Supermassive Problems with Black
gravitational point source more than
70 million times the mass of the Sun
is theorized to inhabit this
galactic core. Are scientists
misinterpreting their own
recent press release from the Chandra X-ray Observatory astronomers
announced that black holes exhibit similar behavior regardless of their mass.
Whether they are ten times the mass of a typical star or many millions of times
more massive, they tear matter apart and forcefully draw it into unknown regions
where the so-called physical laws of our universe no longer apply.
Black holes are said to cause space and time itself to twist and warp so that
the past becomes the future and velocity calculations yield impossible
solutions. Matter inside of a black hole occupies no volume at all, yet retains
gravitational acceleration so great that not even light can escape its
attraction – thus they are "black" holes because they cannot be detected with
optical telescopes. Although they are impossible to observe directly over 90% of
galaxies in the universe are said to harbor these perilous maws.
In several previous Picture of the Day discussions about black holes and their
influence on the universe we determined that the descriptive terminology used by
researchers is itself problematic, relying on highly speculative explanations
derived from loose interpretations. Ambiguous lexical labels such as space/time,
multiple universes, singularities, infinite density and other ideas that are not
quantifiable have introduced irony into what should be a realistic investigation
into the nature of the universe.
Scientists working with Chandra have also concluded that black holes can
form with an intense electric field as they collapse into infinite darkness. It
is thought that gamma ray bursts are generated when the e-field in a dying star
is converted into electron and positron (anti-matter electrons) pairs in less
than a trillionth of a nanosecond.
Copious groups of
anti-particles interact and annihilate each other, releasing
electromagnetic radiation that propagates outward at the
speed of light. The extremely high light frequencies are
seen as a gamma ray burst on Earth along with an "afterglow"
of ultraviolet and x-ray emissions.
Since explosions of such magnitude are impossible under
conventional models of matter and energy the Chandra team
has concluded that something new must be added to the mix;
that "something" is electric charge, although it is electric
charge in a bizarre disguise. Gamma ray observations imply
matter and anti-matter annihilation but the formation of
electron-positron pairs due to gravitational compaction is a
Another fictional source for the energetic phenomena we see
in space is gravitational tides. Some flares and x-ray jets
spewing from galaxies are thought to be caused by stars
traveling too close to their central supermassive black
holes where they are torn apart by tidal forces. Most of the
star's gas escapes the black hole, but a small quantity is
captured by the immense gravity and forms a rotating disk.
Closer to the black hole, heat generated by molecular
collisions tears the atoms apart and the disk of gas glows
in x-rays. When matter eventually falls into the black hole
gamma rays explosively burst out.
It must be asked whether there is a consistent way to
explain what we see in space along with a way to demonstrate
those explanations in the laboratory?
X-rays and gamma rays in space are not created in gravity
fields. Laboratory experiments most easily produce them by
accelerating charged particles through an electric field. No
gigantic masses compressed into tiny volumes are necessary
and they are easily generated with the proper experimental
models. There are other factors that should be considered
when analyzing data from space before resorting to
super-dense objects and anti-matter explosions as their
There is no experimental evidence that matter can be
compressed to “infinite density”. How stars form supernovae
is not clear. Supernovae do not form spherical shells when
they explode; they form glowing bipolar plasma formations
like an hourglass. No one knows what triggers a black hole
to suddenly gobble-up matter in its "accretion disk" within
a few months.
As we have noted in the past, Hannes Alfvén identified the
"exploding double layer" as a new class of celestial object.
It is double layers in space plasmas that form most of the
unusual structures we see. Stellar explosions, jets, rings,
and glowing clouds – these are all examples of electricity
flowing through dusty plasma confined within Birkeland
currents that stretch across the light years.
Compression zones (z-pinches) in the plasma filaments form
plasmoids that become the stars and galaxies. Electricity is
responsible for the birth of stars, and when the current
density gets too high the double layers in the circuit
catastrophically release their excess energy and appear as
gamma ray bursts or x-rays or flares of ultraviolet light.
By Stephen Smith
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