Tornadoes and ball lightning are kinds of plasmoid phenomena. Certain anomalous characteristics of tornadoes and ball lightning are described here. Their behavior is shown to be similar to the behavior of plasmoid phenomena produced by electrolysis and discharge apparatus as evidenced by certain micrometer-sized markings in nuclear emulsions and marks in materials.
In the 1950s, Winston Bostick (1) examined fast photographs of electrical discharges from an electrode in a near vacuum. The discharge converted the electrode to small clumpy objects that he called “plasmoids.” Since then, Ken Shoulders, myself, Matsumoto and a group of “cold fusion” or “LENR” researchers studied micrometer-sized objects produced both during electrolysis (generally less current between electrodes in a fluid or ionic solution) and discharge (generally more current between electrodes in a fluid, gas, plasmoid, plasma, or solid). All this evidence shows that plasmoids, tornadoes, and ball lightning are classes of the same general kind of thing called plasmoids.
It is strange that Winston Bostick’s research made newspaper headlines in the 1950s, but his work is relatively unknown now except by a small group of astrophysical theorists including Peratt and Lerner, and by “electric universe” thinkers. He described and photographed little objects that he named “plasmoids” that were created by vaporizing electrodes by electrical discharge in a container. The objects he discovered were shaped like the various kinds of galaxies, and he also photographed plasma vortexes.
After that, until he died, he developed models of the Universe as consisting of gigantic plasmoids, and he also tried to model elementary and fundamental particles as plasmoids. This later work was published in the 1990s in 21st Century Science and Technology (2). His work of plasmoid modeling and astrophysics was influential.
Alfven received a Nobel Prize for his research on MHD theory. Bostick’s results inspired Alfven to begin modeling universal objects such as galaxies as plasmoids. Peratt, Lerner and others continued this astrophysical research during the 1980s. They tried to explain various anomalous astrophysical phenomena as simply analogous to the experimental plasmoid behavior that was known then. This work was the basis for the current interest in electrical universe modeling such as the work published on this “Thunderbolts” website.
Following up on Bostick’s research, in the 1980s and 1990s, Ken Shoulders (sometimes called the “Father of Microelectronics” for his work in this field) performed extensive experimental investigation on the anomalous properties of plasmoids. He knew W. Bostick and worked with him. Shoulders mainly did his research in his own laboratory, and he received a number of patents for devices that utilize these anomalous properties of plasmoids.
Micro Ball Lightning Plasmoids
After studying ball lightning papers and books in 1990 and 1991, and after reading Matsumoto’s report of ring traces on nuclear emulsions that he discovered during his attempts at the P&F electrolysis effect replication in early 1992, this author conceived the idea of miniature micrometer ball lightning (3) being present when anomalous activity happens during electrolysis and discharge as was being reported then. I believed that perhaps the ring marks he found were caused by very small microscopic-sized ball lightning generated in his experiments. I wrote Matsumoto about this idea, and he quickly accepted it.
The evidence of transmutation between the grains of a palladium electrode and the associated growth of the voids (4) made it clear that the atoms themselves were converted by the ball lightning. These ball lightnings dissipated in the container or electrode or actually left the container to make the markings and holes that Matsumoto discovered on nuclear emulsion detectors outside the cell (5, 6, 7).
I also wrote Ken Shoulders and studied his patents (he didn’t have papers on the subject then as far as I knew), and learned about Bostick’s plasmoid research through that. It was clear that the traces and markings that Matsumoto started to publish starting around the late Spring of 1992 (8, 9, 10) were similar to those previously published by Bostick and his co-workers (11) (other articles as well). For several years until the middle 1990s, Matsumoto mainly published his technical research articles in the Journal of Fusion Technology.
From Ken Shoulder’s writings, I learned about some of the anomalous effects of plasmoids such as the plasmoids’ ability to bore through materials, their tendency to form rings or strings, and excess energy effects. These were the same characteristics that Matsumoto was describing about the ball lightning, and these anomalous effects were clearly evident in Matsumoto’s clear photographs of electrode markings and traces on nuclear emulsions.
