
Dark Matter Recreations Part Two
Sep 30, 2009
A great mathematical edifice in
the form of the Lambda Cold Dark
Matter (ΛCDM) standard cosmological
model has been built on shaky
underlying assumptions.An
integral component of the standard
model is nonbaryonic cold dark
matter (CDM). While there is
abundant mathematical content about
CDM, how much does that translate
into real physical understanding?
The ΛCDM is based on six primary
parameters, and a great deal of
quantitative astronomical activity
is currently focused on determining
the values for those parameters.
However, it is important to note
that the ΛCDM model has a number of
problems: there is no clue yet what
particles comprise “nonbaryonic”
CDM, no explanation for the
underlying physical nature of dark
energy, and to a large extent it is
really a “parameterization of
ignorance.”
In part one of this article we
reviewed a paper by Xu and Siegel
about dark matter in our solar
system. Siegel cited previous papers
by others that claimed to
categorically establish dark matter
as a physical reality. The
references included observations of
the cosmic microwave background (CMB),
the power spectrum of the Universe,
and colliding galaxy clusters.
Siegel lists a key paper by
Kamatsu et al (2008), a highly
mathematical paper. Yet hidden under
the dense computations is a set of
assumptions concerning the
cosmological model. The 5year WMAP
data used by the paper needs to be
understood first. This is not data
about dark energy, or dark matter,
or spatial curvature, it is data
about the temperature of the
background cosmic radiation.
Through long term measurements, the
WMAP study has accumulated a higher
resolution image of the cosmic
background radiation that radiates
at about 3 Kelvin. Roughly
isotropic, in detail it is slightly
anisotropic. Determining the
parameters for the ΛCDM model is
based on fitting theoretical
predictions on a measured power
spectrum.
The determination of the ΛCDM
parameters from the WMAP data is
essentially a curvefitting exercise
with all the hazards that come with
the use of complicated, highly
parameterized mathematical models.
Regardless, one key point is that
redshift data is fundamental to the
interpretation in the context of the
standard model.
As it happens, redshift is not
directly related to distance. Halton
Arp’s book, “Seeing Red: Redshifts,
Cosmology and Academic Science,”
effectively refutes the longheld
assumption about redshift as
evidence for an expanding Universe.
Without redshift and the Hubble
parameter (a basic parameter in the
ΛCDM model), then all the intricate
mathematical superstructure of the
standard model collapses. One cannot
overemphasize the magnitude of Arp’s
accomplishment or the extent of his
illtreatment by the astronomical
community.
In support of the power spectrum of
the Universe, Siegel cites another
mathematical paper that uses
redshift data from the Luminous Red
Galaxy survey. The power spectrum is
best described as an attempt to map
the power per unit volume of space.
To quote an interesting
discussion of power spectra and
the cold dark matter model:
The galaxy power spectrum is
determined “...by performing galaxy
redshift surveys and computing the
clustering of galaxies as a function
of scale size. This produces a set
of correlation functions which
essentially define the probability
of another galaxy occurring within a
radius of X from a given galaxy.”
Therefore, the power spectrum work
supporting the standard model and
CDM is also based on the assumption
that redshift translates into
recessional velocity (or rather its
close cousin, redshift velocity) and
distance. As pointed out above, this
is a shaky foundation for the
standard model.
Regarding colliding galaxy clusters,
Siegel points to Clowe et al.(2006).
In this paper, Clowe reports on an
approach to directly observe dark
matter through a unique arrangement
of matter in the Bullet Cluster
(1E0657−558).
Clowe makes a number of fundamental
assumptions that color the
interpretations. Perhaps the most
important assumption is that most of
the mass of the clusters is dark
matter. Clowe also assumes that
between 1% and 2% of the galactic
mass is stellar matter and that 5%
to 15% of the mass is plasma. We are
left to assume that the remaining
83% is dark matter (which is
certainly different from the 22%
predicted by the ΛCDM model, so this
is not even internally consistent).
In essence, he is looking for what
he already assumes is present, which
is dangerous territory for an
objective investigator.
Next Clowe assumes that galaxy
clusters behave like collisionless
particles, but the “fluidlike”
Xray emitting plasma experiences
ram pressure. Therefore the plasma
is concentrated along the collision
plane while the stellar matter
passes through. In essence there is
a physical separation of the
intracluster plasma and the stellar
and dark matter.
The intracluster plasma is not
fluidlike, it is a plasma. The
plasma Clowe is referring to
probably has a density in the range
of 10^19 to 10^20 kilograms per
cubic meter, which is about 1 atom
in every cubic centimeter. This
plasma will organize according to
electromagnetic forces, not
gravitational forces and it
certainly does not qualify as a
fluid.
As Professor Don Scott points out:
“You do not need to place your
electric coffee maker at a lower
level than the electrical wall
outlet into which it is plugged so
that electrons can flow downhill
into it. Charges in a wire
constitute a (dark mode) plasma and
gravity has nothing to do with their
motion.”
The entire double cluster is
permeated with plasma. The notion
that the “dark” portions on the two
sides are plasmaless is
unwarranted. It happens that the
plasma in the central area is under
greater current density and is in
glow mode (up to Xray energies).
As Electric Universe commentator Mel
Acheson points out in an earlier
article about the Bullet
Cluster:
“From an electrical vantage point,
the Chandra xray image clearly
shows the bellshaped terminus and
following arc of a plasma discharge
'jet'. The strong magnetic field of
the current causes electrons to emit
the xray synchrotron (nonthermal)
radiation captured in the image.
Synchrotron radiation is a normal
electrical discharge effect.”
Therefore, if there has been no
preferential sorting of plasma along
a collision boundary, then a primary
assumption of the paper is called
into question. Concerning weak
gravitational lensing, this
technique is rife with statistical
pitfalls and other errors. In
addition, weak gravitational lensing
is dependent on distance
calculations usually based on
redshift.
In descriptions about the ΛCDM
model, there are assertions about
the model’s accurate predictions.
However, it is important to note
that over time the model has been
mathematically tuned to match
observation. There are many
observations it does not predict,
most notably the large scale
structure of the Universe. Even what
is more important, its entire
mathematical foundation rests on a
single assumption, that higher
redshift equals greater distance.
This is not the case, as Arp has
made abundantly clear. Halton Arp
has held the telescope there for his
peers to observe the real Universe,
but they have turned away in favor
of mathematical recreations.
In an interesting philosophical
aside, if 96% of the Universe is
unobservable dark matter and dark
energy, then why bother looking at
the real thing anymore? Perhaps this
is the unfortunate logical deadend
to a ΛCDM model.
Tom Wilson




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