“Blazar”. Fractal by Stephen Smith. Click to enlarge.

Aug 28, 2017

The brightest objects in the Universe are electrical.

A previous Picture of the Day discussed the twin lobes of gamma rays extending beyond the Milky Way’s central bulge. The funnel-like formations are each about 65,000 light-years in diameter, and are considered by Electric Universe advocates to be a sign that Birkeland currents are creating z-pinches in galactic plasmas. Intense electromagnetic fields in those filamentary structures accelerate electrons to velocities that approach light speed. Those rapidly moving electrons emit synchrotron radiation, the principle source for gamma-rays in space.

Birkeland currents represent the visible portion of an entire electric circuit. As more data accumulates, it is becoming increasingly obvious that the Milky Way shares characteristics with other galaxies: haloes of stars, infrared filaments, radio-bright lobes, and a microwave “haze”. Those phenomena point to electrical effects.

Some celestial objects shine so brightly that they are considered to be the most powerful energy sources in the Universe: quasars, Gamma-ray Bursters (GRB), Fast Radio Bursters (FRB), and blitzars. The latter three are short-lived phenomena, however. The problems with GRBs are addressed in previous Pictures of the Day. They are said to be incredibly powerful electromagnetic emissions generated by neutron star collisions, supernova explosions, or black hole “birth pangs”.

The first few GRBs were discovered in galaxies thought by astronomers to be 12 billion light-years away. In their minds, if that distance measurement is correct, then hypothetical cosmic entities known as “hypernovae” must exist, although they do not know how hypernovae explosions, with subsequent collapse into black holes, create GRBs.

Fast Radio Bursts are thought to emit more energy than the Sun puts out in a month, but in just five milliseconds. Ironically, instead of hypernovae and black hole parturition, FRBs are surmised to result from black hole deaths. However, that idea is considered speculative, even by conventional astrophysicists. Instead, a more popular theory invokes another hypothetical entity, a “blitzar”.

A blitzar is, theoretically, a rapidly spinning neutron star whose angular momentum prevents it from collapsing into a black hole. Since the radio bursts from blitzars are thought to be over 11 billion light-years away, “overweight neutron stars” are necessary.

Quasars, or, quasi-stellar radio sources, on the other hand, shine with a continuous output. Astronomer Maarten Schmidt identified the first radio quasar, 3C 273, in 1963. However, there was a problem with his observation: its radio wave spectrum was anomalous—he could not identify which elements created the Fraunhofer lines that he saw. He then concluded that they were actually hydrogen gas absorption lines that were red-shifted. Consensus theory says that an object with such a high red shift is billions of light-years away, so it must be brighter than a million galaxies.

Since all of those violent radiation sources are detected through the use of redshift theory, such bizarre “explanations” are necessary, in order to keep alive the idea that Doppler-shifted Fraunhofer lines can be used as a convenient yard stick.

According to a recent press release, a category of quasar, known as “blazars”, “…powered by supermassive black holes…” possess characteristics that make them different from ordinary quasars: variability, polarization, and few optical emission lines.

Blazars and quasars are both active galaxy nuclei (AGN), thought to be supermassive black holes with accretion disks and plasma jets (electrons) perpendicular to the accretion disk. Astronomers think that blazars appear to be more powerful and more variable than quasars because they see their plasma jets head on. Quasar jets, on the other hand, are viewed at an angle.

One of the mysterious factors about blazars is how electrons in the jets achieve such high velocities. The research team believes that the “fire hose” jets are propelled by “winding up” a black hole’s magnetic field so tightly that electrons “crash into” photons, stimulating the emission of gamma-rays and causing the radiation to become polarized. Why do the gamma-rays come from a point that is thousands of light-years away from the putative black hole’s accretion disk? They do not know.

In an Electric Universe the answer is obvious: it is not merely magnetic fields twisting around like a corkscrew that accelerate electrons, it is electromagnetic fields. Birkeland currents, because they are electromagnetic in nature, also possess electric fields.

Laboratory experiments reveal that the easiest way to accelerate electrons to high velocity is in an electric field. Although the Boston University astrophysicists see the “corkscrews” in their observations, they do not associate them with helical Birkeland currents creating z-pinches along their lengths. Electric charge flow in plasma generates electromagnetic fields that constrict the current channel. Electric filaments remain coherent over long distances and can transmit power through space. Those filaments are the jets seen in galaxies and stars, with concentrations of energy at various points.

Synchrotron radiation is emitted by the constricted elements in Birkeland currents, and it is that radiation that is mistaken for gamma-rays, X-rays, and extreme ultraviolet light along the lengths of blazar jets. If redshift is not a viable theory, then quasars and blazars are not “billions of light-years” away, so are most likely not so powerful. If they are local to the Milky Way, then they should be re-evaluated in light of electrical theories.

Stephen Smith

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