These anomalous plasmoid characteristics are analogous to known anomalous natural ball lightning characteristics as has been described and documented by people such as Egon Bach (12) and Egely (13).
I was then struck by reports describing ball lightning in tornadoes, or whirlwind and tornado-like ball lightning. It was clear that plasmoid phenomena covers a whole range of objects from microscopic scale to macroscopic universal scale.
The focus of this article is to describe the evidence relating tornadoes and ball lightning as natural plasmoids.
Tornadoes, Ball Lightning and Plasmoids
Experimental Micro Plasmoids
Figure 1. Trace on nuclear emulsion of a plasmoid that both hopped and skimmed on the surface. It was taken in 1994 by Matsumoto. Nuclear emulsions are sheets of plastic covered with gel that record the passage of particles. Matsumoto’s article showed evidence of the ball lighting not only hopping on one sheet, but hopping between sheets set in parallel. (Fig. 5 of Ref. 14)
Figure 2. Plasmoid ring mark photographed by Shoulders. This is a ring of pits. The scale here is 25 micrometers. So the ring is about 125 micrometers wide (15).
Bostick made headlines in the 1950s because he photographed plasmoids that had the shapes of different kinds of galaxies in space. It was clear to many people then that the Universe itself is a big plasmoid. However, what Bostick didn’t know was the various anomalous and strange characteristics of plasmoids. This is what Shoulders and some other researchers focused on in the last 3 decades. In the 1990s, Matsumoto (see Figure 1) and Shoulders (Figure 2) studied these objects as a key to understanding fundamental universal processes.
Urutskoev, Adamenko, and Savvatimova kept finding strange markings and electrode behavior as they performed their LENR research during the last decade. They had an interest in studying their characteristics as well.
Plasmoids seem to be basically an electrical-magnetic phenomena.
In other articles (16, 17), I’ve described plasmoids and plasmoid behavior extensively, and shown that plasmoids are responsible for the excess energy and transmutation effects observed in various kinds of “cold fusion” apparatus. In order to understand plasmoids and plasmoids effects, such as the micrometer-size traces Matsumoto produced by the types of electrolysis and discharge apparatus that researchers have most commonly been using, it is important to study the evidence about their anomalous behavior or effects. Without this new knowledge, universe modeling is incomplete.
Ball lightning is a natural type of plasmoid that people generally see during storms, though Egon Bach documented the emission of big ball lightning (bigger than a meter). These were emitted from volcanoes and during earthquakes. These objects he wrote were called “gorgons” centuries ago in Europe.
A meteorologist named Vonnegut (18) studied anecdotal reports of glowing, hot or bright tornadoes. He and others also performed discharge experiments to try to create vortex plasmas. There are many reports of these phenomena including reports of people who have been inside tornadoes or seen into them from underneath. Those who have seen them from the inside or under report bright clouds, or light, or that the funnel was bright inside from much continuous lightning which “zigzagged” from side to side inside (19,20). According to Dessens (21) who catalogued tornadoes in France, about one-half of the tornadoes that he catalogued were either “furrowed by lightning, or the bottom of the tornado “vomits” balls of fire, or in short the tornado is luminescent at one place or another.”
Both anecdotal reports and experimental effects show that not only is there a lot of similarity between experimentally produced plasmoids, natural ball lightning, and tornadoes, but that there is enough evidence to identify the phenomena as kinds or sizes of the same general thing called plasmoids. One main piece of evidence is the conversion of tornadoes to objects people would call ball lightning except for the size and wind effects, and wind and object spinning effects of regular ball lightning.
As was described in an earlier article (22), if one thing converts to another thing, this shows that they are in reality the same basic thing. If there are intermediate phenomena between two seemingly different kinds of objects, then this too is evidence of that both kinds of objects are forms of the same general kind of object. Specific evidence of interconversion and intermediate forms of ball lightning and tornadoes are described below. More specific evidence is described in other articles.
