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The Monocline

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The Monocline
By Andrew Hall

In previous Thunderblogs, we discussed evidence of electromagnetic and hydrodynamic forces that shaped the landscape with arcing currents in an atmospheric surface conductive path. We theorized these currents sent bolides of plasma jetting through the atmosphere, blow-torching the ground below into craters and mountainous blisters, based on observed characteristics of the landscape.

The form of triangular buttressed mountains and related land forms that display the shape of windblown deposits created by hot supersonic winds under the influence of shock waves is the evidence on the landscape. The triangular forms are created by reflected shock waves, heat, winds, molten rock and dust stirred by the blast of the arc.

It is a concept that has the potential to be scientifically proven, as discussed in Arc Blast – Part 1, 2 and 3, and in the accompanying Space News episodes, “EU Geology – A New Beginning”, “The Arc Blasted Earth” and “Extraordinary Evidence of EU Geology”. To understand the full context of this discussion, be sure to view these materials.

Recent field examination of triangular buttress features on monoclines in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States provides some confirming evidence for the theory, some conflicting evidence, as well as new information to expand theories for Electric Earth geology.

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A = Four Corners, B = Site of Investigation — Google Earth Image

Field Notes from Four Corners

“Four Corners” is a nickname for the location in North America where the state borders of Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, and Colorado meet. It is a region of splendid beauty, history, mystery, and geology.

It is among the most ancient regions known to have been occupied by the earliest humans in North America. Blackened rock is decorated with archaic petroglyphs and pictographs. “Squatter Man”  appears on random canyon walls.

It’s a region that suffered catastrophe, causing inhabitants to suddenly flee in a mass diaspora seven centuries ago. Cliff houses abandoned by the Anasazi Pueblo people haunt this region; derelict and silent in deep canyon clefts.

Through it flows the San Juan River, from headwaters at the Continental Divide immediately east of the region, to confluence with the Colorado River immediately to the west, before their joined flow cuts into Lake Powell and the Grand Canyon.

Yet the region is arid, desert plateau over 1500 meters above sea level. The geologic enigma of Monument Valley lies at its core. On a satellite image, it stands out like a bulls-eye on the landscape of North America.

Near the Navajo town of Kayenta, Arizona is the southern end of a monocline — a curvalinear ridge nearly 100 km long that extends from Kayenta east and then north to Horse Mountain in Utah. It is named Comb Ridge, which borders Monument Valley on the south and east and is sliced by the San Juan River at the mid-point. A field examination of Comb Ridge was recently performed and is the focus of this article. As we will discover, it holds answers about the form of our planet.

Pressure Ridge (AKA, The Monocline)

Below is an image of Comb Ridge near the town of Kayenta, Arizona. It was investigated on August 13, 2016 and a subsequent investigation was made the following week of another monocline ridge, the San Rafael Reef in Utah, to compare and confirm consistency of findings. A report on the findings of the San Rafael investigation is forthcoming. However, some photographic evidence from the San Rafael Reef is used in this article to illustrate findings consistent to both monoclines.

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The Kayenta Monocline (pin denotes area investigated) — Google Earth image

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San Rafael Reef, Utah — photo by author

By mainstream geology reasoning, these are sandstone sediments that drape over the scarp of a deep basement fault, where one side of the fault lifts higher than the other leaving a linear ridge on the landscape. These ridges are often called “hogbacks.” They can be a linear hill stretching a few hundred meters, elevated a dozen meters in relief , or they can be a curvalinear mountain ranging more than a hundred kilometers long and a thousand meters in elevation.

Their most common characteristic is the layers of sediment exposed on one side along the steep and often jagged high end and a shallower sloped and generally planar faced opposite side. A “ski slope” is the term often used.

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Layered sandstone tilted to a consistent angle is characteristic of the monocline — Google Earth image

They also display particular features that betray their true origin. Namely, triangular buttresses.

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Triangular Buttresses near Kayenta, Arizona — Google Earth image

Arcing current discharge will create a supersonic shock wave. A shock wave travels as a pressure wave though a medium until it hits a medium of higher density, and then it reflects. Shock reflections create standing waves in the general shape of triangles and diamonds, with other variables contributing additional effects that can modify the form.

bulletreflectecshockReflected shock waves from a bullet impact produce triangular wave forms in higher density material surrounding the impact.
These are not created in exactly the same fashion as described in the Arc Blast Thunderblog. They are still created by supersonic shock waves and winds, only the cause of the winds is not an atmospheric arc, as described for an arc blast.

