Dwarf Galaxies Pose Big Problems
The swarm of small galaxies
orbiting the Milky Way are too few
and out of place, according to
Apr 27, 2009
The Milky Way galaxy does not travel
alone, it is accompanied by dozens
of smaller galaxies with a more
diffuse and irregular structure.
According to a recent
press release, there are too few
dwarf companions in orbit, as well
as issues with their locations.
Instead of being distributed in a
spherical shell, they lie in the
same plane as the galactic disk.
As consensus theories of galaxy
evolution predict, there should be
hundreds of dwarf galaxies
surrounding the Milky Way, since
they are thought to have evolved
through multiple collisions with
other smaller galaxies. The remnants
that were not absorbed into the
Milky Way became the globular
clusters and dwarf galaxies.
Astronomical observations do not
support the theory, however,
prompting scientists to question the
fundamental assumptions of Newtonian
The theory of dark matter was
introduced many years ago because
there appears to be too little
visible material in galaxies to
prevent them from coming apart. In
fact, visible matter is said to make
up only a small fraction of the
Universe with over 95% being
undetectable, inferred by its
gravitational interaction with
The gravitational attraction of the
stars and gas is thought to be too
weak for galaxies to retain their
shapes as they spin. The stars
within the dwarf galaxies seen
circling the Milky Way move too fast
for anything other than the gravity
from dense clouds of dark matter to
be influencing them, although this
creates a conundrum for astronomers.
It is that speed and the "presence"
of dark matter that are causing them
to question Newton's gravity theory.
Since galaxies and their dwarf
allies are the putative leftovers
from smaller galaxies crashing into
each other in the remote past, there
should be no dark matter in them.
So, it is actually the collision of
those two cosmological theories that
is creating the darkness in the
argument. If the Electric Universe
theory is given credence there is no
confusion and no need to rely on a
hypothesis that requires the
existence of a substance in vast
amounts that cannot be seen.
Galaxies are not simple
gravity-based structures that obey
the laws of mechanics and momentum.
They are not whirlpools of stars
whose only reliable way to remain
bonded together depends on a force
that is extremely weak when compared
to electromagnetism, for example.
Electricity has been found to be
over thirty-nine orders of magnitude
more powerful as an attractive force
As physicist Anthony Peratt
demonstrated in his supercomputer
galaxy formation, it is
electricity flowing through dusty
plasma that is responsible for the
births of stars and galaxies. Since
the activities of electrically
conductive plasma can be scaled up
by many powers of ten, galaxy
clusters and superclusters are
probably the result of electric
current flow, as well. Such flows of
electricity are commonly called
Birkeland currents after their
discoverer, Kristian Birkeland.
When Birkeland currents interact,
they tend to twist around one
another in a helical formation. A
cross sectional analysis of the
helices in laboratory experiments
reveals the familiar barred-spiral
shape of a galaxy. Considering
Peratt's hypothesis, galaxies are
most likely electrical in
nature—electromagnetic forces act on
them with such power that gravity
can be ignored when discussing their
shapes and behavior.
Electricity flows through a galaxy
like the Milky Way along the polar
axis and then out through the spiral
arms. There is most likely a circuit
across the galactic disk that
divides, flowing upward and downward
back into the poles. This circuit
receives its driving power from
Birkeland currents that connect the
galaxy with the rest of the Universe
billion-light-year long strands of
magnetically confined electric
filaments are transmitting power
from one end of space to the other.
As the intergalactic Birkeland
currents move through the center of the
Milky Way, they may also generate a toroidal particle beam at the edge
of the disk, which would energize a
ring of stars.
Observations from the Sloan
Digital Sky Survey have uncovered
such a ring in the form of a
separate structure that surrounds
the galaxy at a reported distance of
120,000 light years.
Since the dwarf galaxies are also
rotating in the galactic plane along
with the ring, it seems logical to
conclude that one force is acting on
both. Electromagnetism, being
substantially more powerful than
gravity, causes the ring of stars
and the dwarf galaxies to be aligned
at right angles to the axial
intergalactic magnetic field. The
speed of the stellar
motion—considered anomalous by the
consensus view—is also explained by
the stronger force of
In conclusion, the "unusual
behavior" of stars and galaxies can
be explained if astronomers would
use their instruments to look for
the signature of electricity in
space. There are extremely sensitive
detectors in orbit right now that
are capable of increasing awareness,
but instead they are being used to
generate more mysteries. The
electric motors of the galaxies
could have been mapped years ago.
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