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Excerpts From The Electric Universe
Electric Comets Part 3

The following is one of a series of excerpts from The Electric Universe, copyright © 2002, 2007 Wallace Thornhill and David Talbott and published by Mikamar Publishing. Reproduced with the kind permission of the authors and publisher.

Presented by Dave Smith
February 01, 2010
How is it that a tiny comet nucleus can hold a coma sometimes larger than the Sun, against the force of the solar wind? If gravity alone were responsible it would require the nucleus to have a density orders of magnitude higher than any known substance, yet most comets are said to be low-density bodies. Only the Electric Universe offers a coherent answer to this paradox.

Page 95

Comets, Electricity and Gravity

Astronomers have calculated the mass and density of comet nuclei from their presumed gravitational effects on the trajectories of nearby spacecraft. By this reasoning, comet Halley had a density of only one tenth to one quarter that of water. But seen in close-up, all comet nuclei look like solid rock. What is going on?

Science surprisingly takes no account of the electrical nature of matter when it comes to the related phenomena of inertial mass and gravity. It is a crucial factor here. Though we intend to take up the issue of the 'gravitational constant' in a forthcoming monograph, it is proposed that, if gravity is due to an extremely weak electric polarization of subatomic particles within charged bodies, gravitational [p97] determination of the masses and densities of celestial bodies are immediately suspect.98
Page 96: INFORMATION PANEL   [ Permalink ]

Plasma Discharge Modes

Air ionizer

Dark Mode

In 'dark mode,' a plasma discharge in air is detectable as a breeze. A familiar example is an air ionizer. Electric discharges occur preferentially from sharp points so that fine needles are used as discharge points.
In space, the solar 'wind' constitutes a dark mode plasma discharge.
Glow discharge tube Aroura

Glow Mode

There are many examples of plasma 'glow mode.' Above we see the glowing display in a discharge tube. Indirectly, the fluorescent light makes use of a glow discharge in the UV part of the spectrum to cause phosphors coating the inside of the glass tube to emit visible light. The dancing display of an aurora and the occasional glow from high-voltage power transmission lines are examples of plasma glow discharges.

Arc Mode

Lightning is a spectacular form of plasma arc discharge. Industrial examples are powerful arc lamps and arc welding.

Page 97
We have suggested that the nucleus of a comet can be considered an electret. An electret is a permanently electrified substance. If it is separated into pieces, each piece will be electrified. Due to its small size, the effect of charge polarization within an electrified comet will be small. We might expect, therefore, that its gravitationally measured mass will be lower than expected for the same rocky mass if it were on the Earth's surface. In other words, if comets look like solid rock they probably are solid rock. If this model is correct, simple Newtonian calculations of density and composition that assume G is a universal constant will be misleading.
Comet Linear
When comet Linear blew apart in the summer of 2000, the event highlighted the failure of popular comet theory to anticipate the actual attributes and behavior of comets. Linear was not the 'dirty snowball' of modern comet lore, and its remains included little if any water at all.
Credit: NASA, Harold Weaver (the Johns Hopkins University), and the HST Comet LINEAR Investigation Team
[Click to enlarge]
Evidence for electrical stress in comets comes from their propensity for energetic disintegration, often at large distances from the Sun where solar heating is minimal. Just as electrical breakdown of the dielectric material causes a capacitor to explode, electrical discharges from a comet surface can induce large electric fields within the subsurface rock, leading to breakdown and explosive fragmentation of the comet nucleus.

In addition, most large comet nuclei do not exceed one billionth of the mass of the Earth. How can a piece of rock, no more than a few km wide, gravitationally hold a ten-million-kilometer-wide bubble against the force of the solar wind? The entrained envelope is extremely diffuse, but in gravitational terms it should not be there.
Comet Tempel 1
The Hubble Space Telescope captured this image of a flare emerging from comet Tempel 1 on June 14. Such dusty outbursts are only one of many features of comets that astronomers "donít fully understand."
Credit: NASA/HST
[Click to enlarge]
Something stronger than gravity is at work here. If a comet holds a large negative charge, it will give rise to an immense Langmuir plasma sheath. This vast envelope is formed and held electrically. A gravitationally trivial object can be very powerful electrically.

