Gravitational Lensing or Birth of a Theory?
As doubts undermine the theory of gravitational lensing, curious
minds begin making new theories.
Picture of the Day noticed that curious
minds were wondering what else the five bright spots could be
besides gravitational lensing of a background quasar by a foreground
galaxy. Currently accepted theories were failing to account for an
increasing number of observations and skeptical questions. The bias
of self-interest was beginning to show, but the habit of scientific
methods was undermining the bias.
With this image the Subaru telescope looked at the
five bright spots with its infrared eyes. It saw four bright quasars
with bridges of luminous material connecting them to the galaxy.
Halton Arp has collected hundreds of
pairs of quasars, sometimes three or four, often farther from the
galaxy, but on opposite sides, as if the quasars had been
from the galaxy like roman candles. When the
quasars’ z is adjusted to the reference frame of the galaxy and
averaged for ejection velocities—one toward us, one away—the z’s
fall on the empirically established
Curious minds now consider making (“poiein”) a new
Arp considers that the mass of newly ejected matter
is near zero and steps up per the quantization intervals as it ages.
Z is therefore a measure of
time since ejection,
quasars are the “children” of active galaxies, and everything we see
in the universe is a lot closer than what the Big Bang imagines.
Peratt, following Alfven, considers that galaxies
and quasars form in “pinches”
in intergalactic Birkeland currents. They evolve through the same
sequence of forms as laboratory plasma discharges are observed to
Thornhill considers that intergalactic circuits
power the fissioning of quasars from galactic cores and induce
“leakage” currents that power the stars. These leakage circuits in
of gas-giant planets from stellar cores and
induce leakage currents that power planetary systems.
And there are more—a
bouquet of more—enough
to satisfy curious minds who want possibilities, not dogma;
opportunities, not obsolete certainties.
Contributed by Don Scott
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