Article 5 : Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star; How I Wonder What You Are.


– by Rev Nicholas Sykes

David Talbott points out that the Ancients spoke of the thunderbolt ruling the universe. When we transpose their conceptual language into our own, the Ancients seem to have got it right. Electric Universe theorists maintain that it is the transportation of electrical energy that the plasma facilitates that makes the stars shine, including our Sun, and produces all the electromagnetic radiation found in nature. The “solar wind” (so-called), the galactic currents and the inter-galactic electric circuits all play their part in maintaining the existence of the universe and in maintaining human existence. These electrical power systems form connected parts of the great plasma engine that rules and empowers our universe.

The above statements are in conflict with most of today’s accepted astronomy/cosmology theories, which operate on the premise that electric fields, currents and plasma discharges are not important mechanisms in space. Until recently, only gravitational fields were asserted to be important, but more recently the importance of magnetic fields has been admitted. Even so, such a premise is becoming increasingly difficult to maintain with any honesty, on two accounts: (1) that it is generally known that magnetic fields of all sorts are caused by electric currents, and (2) that in the era of the space age, it becomes increasingly difficult to avoid the natural conclusion of many observations clearly showing the universe to be highly electrical in nature. Furthermore, since we observe in everyday life that electrical forces are vastly stronger than gravitational forces, how long can it be maintained in all seriousness that for driving the universe the stronger force is to be ignored while the much weaker (gravitational) force is to be asserted?

EU Theory does not postulate where, when or how such a vast electrical power transportation might have come into being. EU Theory is concerned very much with producing tangible evidence that the things about which it speaks are indeed true and verifiable. Dr. Donald Scott, for instance, produces convincing calculations showing that the collection of electrons from the space around the sun can be enough to produce the Sun’s output of radiation, given the observed features such as the electrical potentials and the temperatures of the various spheres – photosphere, chromosphere, corona and heliosphere etc. – by which the Sun is characterised. In the EU model of the sun, the Sun’s photosphere acts as an anode and will continue to do so for as long as it maintains a sufficiently positive potential difference to the plasma of the heliosphere from which it collects negative particles (electrons) and to which it discharges positive ions. The magnetic field-aligned currents called Birkeland currents that sustain this positive potential are generated by the great plasma engine of the Universe, the Sun is empowered from outside itself, as are the stars in general, and as Dr. Scott points out, there is no telling when or for how long the Sun or any other particular star will be sustained. There is considerable evidence coming to light about the variability of star sustenance and output, but thankfully there is a verifiable mechanism that greatly stabilises our Sun’s light output in spite of its varying electrical environment.

The plasma state is characterised by matter in a subatomic form, be this form positive ions or electrons or both. The particle inhabitants of the plasma state exist therefore in a state of lower organisation than their counterparts in the three other states. The higher organisation makes for greater stability, but the electrical nature of the energy transfers across lengths (as in fluorescent lights) or expanses (as in space) of plasma requires a medium of charged but moveable particles.

It was demonstrated to me and many others as schoolchildren that

1) Plasma through which a low current density passes operates in “dark current mode” – you cannot see any glow, but radio waves can be radiated.
2) When the current density is increased, a point is reached at which the potential difference, up to this point increasing between the electrodes connecting to the plasma, suddenly drops and the plasma starts to glow. An example of this is the fluorescent lamp, which needs some sort of “starter” to get it going. This mode is called the “normal glow mode”.

There is a third mode of plasma operation called the “arc mode”, which cannot be demonstrated with the same sort of equipment, which would be destroyed if the current density were increased further. Nevertheless it is demonstrated by generating an electrical spark between two metal spheres, or by the electric welding arc. Again it is well-known to be necessary to begin the spark with a relatively high voltage difference, which drops when the discharge is operating. In these cases the air between the electrodes breaks down to become a conductive plasma.

Armed with the familiar knowledge of these three modes in which plasma operates electrically, it is possible to make much better sense not only of our own Sun but of an abundance of cosmological observations. Stephen Smith relates, for instance, that according to a recent press release, astronomers using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) have located a star (Zeta Ophiuchi) whose “…powerful winds push gas and dust out of its way and into what is called a bow shock.”

It is conventionally assumed that the star’s velocity compresses gas and dust in front of it as it flies through space because its “stellar wind” shoves gas and dust out of the way. The so-called “bow shock” is said to heat up the inter-stellar medium (ISM) until it glows in the infrared frequencies WISE can see.

However, Smith points out that instead of treating the ISM like an inert medium, the Electric Universe model sees it as a magnetic, electrically charged material that is affected by the plasma sheaths around stars. Stellar plasma and the ISM are different plasmas, so they develop Langmuir plasma sheaths, or “double layers,” between them. The photospheres of stars are where galactic electric (anode) discharges are focused, and the double boundary layers form the corresponding “virtual cathodes.”

With thanks for feedback from Scott Wall

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Bishop Nicholas Sykes

Nicholas JG Sykes, B Sc, Dip Ed, MTS Taught in mainly public schools and a teachers college for over 20 years, in Jamaica, the Cayman Islands and the United Kingdom in science and mathematics, as well as religious education, becoming the chairman of the Association of Science Teachers of Jamaica in 1979. Ordained priest in 1976 and consecrated bishop in 2012, currently the Rector of St. Alban's Anglican Church, George Town, immediate past Secretary of the Cayman Ministers' Association, and member of the Cayman Islands Human Rights Commission. Authored the book “The Dependency Question - a study of Church and State in the Cayman Islands” and numerous articles. Happily married for over 40 years to wife Winnifred, with three adult children born in Jamaica, and several grandchildren.