On-site examination of the monocline reveals no mountain core beneath or behind the layers forming the buttresses as expected from an arc blast event. By all appearance, they are a windblown pressure ridge, against which the buttresses formed.

Mainstream geology theory holds that triangular buttresses on the monocline are either formed by seismic waves or water erosion.  The theory requires the triangles to form by shifting fault blocks, and this simply does not comport with observation.

That would create discontinuities and broken debris between shifted blocks, which aren’t present. The buttresses are monolithic layers and sheets without significant displacement at faults and cracks.

Seismic forces had nothing to do with forming them. Close examination of the hills and surroundings allows us to address water erosion more fully and find evidence for a theory of electrical formation. Let’s begin with the survey.

Examining The Buttresses

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Face view of the Kayenta buttress examined. Kayenta, Arizona — photo by author

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Face view of the Kayenta buttress examined. Kayenta, Arizona — photo by author

The dip of the stratified layers at the place of investigation was approximately 20 degrees, although other areas displayed both steeper and shallower angles of repose. The strike orientation (from center of triangles base to apex) was north – northwest. The hogback bends northward, so the strike near the north end is due west.

Water Erosion

Definite signs of water erosion were found on exposed sandstone walls in the creek that ran between the base of the buttresses. Evidence of significant flow in the wash showed to a height of about five meters above the creek bed.

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Water worn sandstone in the wash at the base of the buttress, the only significant water erosion found. Kayenta, Arizona — photo by author

Here is found the smooth, rounded, water-worn rock one expects to see as the result of water erosion. Creeks flow between buttresses in this fashion infrequently so are not the cause of their consistent triangular formation. This creek was used as an access to traverse through the monocline.

Elsewhere, water erosion was not evident other than superficial surface erosion and discolorations. Following are several examples that dispute water erosion as the mechanism that formed the triangles.

Wind Blown Rock

The edges of layers show the fineness of strata. Moisture may have caused clay to swell, contributing to the weathering, but smoothed edges from flowing water is not evident.

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Finely layered, weathered sandstone on the uppermost layer. Kayenta, Arizona — photo by author

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A thirsty investigator finds disappointment — where is the water? No evidence here. Kayenta, Arizona, photo by author

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Apex of the buttress in the background is loosely consolidated, and should be easily carved by water, yet shows no evidence of water erosion. The underlying strata forms an uneven surface of harder rock with contours that could not physically produce a triangular shape by water erosion on the buttress below — photo by author

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The apex of the harmonic buttress is loosely consolidated and displays no evidence of shaping by water erosion. San Rafael, Utah — photo by author

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Note the triangular definition of the highest peaks where the red and white banded layers appear – there is no watershed above to provide water for erosion, yet they are triangular buttresses. Also note, the lower harmonic wave forms are near perfect triangular layers over a chaotically channeled layer of rock – is there any plausibility to the notion that water, randomly flowing down these tortured channels, could form dozens of triangular buttresses in a coherent harmonic distribution that repeats in fractal form for miles? San Rafael, Utah — photo by author

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Supersonic shock and wind is the only means of forming consistent repetition of harmonic wave forms. Mainstream theory of water erosion cannot do this. San Rafael, Utah — photo by author

Layered Strata

Strata are sandwiched in thin, straight, even layers, as well as monolithic concretions.

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A meter thick layer separates two monolithic layers. The layers’ edge has a molded wavy appearance, but the thin layer makes a straight line if viewed edge-on. San Rafael, Utah — photo by author

The San Rafael Reef displays mixed bands of what appears to be white Wingate Sandstone of Triassic age and red Navajo Sandstone of Jurassic age. How they mixed in alternating bands on triangular Buttresses is best explained by supersonic winds.

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White layers of Wingate Sandstone streak through layers of red Navajo Sandstone. What caused them to mix like this? San Rafael, Utah — photo by author

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Loosely consolidated dirt and rock is sandwiched between fine, hard sandstone. San Rafael, Utah — photo by author

Some layers are loosely consolidated sand and dirt in a mixed matrix including chunks of rock. Some are finely grained hard rock.

Still others are hard, flat, and ruler-straight layers of such thin, even depth that they appear as if electroplated onto the layer below. These layers are four to twelve inches of extremely hard rock, flat surfaced and scored with rectilinear fractures such that it resembles a brick wall. The rock even looks like baked brick, with smooth planar surfaces.