Specific Examples of Anomalous Atmospheric Plasmoid Phenomena
A Ball Lightning Changed To Be a Tornado Over Oklahoma
A cloud system that started out as simply a massive thunderstorm with a big blue ball lightning inside turned into a bright blue tornado. Several observers described their observations over a period of about an hour. This allows us to understand how the system developed into a bright tornado over time.
This particular tornado developed from a thundercloud that a meteorologist named H. Jones both observed and tracked in May of 1955 (23). He wrote that the cloud has had a large blinking circular pale blue spot that emitted electromagnetic radiation that he recorded by using sferics storm tracking equipment in his laboratory. This system was also tracked by radar.
The blue spot was a large blue ball lightning that was inside the cloud, and it may have been blinking due to clouds rotating in front of it as Montgomery later reported. On the other hand, ball lightning, plasmoid and gorgon blinking (going from bright to dark and back again) is a known plasmoid characteristic reported and is documented photographically by Shoulders and Bach. According to many reports and even pictures in books, ball lightning may blink or even be dark for as long as they are observed.
An hour later, the system passed over Blackwell, Oklahoma. A weather observer for the US Weather Service named F. Montgomery (24) who was stationed in Blackwell, Oklahoma reported seeing a tornado that passed by in the evening at 9:27 pm. It had a deep blue section that was near the top near the cloud layer and that was much brighter “than an arc welder” and too bright for him to look at though the tornado passed about 9 blocks or 3600 feet away from him.
Imagine how much energy that tornado was giving off to be too bright to look at from that distance. The bright section may have been toroid shaped. He reported that the air from the tornado felt hot and that the temperature as recorded by a thermometer at his instrument shelter rose from 74 degrees Fahrenheit to 80 degrees Fahrenheit when the storm struck. This is evidence of a spectacular rate of radiation. And he reported:
There were rapidly rotating clouds passing in front of the top of the funnel. These clouds were illuminated only by the luminous band of light. The light would grow dim when these clouds were in front, and then it would grow bright again as I could see between the clouds. As near as I can explain, I would say that the light was the same color as an electric arc welder but very much brighter. The light was so intense that I had to look away when there were no clouds in front. The light and the clouds seemed to be turning to the right like a beacon in a lighthouse (25).
According to a drawing of this tornado in an article by Vonnegut and Weyer, the tornado was conic shaped, pointed downwards, and the bright section of the tornado was 100 feet thick, about 800 feet above the ground, and about 400 feet wide (26). Montgomery also reported that a few minutes after the storm passed there was a taste and smell in the air like that of burnt sulphur, and that the air was clammy, and that it was hard to breathe.
Finally, a person named Lee Hunter saw this same tornado four miles north of Blackwell, Oklahoma. By this time, the whole tornado column was a bright blue. He reported:
The funnel from the cloud to the ground was lit up. It was a steady, deep blue light — very bright. It had an orange color fire in the center from the cloud to the ground. As it came along my field, it took a swath about 100 yards wide. As it swung from left to right, it looked like a giant neon tube in the air, or a flagman at a railroad crossing. As it swung along the ground level, the orange fire or electricity would gush out from the bottom of the funnel, and the updraft would take it up in the air causing a terrific light — and it was gone! As it swung to the other side, the orange fire would flare up and do the same (25).
During the hour it took to reach that point outside Blackwell, the large big blue ball lightning developed into a big blue tornado. The entire funnel became luminescent. This shows that the deep blue section of the funnel that Montgomery saw at the top of the tornado was not intrinsically different than the rest of the funnel.
This shows that the tornado was a column of toroidal sections stacked up. It was layered. Other close up observations of tornadoes also report that the tornadic column was composed of stacked sections. These observations provide clear evidence that tornadoes are not simply “wind columns” as scientists usually say. There is a structure to them reminiscent of laboratory plasmoids though on a much wider scale.
