Article 18 : Implications of the electrical explanation of mass and gravity – Part 3


by Bishop Nicholas Sykes

It is important to bear in mind that Sir Isaac Newton never published any explanation for the transmission of gravity from one mass to another, for example from the Sun to the Earth. At the same time, Newton vigorously rejected the notion that one body acted “where it was not” upon another. We need also to bear in mind that Newton’s relationships between the force acting upon two bodies and their masses involved the distance between them but without any time factor. The gravitational force, he found, varied inversely according to the square of the distance between the bodies, but the omission of any time factor must mean that the force between the bodies acted practically instantaneously.

As we have seen previously (Art 7), if we (with Newton himself) reject any notion that gravity acts from one body to another magically, there must in fact be some time factor, so that while the gravitational influence of one body is conveyed across the intervening distance to another in a time so vanishingly small that for purposes of Newton’s calculations it could be completely ignored, yet we cannot ignore that there is in truth a tiny time lag. This tiniest of time lags is so small that whereas there is an approximately eight minute lag between when light leaves the Sun and when it strikes the Earth, the period of time taken by the transmission of gravitational influence from the Sun to the Earth is smaller than we can detect. Tom van Flandern estimated, on the basis of a number of experiments, that the speed of gravity must be at least 2 x 10^10 ( i.e. twenty billion) times the speed of light.

Richard Feynman’s assertion “If the sun is exploding ‘right now’, it takes eight minutes before we know about it, and it cannot possibly affect us before then” is wrong. It would affect us immediately (practically). The Sun would appear (to sensitive instruments) to drift away from its regular position in the sky, insofar as the Earth was immediately set free from its orbit, and tidal changes on Earth would set in right away. It would, however, take approximately eight minutes before the Sun’s “explosion” (à la Feynman) – or dematerialisation – would be visually perceived by us as an explosion or disappearance of the Sun.

Wal Thornhill has proposed (in agreement with earlier physicists) that the “aether” that pervades all space is what transmits gravity from one body to another, and the same “aether” transmits electromagnetic radiation such as light. If it is asked why gravity is much faster than light, one answer is to compare the transmission of sound waves with ripples on a pond. Sound waves are very much faster than the ripples. These are both mechanical wave motions however; whereas gravity and light waves are both, according to the Electric Universe paradigm, electrical in nature. (It should be noted that behind even mechanical force manifestations lies an electrical origin, as we have seen in Art. 15 about Inertia and Gravity, but we need not dwell on this at this point.) We should note that the mechanically induced ripples of a pond – as with the waves of the sea – are transverse in orientation: the surface of the pond goes up and down in a dimension that is perpendicular to the direction of travel of the ripple. The wave motion of sound, however, that is to say its vibrations, is in the same dimension as its direction of travel, and so it is called longitudinal wave motion.

The Electric Universe paradigm proposes that the transmission of gravitational influence produces longitudinal electrical changes in the particles of the intervening medium – the aether – while light, and electromagnetic radiation in general, produces transverse changes in the aether. In other words, for gravity the electric change vector is in the same dimension as the transmission of gravitational influence, while for electromagnetic radiation the electric change vector and the magnetic change vector are respectively in dimensions that are perpendicular to the direction of travel of the radiation. When we compare the relationship between the transmission of gravity and the transmission of light to the relationship between sound waves and ripples or waves, we should note the similarity of the relationships. In both cases the slower transmission involves transverse wave motion, and the faster transmission involves longitudinal changes.

Thornhill proposes that the “aether” of space consists principally of neutrinos. Neutrinos are understood to be fundamental particles of vanishingly small mass (much smaller than the mass of an electron) and no charge. However, in the Electric Universe paradigm, and following the proposal of Ralph Sansbury, all fundamental particles consist of subtrons orbiting in a resonant manner that are positively and negatively charged, and whose total charges sum to the charge of the particle. In the case of the neutrino the positive and negative charges of the subtrons sum to zero.

Neutrinos have vanishingly small mass because, according to EU theory, the resonant orbits of their subtrons are extremely difficult to distort, and the resulting charge polarisation in a (now electrically understood) gravitational field is minimal. This is consistent with saying that neutrinos’ response to a gravitational field is very small. However, to say that it is very small is not to say that it does not exist.

In a gravitational field, the small polarisation of the neutrinos is in the direction of the field. In their role as the carriers of electromagnetic radiation including light through space, however, the neutrinos’ polarisation is perpendicular to the direction of travel of the light, and is of an alternating nature. It makes sense physically, therefore, that the transmission of light waves through space is much slower than the transmission of gravity. It takes time for the constantly changing neutrinos’ polarisation direction to be transmitted via adjacent particles. In the case of gravity’s longitudinal change (of a direct and not an alternating nature), it is transmitted by an almost instantaneously formed daisy-chain from one neutrino to another over a long distance. When that change alights upon and through particles such as protons, neutrons and electrons, because their resonant orbits of subtrons are much easier to distort than those of the neutrinos, they immediately manifest a degree of mass according to the ease of polarisation that they respectively provide.

The fact that powerful solar flares have been found seemingly to affect the mass of the Earth, albeit temporarily, suggests that as an electrical property of matter, the mass of an object may not be altogether constant but may be subject to variations that old-paradigm physics would not allow. This would be consistent with the anomalies that have been widely reported in the experimental values of Newton’s gravitational constant “G”. This implies also that our certainties regarding planetary and other masses should be re-evaluated.

This and the other articles in this series have been published by Cayman Net News.

Previous articles may be seen at and through the “thunderblog” link in

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Bishop Nicholas Sykes

Nicholas JG Sykes, B Sc, Dip Ed, MTS Taught in mainly public schools and a teachers college for over 20 years, in Jamaica, the Cayman Islands and the United Kingdom in science and mathematics, as well as religious education, becoming the chairman of the Association of Science Teachers of Jamaica in 1979. Ordained priest in 1976 and consecrated bishop in 2012, currently the Rector of St. Alban's Anglican Church, George Town, immediate past Secretary of the Cayman Ministers' Association, and member of the Cayman Islands Human Rights Commission. Authored the book “The Dependency Question - a study of Church and State in the Cayman Islands” and numerous articles. Happily married for over 40 years to wife Winnifred, with three adult children born in Jamaica, and several grandchildren.