Blue Oblivion

NGC 3532, the “Wishing Well” star cluster. Some of the stars are blue, but others are red giants, glowing with an orange hue. Credit: ESO/G. Beccari.

Oct 19, 2018

The Chandra X-ray Observatory recently experienced a fault that, were it not resolved, would have meant the end of its life. As many Pictures of the Day demonstrate, Chandra, along with Hubble, Spitzer, and other space telescopes, provides fuel for Electric Universe fires.

Modern astronomers measure the Universe with ideas that are based on its expansion out of a primordial explosion. They believe that objects farther out in space are representative of the Universe as it was closer to its beginning. Galaxies located at 1.2 billion light years, for example, are thought to be as they were 1.2 billion years ago. The presupposition is that objects at that distance should be young, with rich supplies of hydrogen fuel. In that case, the stars ought to be burning hot and blue, radiating high frequency X-rays and extreme ultraviolet light.

The ratio of blue stars to red stars is commonly used to indicate an overall age, because of the assumptions that the Universe began in a Big Bang. However, using data from Chandra and Hubble, many clusters in remote galaxies are filled with stars that appear much too red for them to be so young.

As mentioned, current cosmological models rely on the Big Bang theory, so star clusters that are too red are thought to be unexpectedly metal-rich, or that the stellar models are incorrect. A third possibility is that the theories are incomplete and not incorrect.

Dr. Donald Scott, in his book The Electric Sky, showed how the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of stellar evolution can be improved by adding another scale to the horizontal axis: Current Density at the Star’s Surface. That means that how stars appear when viewed through optical telescopes or X-ray detectors will not be dependent on age and distance, but on the amount of energy flowing into the star from the surrounding environment. The greater the electric charge, the hotter and brighter the star will appear.

Stellar evolution is supposed to follow a path that depends on how various stages of thermonuclear fusion transform hydrogen into heavier elements. The mass of a star and its spectrum are thought to indicate its age, because the ratios of different elements is thought to provide an idea of how long it took to convert its original mass into those other elements.

It is believed by consensus astrophysicists that stars accumulate heavier elements in their cores as they age. That is said to cause fluctuations in output when temperatures change due to changes in fusion reactions. They turn red as one phase ends, because their atmospheres expand and outflow is spread over a larger area. They turn yellow or white again as other elements start to fuse into still heavier atoms. Why the observed stars are too red is thought to be from an intervening cloud of material that is acting like a filter, absorbing blue light. Since the star clusters are located at a great distance, and they are so faint to begin with, the bluer stars could be hidden behind clouds.

As Dr. Scott wrote:

“In the Electric Star model, perhaps the most important factor in determining any given star’s characteristics is the strength of the current density in Amperes per square meter (A/m^2) measured at that star’s surface. If a star’s incoming current density increases, the arc discharges on its surface (photospheric tufts) will get hotter, change color (away from red, toward blue), and get brighter. The absolute brightness of a star, therefore, depends on two things: the strength of the current density impinging into its surface, and the star’s size (the star’s diameter).”

So, there is nothing particularly out of the ordinary. Stars merely obey another aspect of the cosmic energies that permeate the Universe: electricity. It is possible that they are not as far away as they appear. They may not be nearly as old as astronomers think, because they do not behave according to gravity and redshift theories but according to theories of plasma cosmology.

Stephen Smith

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