Plasmoids often form strings or rings of themselves (see the ring mark in Figure 2). Ken Shoulders reported that he had proved to Bostick that the plasmoids (electron beam filaments) Bostick had studied had a structure of smaller objects arranged in a circle. Ken Shoulders called these smaller objects EVs and a variety of other names in later articles.
I call the whole structure a plasmoid ring. Plasmoids also form other configurations such as triangles, duos, and lines (strings). A lot of reports of UFOs forming geometrical formations such as circles and triangles are probably about large natural ball lightning.
Jones wrote that the Blackwell storm system was not the only system he had seen with blue lights in them. Jones also reported seeing and tracking other blue lights in clouds that he called “tornado pulse generators” at other times, and he wrote that they are not visible during the daylight hours. He wrote that the “pulse generator” may develop and remain active without subsequent tornado development (27).
Report of Layered Stacked Structure
A trained weather observer named R. Hall was inside a tornado in Texas in 1948. In addition to reporting a large brilliant cloud which shimmered like a fluorescent light that partly filled the middle of the funnel and that did not touch the seemingly opaque sides, and no vacuum (he probably meant no feeling of an air suction), he wrote:
It looked as if the whole column were composed of rings or layers, and when a higher ring moved on toward the southeast, the ring immediately below slipped over to get back under it. This rippling motion continued on down toward the lower tip (28).
It is quite rare that people have been inside tornadoes and survived. It is rarer still that people would be observant inside a tornado, and even rarer that an experienced weather observer would be so observant. It is quite rare still that a person’s report of experiences inside a tornado would be published as widely as this was in a national meteorological magazine. So personal experiences like these described here should be deeply pondered by those wishing to understand this phenomena. Reports like these probably rarely make it to national publication.
Whirlwind-Ball Lightning Intermediate Forms
There are reports of whirlwind or tornado intermediate phenomena. For example, as reported in the Monthly Weather Review, in Americus, Georgia on July 18, 1881 at some distance from the town:
…a small whirlwind, about 5 feet in diameter and sometimes 100 feet high, formed over a corn-field where it tore up the stalks by the roots and carried them with sand and other loose materials high into the air. The body of the whirling mass was of vaporous formation and perfectly black, the center apparently illuminated by fire and emitting a strange “sulphurous vapor” that could be distinguished a distance of about 300 yards, burning and sickening all who approached close enough to breathe it. Occasionally the cloud would divide into three minor ones, when the whole mass would shoot upwards into the heavens (29).
This whirlwind divided into smaller whirlwinds and rejoined. This is similar to the reported behavior of many ball lightning phenomena, and also similar to the behavior of tornado phenomena. W. Corliss wrote that this tornado was “almost a meteor/tornado/ball lightning hybrid (30).”
Tornado-Ball Lightning Over Texas
The Silverton, Texas tornado of May 15, 1957 during which 20 people died is an example of an obviously large toroidal ball lightning with tornado effects. It was observed by a resident of the town who reported a round light in the form of a ring that was about 40 or 50 feet above the ground and 40 or 50 feet in diameter (31). He said that the lightning came up from the ground and corkscrewed around to join the ring and went up into the cloud.
Intermediate phenomena are evidence of the identity of phenomena that people have thought were disparate. And the interconversion of phenomena is proof of the identity of phenomena. So the various reports described here are proof that ball lightning and tornadoes are the same thing.
The Relationship to Anomalous Energetic Plasmoids
Luminescent tornadoes and ball lightning put out a lot of energy. One of the problems confronting scientists who try to understand ball lightning is that the energetic effects suggest that the objects produce more energy than can be accounted for by known chemical reactions. The present paradigm’s physics is outdated. Most scientists ignore the evidence of their anomalously high energy.
For example, when one browses the literature, one learns that a ball lightning was reported to have evaporated a bucket of water. People who calculated how much energy is required to make this happen concluded that the energy released by the ball lightning was higher than could be caused by chemical reactions.
