So Far and Yet So Near
One more problem for
the Big Bang: Recently-discovered galaxy clusters reveal too
much complex structure to be as “young” as Big Bang
speculations would require.
The small inset
in the photo above shows a recently discovered cluster of
galaxies that poses a big problem for the Big Bang.
conventional theory, which determines the distance of a
galaxy by its redshift, the cluster is 9 billion light years
away. That means the light we see today was emitted 9
billion years ago, or only 5 billion years after the Big
Bang, in which all matter and energy supposedly was created.
Gravitational forces could not have generated such a cluster
of galaxies in such an astronomically short time.
The ESO news
of such a complex and mature structure so early in the
history of the Universe is highly surprising. Indeed, until
recently it would even have been deemed impossible."
This observation falsified the theory. To save the theory
(upon which grants and reputations are established) an ad
hoc patch must be found.
were a science”—as one worker in the field put
it—astronomers would have wondered if the cluster might have
been ejected from the nearby active galaxy NGC 7314 (at the
center of the large image). They would have wondered if its
high redshift might be due to that ejection instead of to an
expansion of the universe. They would have wondered if the
cluster might be an early stage of galaxy cluster formation
in the near present instead of in the far past.
wondering would require them to doubt that redshift means
distance. It would require them to doubt that redshift means
recessional velocity. And if redshift does not mean distance
or velocity, then the two major pillars of Big Bang theory
On the other
hand, because this cluster is in the halo of the active
galaxy NGC 7314, this observation once again confirms Halton
Arp’s prediction that high-redshift galaxy clusters will be
found in association with low-redshift active galaxies. Arp
made this prediction many times. In a paper on galaxy
clusters, written in collaboration with amateur astronomer
David G. Russell and published in the Astrophysical Journal
of March 10, 2001, Arp and Russell add more than 15 new
cluster/active galaxy associations to the list Arp has been
gathering for three decades.
We can carry
this prediction one step further. We can predict that other
complex galaxy clusters with high redshifts (perhaps even
higher than this one) will be discovered in the future. And
we can also predict that they will be found close to nearby
active galaxies. Some of them may even be found between
their active parent galaxy and us.
The really big
problem is not the discrepancy between Big Bang theory and
contrary observations but the singularity of belief that
compels astronomers to turn a blind eye to the wrong end of
their telescopes while ignoring disagreements with what they
imagine they see.
Quasar in Front of a Galaxy
Big Bang Distortions
Big Bang a Big Loser in 2005
Having Faith in Edwin Hubble
Halton Arp, A Modern Day Galileo
Fingers of God
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