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Supernova remnant Sagittarius A East (bright yellow) in the center of our galaxy.
Credit: NASA/Penn State/G.Garmire et al.


Nov 24, 2008

Black Holes Stretch the Truth

Instead of being supermassive bends in space and time, black holes bend to the whims of astronomers.

According to a recent press release, "...outbursts from the black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy generate material that is stretched as it orbits near the gravitational behemoth."

Black holes continue to elude detection by the most powerful telescopes and radiation sensors, but the consensus community insists that they exist because they can be inferred by their effect on matter and energy. It is assumed that matter falling into the intense gravity well of a black hole is accelerated and subsequently compressed until it is ultimately destroyed inside the so-called "event horizon."

Sagittarius A* is said to be a supermassive black hole (SMBH) residing in the center of the Milky Way, approximately 26,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. It is the closest SMBH, so it is used for baseline hypotheses about them. More than 95% of all galaxies are thought to harbor one or more SMBHs because the spectra from gas and dust in their centers exhibit similar characteristics.

Frederick K. Baganoff of MIT wrote: "Sagittarius A* is unique, because it is the nearest of these monster black holes, lying within our own galaxy. Only for this one object can our current telescopes detect these relatively faint flares from material orbiting just outside the event horizon."

The radiation signature from Sagittarius A* comes from gas ejected by nearby stars, according to conventional thinking. The material orbits the black hole at a faster and faster rate as it gradually spins closer to a point with four million times the mass of our sun. The emissions in x-rays and ultraviolet light are interpreted by astronomers as gas heating up from molecular collisions in the rotating disc.

Since electricity in space is ignored as an interpretive medium, the gravitational attraction close to the black hole would prevent anything from escaping unless it were moving at half the speed of light. That velocity is 100 times faster than the .05% that was observed, so scientists think that gas orbiting the black hole is being stretched out instead of being ejected.

In a recent press release from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, astronomers announced that black holes exhibit similar behavior regardless of their mass. Whether they are ten times the mass of a typical star or many millions of times more massive, they rip normal matter apart and draw it into regions where the so-called laws of physics no longer apply.

Black holes are theorized to twist space and time so that velocity calculations yield impossible solutions. Matter inside of a black hole occupies no volume at all, yet retains gravitational acceleration so great that not even light can escape its attraction—they are "black" because they cannot be detected with optical telescopes.

In several previous Picture of the Day discussions about black holes and their influence on the universe, we determined that the descriptive terminology used by researchers is itself problematic, relying on highly speculative explanations derived from loose interpretations. Ambiguous lexical labels such as space/time, multiple universes, singularities, infinite density and other ideas that are not quantifiable have introduced irony into what should be a realistic investigation into the nature of the universe.

Another fictional source for the energetic phenomena we see in space is gravitational tides. Some flares and x-ray jets spewing from galaxies are thought to be caused by stars traveling too close to their central supermassive black holes. Heat generated by molecular collisions causes the gas to glow in x-rays. As theories indicate, gamma rays also explosively burst out when matter eventually falls into the black hole.

X-rays and gamma rays in space are not created in gravity fields. Laboratory experiments most easily produce them by accelerating charged particles through an electric field. No gigantic masses compressed into tiny volumes are necessary, and they are easily generated with the proper experimental models. There are other factors that should be considered when analyzing data from space before resorting to super-dense objects and antimatter explosions as their cause.

There is no experimental evidence that matter can be compressed to “infinite density." Compression zones (z-pinches) in the plasma filaments form plasmoids that become the stars and galaxies. Electricity is responsible for the birth of stars, and when the current density gets too high the double layers in the circuit catastrophically release their excess energy and appear as gamma ray bursts or x-rays or flares of ultraviolet light.

Infrared and x-ray telescopes have confirmed the existence of a plasma-focus plasmoid at the core of the Milky Way. This high-energy electrical formation is the heart of the galactic circuit. Since dust blocks visible light, viewing the core has not been possible until the advent of telescopes that can “see” infrared and x-ray light, which can penetrate dust. The x-ray radiation from the plasmoid is typical of that given off by highly excited stars, indicating extremely strong electrical stress. The strong electrical field in the plasmoid acts as a particle accelerator. Electrons accelerated to high speeds will spiral in a magnetic field and give off x-rays.

In a galactic circuit, electrical power flows inward along the spiral arms, lighting the stars as it goes, and is concentrated and stored in the central plasmoid. When the plasmoid reaches a threshold density, it discharges, usually along the galaxy’s spin axis. This process can be replicated in a laboratory with the plasma focus device.

The discharge forms a jet of neutrons, heavy ions, and electrons. The neutrons decay to form concentrations of matter that appear as quasars. Electromagnetic forces confine the jet to thin filaments that remain coherent for thousands of light-years. The jet usually ends in double layers that extend for many times the size of the galaxy and radiate copiously in radio frequencies. The diffuse currents then flow toward the galaxy’s equatorial plane and spiral back toward the core.

In the electric star hypothesis, no concentrated gravity from hypothetical super-compacted objects and "singularities" is necessary. Classical "laws" of electromagnetism are more than able to create the phenomena we see, without recourse to the supernatural physics of SMBHs. Expulsion disks are common in such energetic systems rather than "accretion" disks. Plasma discharge events are commonly known to generate high-energy UV light. The more electrical current the higher the frequency of light will be emitted. Supply enough power to the arc and x-rays and gamma rays are generated.

By Stephen Smith


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The Electric Sky and The Electric Universe available now!


Authors David Talbott and Wallace Thornhill introduce the reader to an age of planetary instability and earthshaking electrical events in ancient times. If their hypothesis is correct, it could not fail to alter many paths of scientific investigation.

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Professor of engineering Donald Scott systematically unravels the myths of the "Big Bang" cosmology, and he does so without resorting to black holes, dark matter, dark energy, neutron stars, magnetic "reconnection", or any other fictions needed to prop up a failed theory.

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In language designed for scientists and non-scientists alike, authors Wallace Thornhill and David Talbott show that even the greatest surprises of the space age are predictable patterns in an electric universe.

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  EXECUTIVE EDITORS: David Talbott, Wallace Thornhill
Steve Smith, Mel Acheson
  CONTRIBUTING EDITORS: Michael Armstrong, Dwardu Cardona,
Ev Cochrane, C.J. Ransom, Don Scott, Rens van der Sluijs, Ian Tresman
  WEBMASTER: Brian Talbott

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