Scientific studies that are little known, but widely published, describe the very anomalous behavior of ball lightning boring through materials like glass or adobe walls and leaving a hole. People haven’t been able to explain how this can happen given the high melting temperature of glass and adobe walls. However, as shown below, plasmoids in a certain state make materials behave in anomalous ways including motion without heat effects.
During the last two decades, Ken Shoulders, Matsumoto, Urutskoev, Savvatimova, myself and others have studied microscopic plasmoids that exhibit a variety of anomalous effects and high energy and are clearly associated with or cause transmutation of elements.
The marks shown by the various experimenters during the past three decades look much alike, though there is a great variety of markings. Both Savvatimova and Urutskoev wrote that the many of the markings they’ve found look like those published earlier by Matsumoto.
Matsumoto developed a theory that “itonic clusters” of hydrogen atoms are formed. He wrote that these can also be called micro ball lightning (32). In the 1990s, he collected evidence of such micro ball lightning formed not only during experiments but also due to natural causes such as earthquakes and volcanoes.
Shoulders and Matsumoto’s experiments showed that atomic transmutations happen in and around these plasmoids. Ken Shoulders performed elemental analysis of plasmoid markings to show the presence of atoms not originally present in the experiment, and he also showed pictures of the bore tunnels left by the plasmoids that passed through materials with a very high melting point such as aluminum (see Figures 3, 4, 5, and 6).
Figure 3: Typical single plasmoid borehole in aluminum oxide sheet. Seen from the top. Melting point is 2,050 degrees Celsius, but the aluminum oxide is “sloshed” in a mound around the hole. By Shoulders (15).
Figure 4: Seven tunnels created by boring plasmoids in aluminum oxide sheet. Scale is 400 micrometers. This means that the tunnels are about 30 micrometers wide. By Shoulders (15).
Figures 5 and 6: Plasmoids pit with a sloshing of material “lip” on piece of pure palladium foil loaded with deuterium by Shoulders. Scale is 1 micrometer. The pit was chemically analyzed by X-ray analysis and shown to contain the elements shown in Figure 6. Places on the same foil not impinged upon by a plasmoid show up as pure palladium. By Shoulders (15).
A Summary of Matsumoto’s Results as Plasmoids
In articles about cold fusion produced by electrolysis and discharge that Matsumoto published in Fusion Technology from about 1992 to 1996, Matsumoto exhibited pictures of different kinds of anomalous micrometer-size traces that are all plasmoid traces that I’ve described in other articles.
The traces Matsumoto show that the plasmoids exhibited various anomalous behavior of ball lightning such as hopping and skimming; passing through glass, water and air; boring; passing through without boring; and emitting beams, discharging electricity and emitting particles, and the traces show that they are shaped and structured like ball lightning.
Figure 1 above is from one of Matsumoto’s first articles in which he described that the marks are due to micro ball lightning. There were other tracks similar to that one. He showed how the ball lightning would not only skip around on one sheet, but skip back and forth between sheets of nuclear emulsions. He arranged sheets in parallel with small gaps in between.
Their hopping ability as well as their ability to go through container walls but make marks and tracks outside the experimental containers is a key feature of ball lightning that helps to identify the anomalous objects he produced as ball lightnings.
As I’ve described in other articles (33), plasmoids such as ball lightning and tornadoes may move along a surface such as the ground and leave trails, holes, or furrows. The plasmoids K. Shoulders produced did so, and Matsumoto has shown pictures of interesting micrometer size trail marks that meander and even backtrack (34) on nuclear emulsions in his articles. There are rare reports of tornadoes leaving furrows in the ground a few inches or several feet deep that may sometimes be more than a mile long.
Not only Matsumoto, but also John Dash (as described in 17), Savvatimova, Adamenko and others have shown pictures of micrometer-size plasmoid trenches in their experiments. They look like scratches or deep grooves with material sloshed to the sides such as in Figure 7 or have more intricate forms.
Savvatimova took clear pictures of such trenches. See Figures 7 and 8.
