picture of the day
Supernova remnant Sagittarius A East
(bright yellow) in the center of our galaxy.
Credit: NASA/Penn State/G.Garmire et al.
Nov 24, 2008
Black Holes Stretch the Truth
Instead of being supermassive bends in
space and time, black holes bend to the whims of
According to a
press release, "...outbursts from the black hole at the
center of our Milky Way galaxy generate material that is
stretched as it orbits near the gravitational behemoth."
continue to elude detection by the most powerful telescopes
and radiation sensors, but the consensus community insists
that they exist because they can be inferred by their effect
on matter and energy. It is assumed that matter
falling into the intense gravity well of a black hole is
accelerated and subsequently compressed until it is
ultimately destroyed inside the so-called "event horizon."
is said to be a supermassive black hole (SMBH) residing in
the center of the Milky Way, approximately 26,000
light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. It
is the closest SMBH, so it is used for baseline hypotheses
about them. More than 95% of all galaxies are thought to
harbor one or more SMBHs because the spectra from gas and
dust in their centers exhibit similar characteristics.
Baganoff of MIT wrote: "Sagittarius A* is unique, because it
is the nearest of these monster black holes, lying within
our own galaxy. Only for this one object can our current
telescopes detect these relatively faint flares from
material orbiting just outside the event horizon."
signature from Sagittarius A* comes from gas ejected by
nearby stars, according to conventional thinking. The
material orbits the black hole at a faster and faster rate
as it gradually spins closer to a point with four million
times the mass of our sun. The emissions in x-rays and
ultraviolet light are interpreted by astronomers as gas
heating up from molecular collisions in the rotating disc.
electricity in space is ignored as an interpretive medium,
the gravitational attraction close to the black hole would
prevent anything from escaping unless it were moving at half
the speed of light. That velocity is 100 times faster than
the .05% that was observed, so scientists think that
gas orbiting the black hole is being stretched out
instead of being ejected.
recent press release from the Chandra X-ray Observatory,
astronomers announced that black holes exhibit similar
behavior regardless of their mass. Whether they are ten
times the mass of a typical star or many millions of times
more massive, they rip normal matter apart and draw it into
regions where the so-called laws of physics no longer apply.
Black holes are
theorized to twist space and time so that velocity
calculations yield impossible solutions. Matter inside of a
black hole occupies no volume at all, yet retains
gravitational acceleration so great that not even light can
escape its attraction—they are "black" because they cannot
be detected with optical telescopes.
previous Picture of the Day discussions about black holes
and their influence on the universe, we determined that the
descriptive terminology used by researchers is itself
problematic, relying on highly speculative explanations
derived from loose interpretations. Ambiguous lexical labels
such as space/time, multiple universes, singularities,
infinite density and other ideas that are not quantifiable
have introduced irony into what should be a realistic
investigation into the nature of the universe.
fictional source for the energetic phenomena we see in space
is gravitational tides. Some flares and x-ray jets spewing
from galaxies are thought to be caused by stars traveling
too close to their central supermassive black holes. Heat
generated by molecular collisions causes the gas to glow in
x-rays. As theories indicate, gamma rays also explosively
burst out when matter eventually falls into the black hole.
X-rays and gamma
rays in space are not created in gravity fields. Laboratory
experiments most easily produce them by accelerating charged
particles through an electric field. No gigantic masses
compressed into tiny volumes are necessary, and they are
easily generated with the proper experimental models. There
are other factors that should be considered when analyzing
data from space before resorting to super-dense objects and
antimatter explosions as their cause.
There is no
experimental evidence that matter can be compressed to
“infinite density." Compression zones (z-pinches) in the
plasma filaments form plasmoids that become the stars and
galaxies. Electricity is responsible for the birth of stars,
and when the current density gets too high the double layers
in the circuit catastrophically release their excess energy
and appear as gamma ray bursts or x-rays or flares of
x-ray telescopes have confirmed the existence of a
plasma-focus plasmoid at the core of the Milky Way. This
high-energy electrical formation is the heart of the
galactic circuit. Since dust blocks visible light, viewing
the core has not been possible until the advent of
telescopes that can “see” infrared and x-ray light, which
can penetrate dust. The x-ray radiation from the plasmoid is
typical of that given off by highly excited stars,
indicating extremely strong electrical stress. The strong
electrical field in the plasmoid acts as a particle
accelerator. Electrons accelerated to high speeds will
spiral in a magnetic field and give off x-rays.
galactic circuit, electrical power flows inward along
the spiral arms, lighting the stars as it goes, and is
concentrated and stored in the central plasmoid. When the
plasmoid reaches a threshold density, it discharges, usually
along the galaxy’s spin axis. This process can be replicated
in a laboratory with the
plasma focus device.
forms a jet of neutrons, heavy ions, and electrons. The
neutrons decay to form concentrations of matter that appear
quasars. Electromagnetic forces confine the jet to thin
filaments that remain coherent for thousands of
light-years. The jet usually ends in double layers that
extend for many times the size of the galaxy and radiate
radio frequencies. The diffuse currents then flow toward
the galaxy’s equatorial plane and spiral back toward the
In the electric
star hypothesis, no concentrated gravity from hypothetical
super-compacted objects and "singularities" is necessary.
Classical "laws" of electromagnetism are more than able to
create the phenomena we see, without recourse to the
supernatural physics of SMBHs. Expulsion disks are common in
such energetic systems rather than "accretion" disks. Plasma
discharge events are commonly known to generate high-energy
UV light. The more electrical current the higher the
frequency of light will be emitted. Supply enough power to
the arc and x-rays and gamma rays are generated.
By Stephen Smith
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