Suffice to say, what was thought to be radiation from deep space is really radiation from Earth’s oceans.
One astronomer noted that: “The Universe is made mostly of dark matter and dark energy and we don’t know what either of them is.”
In other words, two of the most active phenomena in astrophysics could be false premises. Plasma physicists, on the other hand, know that plasma makes up 99.99% of the Universe. It is a fascinating convergence that the volume of gravitational mass invented to save Big Bang cosmology is the same as the mass of plasma that is overlooked.
In an Electric Universe, electricity drives galaxies and their associated stars. Laboratory experiments confirm that Birkeland current filaments form structures that resemble spiral galaxies. Birkeland currents have a longer-range attractive force than gravity by several orders of magnitude, diminishing with the square root of the distance from the current axis – which could account for the anomalous movement of stars as they revolve around the galactic core, as well as the anomalous acceleration of galaxies in deep space.
Instead of accepting that “anomalies” exist because the Big Bang theory is faulty, astronomers resort to the absurd idea that space can be pulled, twisted, or stretched.
As physicist and Electric Universe advocate Wal Thornhill wrote:
“It’s not that most of the matter and energy in the universe is dark, but that most cosmologists are totally in the dark about the real nature of the universe.”