Figure 7: Plasmoid trenches along with numerous pits or tunnels about 40 micrometers wide that were trenched by plasmoids on the surface of palladium used in a glow-discharge experiment. If you look closely, you can see a lot of small marks of plasmoid activity. By Savvatimova (35).
Figure 8: Plasmoid scratches form the shape of a T shape. The scale in the first photo is 50 micrometers. This is a piece of titanium foil that was used as a cathode.
Figure 9: To determine the chemical composition of the grooves, EDS chemical analysis was done at the various spots shown by the numbers. The scale in the right photo is 5 micrometers. The EDS results show that quantities of lots of previously not present elements are at the site of the scratches (36).
The clear evidence recorded by mechanical chemical analysis such as EDS by not only Savvatimova (Figure 9) but also by Dash, Matsumoto, Shoulders (Figure 6) and others of the presence of atoms of elements not originally in a sample at the sites of plasmoid-type markings is clear evidence of transmutation-cold fusion phenomena being caused by the plasmoids.
I suspect that ring plasmoids may combine to form cylindrical plasmoids, like at least some tornadoes. There are reports of cylindrical ball lightning sheering apart into disks (12), and of disks combining to form cylinders. The layered tornado that Hall experienced will probably one day be reproduced experimentally in miniature in a laboratory.
Summary and Conclusion
In this article, documented evidence of tornadoes was reviewed. The similarity of some tornadoes to ball lightning shows that tornadoes and ball lightning are kinds of the same general kind of phenomena. By showing the many similarities between the anomalous behaviors of tornadoes and ball lightning and the anomalous behavior of experimental plasmoids, it was shown that both are larger terrestrial versions of plasmoids.
The author’s general point of view is that everything is a plasmoid. As people explore both outer space and the structure of material, the “plasmoid” state of matter and energy will be better understood.
Both the observation of natural phenomena and Ken Shoulders research on plasmoids shows that plasmoids have states of existence and switch between these states. Shoulders call these states the white, black and grey states. The author believes that atoms are a variety of plasmoid, and these too switch between these states (17).
The usual normal state is the dormant state, but when they switch to the active plasmoid state due to various types of stimulation or the presence of an active plasmoid, their behavior is highly anomalous and produces the effects observed by researchers of atomic motion without heat (such as “sloshing”), formation of geometrical and non-geometrical structures, superconductivity, elemental transmutation, and etc. The excess heat observed is due to conversion of material to this active plasmoid state in which electrical discharge and radiation of various kinds is commonly observed (17).
I would like to thank both Shoulders and Matsumoto for the correspondence and help over the years. I would like to thank them and Savvatimova for the use of these pictures.
1. W. Bostick, Plasmoids, Scientific American, October, 1954.
2. W. Bostick, Morphology of the Electron, Photon, and Neutron: The Plasmoid Construction of the Superstring, 21st Century Science and Technology, Vol. 3, no. 4, 1990.
3. E. Lewis, A Proposal for Four Experiments to Test My Hypotheses, manuscript, 1992.
4. T. Matsumoto and K. Kurukawa, Observation of Heavy Elements Produced During Explosive Cold Fusion, Fusion Technology, Vol. 20, no. 4, 1991.
5. E. Lewis, Plasmoids and Cold Fusion, Cold Fusion Times, Vol. 2, no. 1, 4 (Summer 1994).
6. E. Lewis, Plasmoid Phenomena, New Energy News, Vol. 2, no. 12, 9 (May 1995).
7. E. Lewis, Some Important Kinds of Plasmoid Traces Produced by “Cold Fusion” Apparatus, Fusion Facts, Vol. 6, no. 8, 16 (February 1994).
8. T. Matsumoto, Observation of Gravity Decays of Multiple-Neutron Nuclei During Cold Fusion, Fusion Technology, Vol. 22, 164 (Aug. 1992).
9. T. Matsumoto, Experiments of One-Point Cold Fusion, Fusion Technology, Vol. 24, 332 (Nov. 1993).
10. T. Matsumoto, Observation of Stars Produced During Cold Fusion, Fusion Technology, Vol. 22, 518 (December 1992).
11. V. Nardi, W. Bostick, J. Feugeas, and W. Prior, Internal Structure of Electron-Beam Filaments, Physical Review A, Vol. 22, no. 5, 2211 (November, 1980).
