picture of the day
simulation showing concentrated points of energy "texture" in
the Virgo Cluster deep field.
Oct 03, 2008
Greater and Greater Attractors
Galaxy clusters are being pulled by a force emanating
from "beyond the horizon" of the universe. Could electrified
plasma be the culprit?
analysis of data provided by the
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) appears to
indicate an unknown gravitational mass lying over the cosmic
event horizon. Far past any current instrument's detection
ability is something with a force exceeding the combined
mass of whole superclusters, inexorably drawing them out
into the darkness.
Said Alexander Kashlinsky from NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center: "The distribution of matter
in the observed universe cannot account for this motion."
According to astronomers, the universe itself
is expanding at an ever accelerating rate. Estimates for
the rate of expansion vary, but contemporary theories
suggest that galaxies are receding from us because they
started out receding from us due to an inflationary event
imparted by the Big Bang. Current estimates put the figure
at approximately 71 kilometers per second for every 3.3
million light-years. This supposed dilation of space/time is
called the Hubble flow, or the Hubble constant.
the 1960s however, detailed redshift calculations of the
galaxies near the Milky Way seemed to show a large-scale
motion superposed on the Hubble flow. The Local Group, the
Virgo supercluster, the Hydra-Centaurus supercluster, and
other galactic superclusters are moving at 600 kilometers
per second toward the constellation Centaurus. Scientists
describe the motion as "a great river of galaxies" that is
flowing into the gravity well of some gigantic gravitational
source over 216 million light-years away. The massive
structure is known as the Great Attractor.
Great Attractor is thought to be composed of dark matter
because it cannot be seen with any telescope. Astronomical
observations uncovered a galaxy cluster known as
Abell 3627 in the general vicinity, but found ten times
too little visible matter for the effect. It is interesting
that astrophysical studies demonstrate unexpected movement
whenever new instruments with improved vision are
Almost from the start of modern astronomy it was found that
the Andromeda galaxy is hurtling toward the Milky Way at
over 320,000 kilometers per hour. Consensus opinion states
that only gravity can exert the force necessary for
Andromeda's speed, although there appears to be insufficient
luminous matter between the two galaxies to account for it.
A mass of ten Milky Way galaxies would be required to
accelerate Andromeda, scientists postulate, but it remains
unseen to this day.
time progressed, better telescopes and computers were
constructed. Lo and behold redshift measurements of galaxies
in the Local Group showed them flying toward the center of
the Virgo cluster at nearly two million kilometers per hour.
The Virgo cluster is 50 million light years from Earth and
contains two giant elliptical galaxies, M84 and M86, but
whatever is tugging on that incredible mass remains
order to explain all these combined redshifts, a group of
the Great Wall (or the Centaurus Wall) in which the
Great Attractor is embedded was theorized to be the
motivating factor. However, the Great Wall does not possess
enough mass density to influence structures like
superclusters. These various surveys (along with other data)
led to the theory of dark matter.
another force, only this time orders of magnitude more
powerful than the Great Wall and its Great Attractor scion,
is thought to exist so far away from Earth that it is
outside the range of our most powerful telescopes. In
keeping with the terminology that has become familiar to
astronomers the unseen power has been dubbed "dark flow."
Alexander Kashlinsky: "The clusters show a small but
measurable velocity that is independent of the universe's
expansion and does not change as distances increase. We
never expected to find anything like this."
many times are reports from respected scientists, operating
complex devices designed to test their theories, going to
begin or end with the words, "we never expected this?"
Notwithstanding the problems associated with redshift,
previous Picture of the Day articles about
galaxy clusters, and
gravity-only cosmology have elucidated a force extant in
the universe exerting an attractive power
46 orders of magnitude
gravity: electricity. Each "puzzling" discovery by research
scientists reinforces the tenets of plasma cosmology and
serves to differentiate it from the imprecise predictions of
astronomer and Electric Universe theorist
Mel Acheson wrote: "Clusters of galaxies are pinches in
a supergalactic Birkeland current. The usual morphology of a
Birkeland current is a double helix, or a hierarchy of
double helices. With greater resolution, each filament of a
current is, at a smaller scale, a tube of filaments which,
in pairs, tend to spiral around a common axis."
Forces exerted by electrified plasma contained in the
twisting filaments of Birkeland currents dominate the
universe. They circulate in a cosmic circuit that flows into
our field of view and then out into the void with long-range
attraction between them. Therefore, the most probable "Great
Attractors" are those filaments of electrified plasma with
billions-of-trillion-times more intense fields of influence
No doubt the
universe is larger than what we can observe at this moment
because more sensitive tools have continued to reveal
greater depths. Out of those depths rise electrical
energies rivaling Zeus in his might. It is there we should
look for our explanations and not to centuries-old
hypotheses conceived in a time when none of today's
observations were possible.
By Stephen Smith
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