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“Brick walls” like this were observed as the outer layer, as shown here, and as intermediate layers on buttresses. San Rafael, Utah — photo by author

Also in the photo above, small, triangular, red discolorations appear in harmonic reflection across the base of the “brick wall” at about knee height, as if spray painted on. They can barely be discerned in the lower right.

Some layers display plastic deformation, as if molten, or hot and plastic, when deposited, typically seen composed of fine grained, tightly packed, homogeneous, hardened sandstone.

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Visual evidence of fluid plasticity when deposited – apex of the top layer droops over the preceding layers. Note the narrow gray pressure ridge alongside the road behind the monocline was also layered there by winds. Kayenta, Arizona — photo by author

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The outer edge of the top layer displays an upward curl in places, indicative of plastic deformation, or boundary layer wind effects during deposition. Note the rough edged breccia on the lower layer shows no path, or effects from water erosion. Kayenta, Arizona — photo by author

Shock Fractures

Striations and fractures appear throughout the buttresses. Typically, they form at the same angle as the triangle, normal to it, or in checkerboard fashion as shown in the picture below, consistent with shock effects. Checkerboards appear in hardened strata that may have shrunk while cooling, creating a pillowing effect that widens striations at the surface. Water has superficially eroded striations vertical with respect to the hill, but horizontal striations are straight and clean.

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Surface fractures appear in diagonal and rectilinear lines consistent with dissipating shock reflections — Google  Earth image

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Deep parallel cuts are consistent with expanding shock waves. Kayenta, Arizona — photo by author

An Unexpected Find – Dikes

Facing the windward side of Comb Ridge is a vast windswept plain that drops into a river valley running parallel to the ridge. The plain is nearly featureless, except for the appearance of linear dikes radiating away from the ridge toward the river. The dikes are of a dark brown sandstone that resembles the Chinle Formation of Triassic sediments. The Chinle displays this amorphous, dark sandstone, that looks like petrified, boiled mud, throughout the southern Colorado Plateau.

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Dikes on plains south of monocline. Kayenta, Arizona — photo by author

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Dikes aren’t straight. They offset, curve, wave, and lean. Kayenta, Arizona — photo by author

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Visibly similar to Chinle Formation (unconfirmed). This is about twenty feet tall. See the hole? Kayenta, Arizona — photo by author

The appearance of dikes, their location and orientation, are curious for mainstream interpretation, given that similar dikes in the region are attributed to volcanic action. Near the meeting point of the Four Corner states juts Shiprock Mountain. It has dikes emanating from it in a “Y” formation. How do the dikes of Shiprock relate to dikes formed at a monocline?

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Shiprock from overhead showing radial dike “Y” pattern — Google Earth image

Situational Awareness

The Comb Ridge dikes visible at the surface are highlighted in the image below. It is apparent the dikes are related to the buttresses. One might conclude these are shock induced features, given their relation to shock induced triangular buttresses. They radiate at angles consistent with the angle of the buttresses and appear to terminate at the ridge itself. Other curious features can be found along the dikes.

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Blue lines show dikes readily visible at the surface. It’s apparent they radiate from the monocline — Google Earth image

Future articles will further explore the Kayenta monocline, the dikes and the Four Corners region in general. This will include examination of fulgarite and fulgamite evidence, wind pattern evidence from the orientation of pressure ridges and buttresses, and the cause of winds and other forces that formed the landscape.


Additional Resources by Andrew Hall:

Electric Universe Geology: A New Beginning | Space News

The Arc-Blasted Earth | Space News

Extraordinary Evidence of EU Geology | Space News

Surface Conductive Faults | Thunderblog

Arc Blast — Part One | Thunderblog

Arc Blast — Part Two | Thunderblog

Arc Blast — Part Three | Thunderblog


Andrew Hall is an engineer and writer, who spent thirty years in the energy industry.  He was a speaker at the EU2016 conference and can be reached at hallad1257@gmail.com or https://andrewdhall.wordpress.com/

Disclosure: The proposed theory of arc flash and arc blast and their effects on the landscape are the sole ideas of the author, as a result of observation, experience in shock and hydrodynamic effects, and deductive reasoning. Dr. Mark Boslough’s simulation of an air burst meteor provided significant insight into the mechanism of a shock wave. His simulation can be viewed on YouTube: Mark Boslough. The author makes no claims that this method is the only way mountains or other geological features are created. 

The ideas expressed in Thunderblogs do not necessarily express the views of T-Bolts Group Inc or The Thunderbolts ProjectTM.

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