Sep 11, 2018
The Universe is not only in motion.
Galactic evolution occurs because large-scale plasma discharges form coherent filaments that exhibit electrodynamic behavior. Since the Universe is an electrical system that is constantly charging and discharging, instead of a gravitational system that is constantly contracting and expanding, gravity is not the primary energy source for galaxy cluster consolidation. Gravity by itself cannot explain how galaxies sometimes form long arcs, like silver beads on a string, threaded through the Universe.
Electromagnetic theories state that an electric field arises, along with a flow of electric charge, whenever plasma ionizes a cloud of dust and gas. Electricity moving through any substance forms magnetic fields that align and constrict the flow, forming what are sometimes called “plasma ropes”, otherwise known to Electric Universe advocates as Birkeland currents.
Birkeland currents are visible at the largest conventional scales. For example, two of the three galaxy clusters within the RCS 2319+00 supercluster, about 7 billion light-years away as astronomers reckon distance, are connected by a “luminous bridge”. The 8.15 million light-year long filament is host to a large number of galaxies radiating in the mid-infrared. Although galaxies within the filament radiate in the 200-500 micron frequency range, the clusters connected by it are strong X-ray sources.
Galaxy clusters present many enigmas. Since kinetic energy, alone, is available in astronomical theories—gravity representing only one facet of that force—high temperatures in galaxy clusters “must be” due to gravity-driven collisions in the past. In visible light, there is a serene, undisturbed galaxy cluster. In X-ray frequencies, temperatures over 70 million Kelvin exist.
Recently, astronomers working with the Very Large Array (VLA) announced that they are trying to find out how “giant radio-emitting structures are formed at the center of a cluster of galaxies.” The so-called “mini halo” in the Perseus Cluster is approximately 1.3 million light-years in diameter, which puzzles the research team. Marie-Lou Gendron-Marsolais, from the University of Montreal wrote:
“At large distances from the central galaxy, we don’t expect to be able to see these haloes. However, we do see them and we want to know why.”
Conventional theories rely on gravity and acceleration for radiation to be produced in space: compressing hydrogen gas and dust is supposed to generate temperatures in the millions of Kelvin, causing gas and dust to glow brightly and emit radiation, including radio noise.
Astronomers cannot measure the properties of extragalactic space, directly, so they develop mathematical models based on the behavior of neutral gases. They believe that plasma is merely ionized gas, so it only behaves according to the physical laws applicable to neutral gas (with slight modifications for electromagnetic effects).
However, electric charge surges out along galactic cluster spin axes, forming double layers that can be seen as radio “haloes” of various sizes and power output. Electric charge spreads out around the cluster’s circumference, flowing back to the core along Birkeland current filaments. Since the elements in a circuit radiate energy, that energetic radiance shows that they are powered by larger circuits. The extent of the larger circuits may be traced by the polarized radio emissions coming from them.
Plasma physicists are familiar with hourglass shapes, they are an unmistakable signature of Birkeland currents squeezing plasma and charged dust into z-pinch compression zones. The intense electromagnetic fields associated with Birkeland current filaments create umbrella-like lobes, or haloes, on the margins of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Those fields cause electrons to accelerate with velocities close to light speed. Excited electrons emit synchrotron radiation, the principle source for radiation in space.
Plasma’s behavior is governed by electric circuits. Double layers with large voltages between them often exist. The electric forces in double layers are incomparably stronger than gravity, broadcasting radio waves over a wide range of frequencies. Most significant to the bulletin, they can accelerate charged particles to extreme energies. The Universe is driven by electric circuits at ever larger scales, so electrons and other ions, accelerated through intense electric fields, radiate in many bandwidths.