“Shock” for Astronomers
Unexpected, highly energetic
radio emissions from galaxy cluster Abell 3376 have sparked
a curious “debate” among astronomers.
The galaxy cluster Abell 3376 lies about 600 million light
years away from the earth. As seen in the picture above, two
ends of the cluster reveal giant arcs of high-energy radio
emission, each about three million light-years across. (For
reference: just one light year is almost 6 trillion miles.)
Something is occurring on a macrocosmic scale that
challenges traditional concepts of galaxies moving in
splendid isolation, and connected only by the trivial
gravitational force. Here, thousands of galaxies are
indisputably linked to coherent, high-energy events.
For plasma cosmologists and Electric Universe proponents,
the electric force is the only meaningful and testable
explanation for such a vast radio source in space. It is
therefore with dismay that the electrical theorists consider
the conventional discussion sparked by this latest
As one plasma scientist has put it to us, conventional
theory typically envisions high-energy events on a galactic
or intergalactic scale in terms of celestial objects
smashing together. So two sides will often debate ways to
summarized on NewScientist.com, one interpretation
suggests: “…roughly a billion years ago, two clusters
crashed into one another to form Abell 3376. The collision
could have sparked a shockwave that traveled out through the
cluster gas, whose remnants we are now seeing.”
But according to the New Scientist article, “…there is a
more intriguing possibility. Primordial gas, untouched since
the big bang, should be constantly pouring into all galaxy
clusters…and the two shockwaves could mark where this cool
ancient gas smacks into the super-hot gas of the cluster.”
Interpretations of this sort underscore the gap that has
developed between standard cosmology and plasma cosmology.
In plasma cosmology, it is the electric force that
accelerates charged particles at energies up to 1020
electron volts. This interpretation rests on practical
laboratory experiments with particle acceleration, and
involves no ad hoc speculations. To ask some imagined
mechanical “shock” to achieve such acceleration is to take
astronomy into untestable conjecture.
As if to make the plasma cosmologists’ point for them, the
article states that these “shockwaves” “could also give us a
clue as to why the universe is threaded with magnetic
fields.” But nowhere in the article do we find any reference
to the electric currents that create and sustain magnetic
fields. One of the pointers to magnetic fields is
filamentation of space plasma. In the electrically neutral
environment originally envisioned by big bang cosmologists,
any concentration of gases into a filament would quickly
dissipate into equilibrium with surrounding gases. But in an
Electric Universe, filamentation should be commonplace
because of a basic property of plasma that occurs when it
carries an electric current. And since every electric
current creates a magnetic field, no other explanation for
the pervasive magnetic fields in space is necessary: the
induced magnetic fields constrict the plasma into narrow
filaments often spanning vast cosmic distances. And these
filaments become the efficient pathways of the currents.
Universally present magnetic fields and associated
filamentation mean an Electric Universe.
Consider in contrast the logic expressed in the article as
the author addresses the enigma of filamentation: “Computer
simulations of the cosmos show that gravity tends to pull
the gas into stringy structures called filaments…Abell 3376
could be threaded on one such filament…”
The best expression for computer simulations designed to
retrofit a theory to surprising observations is “garbage in,
garbage out.” When did any gravitational model simulate
filamentation prior to the astonishing discovery of a
filamentary universe? To assume that the virtually zero
influence of gravity in intergalactic space is producing
energy at radio wave and x-ray levels gives new meaning to
the phrase “doing things the hard way.”
Since Professor Don Scott’s book The Electric Sky will be
available later this month, it is fitting to present here
his analysis of the underlying issue posed by x-ray and
radio emissions in space:
1. Radio telescopes see radio waves throughout the cosmos.
2. Radio waves need BOTH magnetic and electric fields in
order to exist.
3. Magnetic fields need electric currents in order to exist.
4. We can conclude that electric currents and electric
fields exist in deep space.
5. Cosmic rays are accelerated ions.
6. What is the easiest way to accelerate an ion?
7. Answer: By letting it fall through a voltage drop (an
electric field) or pump it magnetically.
8. Strong electric fields exist in DLs (double layers) in
plasma and magnetic pumping can occur in moving (varying)
9. Grasping at “bow shocks” as a reason for ion acceleration
is an evasive refusal to consider anything electrical.
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