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Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/W. Forman et al.; Radio: NRAO/AUI/NSF/W. Cotton;
Optical: NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), and R. Gendler



The Braided Filaments of Galaxy M87
Feb 05, 2009

The electrical nature of the first "galactic jet" observed by Curtis in 1918 has been confirmed once again.

Recent Chandra X-ray Observatory composite images of M87, a large active galaxy in the Virgo Cluster, have revealed the braided, filamentary nature of its "jet." Such braiding is the signature of Birkeland currents in space. Electromagnetic forces pinch the current channels into long filaments in defiance of gravity and gas laws.

Multiple currents attract each other when they are far apart but repel each other when they are close, resulting in pairs of filaments spiraling around their common axis. This process can repeat, producing "cables" of pairs of pairs and so on. The cables are efficient carriers of electrical energy over long distances. For example, the long filament to the lower right is over 100,000 light-years long.

Strong electrical fields in such galactic sized currents accelerate charge carriers to near light speed. The galaxy's magnetic field causes them to emit synchrotron radiation from radio frequencies to x-ray frequencies. With modern instruments such as radio and x-ray telescopes, we can now "see" that galaxies are much larger and more active objects than we imagined when all we could see were the tiny spots of light that our unaided eyes could detect.

Because the electrical circuits that power the galaxies are somewhat chaotic, they can produce "hot spots," kinks, and various instabilities. "Blobs" of increased luminosity along the jets appear not to be moving despite the high speeds of the charge carriers. (See discussion, Section VII D, p. 657, Peratt, "Evolution of the Plasma Universe, Part 1," in IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. PS-14, No. 6, Dec 1986.)




SPECIAL NOTE - **New Volumes Available:
We are pleased to announce a new e-book series THE UNIVERSE ELECTRIC. Available now, the first volume of this series, titled Big Bang, summarizes the failure of modern cosmology and offers a new electrical perspective on the cosmos. At over 200 pages, and designed for broadest public appeal, it combines spectacular full-color graphics with lean and readily understandable text.

**Then second and third volumes in the series are now available, respectively titled Sun and Comet, they offer the reader easy to understand explanations of how and why these bodies exist within an Electric Universe.

High school and college students--and teachers in numerous fields--will love these books. So will a large audience of general readers.

Visitors to the site have often wondered whether they could fully appreciate the Electric Universe without further formal education. The answer is given by these exquisitely designed books. Readers from virtually all backgrounds and education levels will find them easy to comprehend, from start to finish.

For the Thunderbolts Project, this series is a milestone. Please see for yourself by checking out the new Thunderbolts Project website, our leading edge in reaching new markets globally.

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Authors David Talbott and Wallace Thornhill introduce the reader to an age of planetary instability and earthshaking electrical events in ancient times. If their hypothesis is correct, it could not fail to alter many paths of scientific investigation.
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Professor of engineering Donald Scott systematically unravels the myths of the "Big Bang" cosmology, and he does so without resorting to black holes, dark matter, dark energy, neutron stars, magnetic "reconnection", or any other fictions needed to prop up a failed theory.
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In language designed for scientists and non-scientists alike, authors Wallace Thornhill and David Talbott show that even the greatest surprises of the space age are predictable patterns in an electric universe.
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