Overlapping, central peaks, clean
excavation, melting, and "pinched up" rims are all signs of electrical
discharge machining for these crater chains.
The chances of having an impacting body break up
to form a neatly graded and spaced line of objects that might provide
this series of overlapping craters is practically zero.
Instead, crater chains are a common result of
electric arcs passing over a cathode surface. With slight variations in
the current or the surface, the arc may stop jumping from one crater to
the next and cut a trench instead. In this example on Jupiter's moon,
Ganymede, the craters overlap so closely that the distinction between
"crater chain" and "straight rille" blurs. There are sections of this
crater chain that could pass for a rille. When examined closely, the
smaller rilles in the image have scalloped sections that could pass for
Notice that the sizes of the craters are similar,
with an increase toward the middle. From an Electric Universe point of
view, this size gradation is a reflection of the initial increase in
current as an arc becomes established, followed by a decrease as the arc
quenches. In lightning strikes with multiple strokes, the middle strokes
are usually the strongest.
Notice also that many of the craters retain their
central peaks. The arc that carves a crater is a Birkeland current
consisting of a pair of filaments that rotate around the current's axis.
If the crater is large enough, the two filaments will not meet in the
center, leaving a central spire intact.
Because the arc lifts material from the surface,
the excavation is left relatively clean. Only a small portion of the
detritus falls back around and in the crater or rille. The "collapsed
lava tube" explanation of rilles fails on this account: The remains of
the tube's roof are not inside the rille. "Missing" debris is one
defining characteristic that distinguishes electrical erosion from
mechanical processes: The debris is not really "missing", it¹s just not
where other processes typically leave it.
Melting is another defining characteristic of
electrical erosion. Although extensive melting is ascribed to impacts,
impacts in fact produce little melting. The particles of rubble may be
immersed in hot gases from the impact, but the heat dissipates too
quickly for conduction to carry much of it into the particles.
Electrical erosion, on the contrary, generates heat inside the eroded
particles, in the manner of a heating element on an electric stove. A
general expectation of the Electric Universe is that the floors of
craters and rilles will show extensive glassification. Unfortunately, it
can only be confirmed by on-site observations.
A final observation is that many craters appear to
have their rims "pinched up," rather than "rolled over" or splattered as
would be expected from debris thrown out by an impact. Many rilles, too,
have "pinched up" dikes along their edges. This emphasizes the
indication from missing debris that the erosional forces were directed
Please check out Professor Don Scott's
new book The Electric Sky.
READERS: Wallace Thornhill, David Talbott, and Anthony
Peratt will share the stage with other investigators of
planetary catastrophe at the British Society for
Interdisciplinary Studies “Conference 2007” August