August 09, 2012
A star becomes a diamond?
A recent press release announced the “discovery” of a planet in orbit around a pulsar that is thought to have once been a star, but is now a planetary body composed of something similar to compressed carbon, or diamond.
The reason for the supposed density and composition assumptions is that the “planet” was seen in an orbit around the pulsar that is deemed impossible to consensus astrophysicists. As announced by the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, pulsar J1719-1438 rotates more than 10,000 times per minute, has a mass of about 1.4 times that of our Sun, but is only 20 kilometers in radius. What is it about the planet’s orbit that causes the assumption it is crystalline and extremely dense?
The first step in this chain of circumstances is neutron star theory. Pulsars are neutron stars is the second link. As the theory posits, a neutron star comes into being when a star with at least five times the mass of the Sun implodes, shedding its outer layers in a supernova. Since the star is no longer able to shield itself from its own immense gravity with thermonuclear fusion theory, gravitational acceleration theory takes over, pulling all the electrons in the remaining stellar matter into the nuclei. Two more links.
The massive star’s original angular momentum remains, so its rotational period can be astonishing, as J1719-1438 attests. The increase in rotational velocity can be likened to an ice skater’s arms stretched out in a slow spin and then pulled in tight, thus increasing the spin rate. Another link. The forces generated when trillions of gigatons spin as fast as a dentist’s drill means that the star ought to burst apart like a cracked flywheel. However, enough mass is added to the theory so that gravity can hold it together.
There is thought to be an intense magnetic field surrounding a pulsar that is focused at each pole. Narrow beams of radio waves blast out from the polar cusps like lighthouse beacons, and whenever that beam intersects Earth, telescopes fitted with gamma ray, radio wave, or X-ray detectors can see it. The final theoretical link in the pulsar chain of circumstances is the tidal force theory that would tear apart a companion star or planet if it came too close.
Before discussing the nature of the planet in orbit around the pulsar, it should be pointed out that there was no observation of the pulsar. Rather, researchers first “found” it in 200,000 Gigabytes of data obtained from three different radio telescopes, analyzed by supercomputers at three different computation centers, using customized software.
Since J1719-1438′s pulses in the data were seen to be “systematically modulated,” the only conclusion their computer models could reach is that a companion planet is in orbit around the pulsar. Astronomers think an original stellar companion gave up most of its material to the pulsar. As theory supposes, this results in a millisecond pulsar with a white dwarf companion.
J1719-1438 and its dwarf partner are thought to be close together, so the companion “must be” a white dwarf that has lost 99.9% of its original substance, leaving behind what astronomers suggest is a planet-sized carbon and oxygen sphere. Any lighter element constituents would mean the star (planet) “would be too big to fit the measured orbiting times.”
Another possibility, one not considered by contemporary astrophysicists, is that electrical oscillations are causing the rapid flicker of pulsars. Don Scott, in his book “The Electric Sky,” stresses that neutron stars are impossible phantoms, suggesting instead that there is an electrical explanation for their periodic pulses. He proposes that pulsars are relaxation oscillators; their pulse frequencies are not mechanical. Instead, it is the capacitive, resistive, and inductive electrical environment around the star. Compacted matter and extreme rotation are not necessary. Electricity traveling through circuits provides a coherent explanation that is consistent with commonly accepted electromagnetic theories, as well as with laboratory experiments.
When the focus shifts from gravity and gas toward the electrical behavior of an entire system, then steps can be taken that will help to quantify the absolute current density in that system, as well as the capacitive and resistive values, and the magnetic fields generated by the inductive interaction of the binary pair.
There must be an electric current generating the intense magnetic fields in a pulsar. It is also indisputable that the feeder current must be part of a circuit, since persistent electric current must complete a circuit. That circuit includes the galaxy in which stars reside, along with all the other galaxies associated with their clusters. Pulsar oscillations are most likely complex in their origins.