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Solar Plasma

The solar corona during the last eclipse of the Son. Credit: Alson Wong, Jackson, Wyoming on August 21, 2017.

 

Oct 23, 2018

The Sun is not a ball of hot gas.

The conventional model of how the Sun works relies on thermonuclear processes. Although no direct measurement is possible, temperatures in its core are thought to be more than 15 million Celsius, with compressive strain greater than 340 billion times Earth’s atmospheric pressure.

In order to power the Sun, 700 million tons of hydrogen are said to be converted into helium every second in the core. However, according to the tenets of an Electric Universe, the Sun does not use nuclear reactions in its core for energy, it uses externally supplied electricity.

As previously written, the photosphere is considered to be the “surface” of the Sun, followed by the chromosphere, and then the corona, the outermost part of the Sun’s visible atmosphere. The chromosphere is about 2000 kilometers above the photosphere and is a very thin layer compared to the Sun’s diameter of 1.4 million kilometers.

Plasmas in the chromosphere are low density, less than a millionth of Earth’s atmosphere, so it is not normally visible, because the underlying photosphere is so bright that its light is obscured. Temperatures in the chromosphere range from a high of 6000 Celsius near the photosphere to a low of 4000 Celsius in its middle regions. An ongoing mystery about the Sun is why temperatures increase to 20,000 Celsius at the top of the chromosphere.

Among heliophysicists, however, the most puzzling aspect is why the corona can be as much as two million Celsius! The hottest region of the Sun begins at 4000 kilometers, extending over a million kilometers from its surface, without any significant temperature drop. No one knows why this happens. One possible explanation is so-called “magnetic reconnection”. Since the problems with magnetic reconnection theory are detailed many times in previous Picture of the Day articles, they will not be explained here.

A recent press release states that coronal heating is due to events called nanoflares. Although they would heat and cool quickly, extremely hot plasma would accumulate into an overall method for increasing the coronal temperature. The research team admits that they have not solved the coronal heating problem, and that this is simply a first step in identifying whatever process is taking place.

The Sun is a positively charged electrode in a circuit, while the negatively charged electrode is located far beyond the planetary orbits. The “virtual cathode” is known as the heliopause. The electric solar model predicts that sunspots, flares, coronal holes, and all other solar activity comes from fluctuations in galactic electricity.

Birkeland current filaments slowly move through the Solar System, supplying more or less power to an electric circuit that includes the Sun. The energy powering the Sun is focused from outside and not expelled from inside a thermonuclear core, so its inverted temperature gradient conforms to an electric discharge. The Sun is a gigantic electric arc, not a ball of hot hydrogen gas.

Electric charge flows out of the Sun, and is commonly called the solar wind. That outward current is balanced by electric charge flowing in, so changes in temperature most likely indicate magnetic field polarity and the strength of its electric field. Since the Sun is connected to the rest of the galaxy by Birkeland currents, it is most likely demonstrating fluctuations in electric charge arriving from the Milky Way’s generator.

Electric Universe advocate Wal Thornhill wrote:

“Sunspots are dark instead of bright, which is prima facie evidence that heat is not trying to escape from within. And the Sun’s corona is millions of degrees hotter than the photosphere. These simple observations point to the energy source of the Sun being external. Add to this the dominant influence of magnetic fields on the Sun’s external behavior and we arrive at the necessity for an electrical energy supply.”

In the electric model of the Sun, its electric field is strongest in the coronal holes, since protons are accelerated away. Outside of coronal holes, where the electric field is weak, protons move more aimlessly, resulting in more collisions. That random movement equates to temperature. Therefore, the solar wind is fastest where the corona appears coolest and is slowest where it appears hottest.

Stephen Smith

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