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 The Fornax dwarf galaxy.
Credit: ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2




Primitive Stars and Galactic Eggs
Feb 24, 2010

A new method of comparing stellar spectra with computer models enables astronomers to distinguish primitive stars—ones that formed shortly after the Big Bang—from younger stars with similar compositions. In the Electric Universe, the distinction is irrelevant.

In the Gravity Universe, primitive clouds of hydrogen collapse under their own gravity into stars. Thermonuclear reactions in the cores of the stars cook the hydrogen into heavier elements. The stars explode and fling the heavier elements into space, seeding nearby hydrogen clouds with the heavier elements. When those clouds collapse, their stars will show increased amounts of heavier elements in their spectra—what astronomers call metallicity. 

Primitive aggregations of primitive stars (generally dwarf galaxies) merge into larger galaxies. Spiral arms develop from gas clouds seeded by supernovae in the dwarfs, producing the two populations of stars: redder lower-metallicity Population II stars in the galactic centers and bluer higher-metallicity Population I stars in the arms. Roughly and generally speaking, metallicity indicates age since the Big Bang: the higher the metallicity, the more the material has been “processed” since it was first created. 

In the Electric Universe, a star forms in a pinch in an interstellar Birkeland current. The nature of the stellar “surface”—the region that generates most of the star’s radiation—will depend on such factors as the electrical stress and the current density: stars like the Sun will have a photosphere of hot anode tufts, a kind of electrical tornado. Red giants will have an extended chromosphere of cooler anode glow discharge. So-called white dwarfs will have not so much a surface as a diffuse x-ray producing region: they will appear rather like the Sun would appear if it consisted solely of its corona. 

A pinch pulls in surrounding matter and tends to sort it into shells of elements with similar ionization potentials: Helium on the outside, hydrogen and oxygen in the middle, iron and silicon toward the center. The region in which the stellar “surface” forms will show the effects of this sorting. 

Furthermore, the high electrical potentials of the surfaces accelerate ions to the point of nucleosynthesis, much as a linear accelerator does in a lab. Heavier elements are cooked at the star’s surface, not in its core. Metallicity is more an indication of how long a star has been cooking rather than “primitiveness,” a notion that has no meaning in an Electric Universe. 

The relationship of electric galaxies to electric stars is just the reverse of the gravity relationship. In the Electric Universe, galaxies come first and stars “hatch” from them. A galaxy begins with an interaction between two (or more) intergalactic Birkeland currents. When far apart, the currents attract each other; when close, they repel. They tend to spiral around a common axis with a constant speed at some equilibrium distance.  

Fluctuations at some closest approach will generate a “hot spot” pinch in each current, which will pull surrounding matter toward it. Secondary pinches will further condense the matter into stars. (Birkeland currents tend to be composed of tubes of smaller-scale current filaments, each of which is a tube of still smaller current threads.)

Heavier elements tend to accumulate toward the hot spots. Gas, dust, and stars that escape from or are ejected by the hot spots trail behind, forming the spiral arms. This combination of increased metallicity and higher current densities produces the typical spiral arm composition of Population I stars, nebulae, dust, and star-forming regions. Because the rotation is driven by the electrical forces in the Birkeland currents, the stars in the arms share in the nearly constant speed of the rotating hot spots. This explains the observation of flat rotation curves that in the Gravity Universe require halos of dark matter several times more massive than the visible galaxies.

Between the hot spots, matter—largely hydrogen—accumulates in a “sump,” which becomes the galaxy’s nuclear bulge. The electrical stress is lower in this sump than in the arms, and so the stars are cooler and their light is redder. These conditions—abundance of hydrogen and low current density—are what produce the Population II stars. 

Outlying dwarf galaxies are likely to be sparks, or leakage currents, thrown off by the primary discharge, or they may be intermediate stages of ejected quasars that are evolving into companion galaxies.




"The Cosmic Thunderbolt"

YouTube video, first glimpses of Episode Two in the "Symbols of an Alien Sky" series.


And don't forget: "The Universe Electric"

Three ebooks in the Universe Electric series are now available. Consistently praised for easily understandable text and exquisite graphics.

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  Follow the stunning success of the Electric Universe in predicting the 'surprises' of the space age.  
  Our multimedia page explores many diverse topics, including a few not covered by the Thunderbolts Project.  

Authors David Talbott and Wallace Thornhill introduce the reader to an age of planetary instability and earthshaking electrical events in ancient times. If their hypothesis is correct, it could not fail to alter many paths of scientific investigation.
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Professor of engineering Donald Scott systematically unravels the myths of the "Big Bang" cosmology, and he does so without resorting to black holes, dark matter, dark energy, neutron stars, magnetic "reconnection", or any other fictions needed to prop up a failed theory.
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In language designed for scientists and non-scientists alike, authors Wallace Thornhill and David Talbott show that even the greatest surprises of the space age are predictable patterns in an electric universe.
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