12. E. Bach, UFO’s from the Volcanoes, Hermitage Publishers, Tennafly, NJ, 1993.
13. G. Egely, Physical Problems and Physical Properties of Ball Lightning, Proc. First International Symposium on Ball Lightning (Fire ball) — The Science of Ball Lightning (Fire Ball) Tokyo, Japan, July 4-6, 1988, World Scientific Company, Singapore.
14. T. Matsumoto, Observation of Tiny Ball Lightning During Electrical Discharge in Water, manuscript, Jan. 23, 1994.
15. K. Shoulders and S. Shoulders, Charged Clusters in Action, manuscript, 1999.
16. E. Lewis, A Description of Phenomena According to My Theory and Experiments to Test It, manuscript, 1992.
17. E. Lewis, Tracks of Ball Lightning in Apparatus?, Journal of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Vol. 2, 13–32, 2009.
18. B. Vonnegut and J. Weyer, Luminous Phenomena in Nocturnal Tornadoes, Science, Vol. 153, 1213 (Sept. 9, 1966).
19. A. A. Justice, Seeing the Inside of a Tornado, Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 58, 205 (May, 1930).
20. S. Flora, The Nature of Tornadoes,Weatherwise, Vol. 2, no. 2, 27 (April, 1949).
21. J. Dessens, J. Rech. Atmos., Vol. 2, 91, 1965.
22. E. Lewis, Tornadoes and Ball Lightning, manuscript article, INE Website, 1995.
23. H. Jones, The Tornado Pulse Generator, Weatherwise, Vol. 18, no. 2, 78 (April 1965).
24. C. Moore, Some Observations on the Tornado at Blackwell, Oklahoma 25 May 1955, Reported by Floyd C. Montgomery…, Weatherwise, Vol. 9, no. 3, 97 (June, 1956).
25. B. Vonnegut and C. B. Moore, Electrical Activity Associated with the Blackwell-Udall Tornado, Journal of Meteorology, Vol. 14, 284 (June, 1957).
26. B. Vonnegut and J. Weyer, Luminous Phenomena in Nocturnal Tornadoes, Science, Vol. 153, 1213 (Sept. 9, 1966).
27. H. L. Jones, Research on Tornado Identification (3rd Quart. Prog. Rep., Contract No. DA 36-039 SC 64436), Stillwater, Okla. A. and M. College, 8-35, 1955.
28. R. Hall, Inside a Texas Tornado, Weatherwise, Vol. 4, no. 3, 54 (June, 1951).
29. Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 9, no. 6, 19 (July, 1881).
30. W. Corliss, Handbook of Unusual Natural Phenomena, Arlington House, New York, 1986.
31. B. Vonnegut and C. Moore, Giant Electrical Storms, in L. G. Smith, ed., Recent Advances in Atmospheric Electricity, Proceedings of the Second Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, May 20-23, 1958.
32. T. Matsumoto, Acceleration Methods of Itonic Clusters, Proceedings of the 25th Linear Accelerator Meeting in Japan, July 12-14, 2000, Himeji, Japan.
33. E. Lewis, Luminous Tornadoes and Other Plasmoids, Cold Fusion Times, Vol. 1, no. 4, 4 (Winter, 1994).
34. T. Matsumoto, Searching for Tiny Black Holes During Cold Fusion, Fusion Technology, Vol. 22, 281 (Sept. 1992).
35. B. Rodionov and I. Savvatimova, Unusual Structures on the Material Surfaces Irradiated by Low Energy Ions and in other Various Processes, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science,Yokohama, Japan, November 27–December 2, 2005.
36. I. Savvatimova and D. Gavritenkov, Results of Analysis of Titanium Foil After Glow Discharge With Deuterium, Proceedings ICCF11, Marseille, France, 2004.