The frequent erratic motions of comets must also be explained. To account for such motions, which are dubbed 'non-gravitational,' Whipple looked to the 'jets' seen erupting from the nucleus. As summarized by Francis Reddy in an obituary the day after Whipple's death in 2004, the astronomer believed that, “The jets supply a force that can either speed or slow a comet, depending on the way it rotates óa force unaccounted for in the astronomical calculations used in predicting comet returns.” 99 So as comet Linear moved toward perihelion, a NASA release stated, “Powerful jets of gas vaporized by [p99] solar radiation have been pushing the comet to and fro.” 100
Page 98: INFORMATION PANEL   [ Permalink ]

Comet Material Born in Fire

Sample from Comet Wild 2 The image on the right shows a comet particle collected by the Stardust spacecraft. The particle is made up of the silicate mineral forsterite, also known as peridot in its gem form. It is surrounded by a thin rim of melted aerogel, the substance used to collect the comet dust samples. The particle is about 2 micrometers across.

NASAís celebrated Stardust mission returned to Earth the first samples ever of comet dust. On January 2, 2004, the Stardust craft swept past Comet Wild 2, trapping particles as they struck 'aerogel' in a 100- pound capsule. The capsule parachuted to a Utah desert on January 15, 2006.

Shockingly, the particles contained minerals that can only be formed at temperatures of thousands of degrees. Mineral inclusions ranged from anorthite, which is made up of calcium, sodium, aluminum and silicate, to diopside, made of calcium magnesium and silicate.

How could this be? We have been assured that comets are the leftovers of a cold 'nebular cloud' that formed the solar system. This hypothesis has become an article of faith. Indeed, the implication of a fiery cometary past was so unexpected that an early sample of dust was thought to be contamination from the spacecraft.

“How did materials formed by fire end up on the outermost reaches of the solar system, where temperatures are the coldest?” asked Associated Press writer Pam Easton.

“Thatís a big surprise. People thought comets would just be cold stuff that formed out ... where things are very cold,” said NASA curator Michael Zolensky. “It was kind of a shock to not just find one but several of these, which implies they are pretty common in the comet.”

Researchers were forced to conclude that the enigmatic particle material formed in a superheated region either close to our Sun, or close to an alien star. “In the coldest part of the solar system weíve found samples that formed at extremely high temperatures,” said Donald Brownlee, Stardustís principal investigator at the University of Washington in Seattle. “When these minerals formed they were either red hot or white hot grains, and yet they were collected in a comet, the Siberia of the Solar System.”

But comets are supposed to be the 'Rosetta stones,' constituted primarily of dust and ices, from which the Sun and planets were formed.

Speculations erupted. Could it be that something occurred in or very near the Sun in its formative phase, flinging immense quantities of material out far beyond the orbit of Pluto, to the 'Oort cloud,' the legendary and invisible reservoir of comets? But this would produce a mixing and contradict the zoning that is evident in the asteroid belt. “If this mixing is occurring, as suggested by these results, then how do you preserve any kind of zoning in the solar system,” Zolenksy asked. “It raises more mysteries.” Perhaps the story could be rescued by finding the signature of primordial water whose existence is essential to the survival of official comet theory.

A report in the journal Nature is illuminating. Phil Bland, a planetary scientist at Imperial College London and his team analyzed part of a grain. When he found large amounts of calcium, Bland was excited. Could the calcium be present in the form of calcium carbonate, a mineral that almost always forms in water? He bet his colleague Matt Genge that this would indeed be the case.

Bland lost the bet. According to the Nature report NASA “scientists have not yet found any carbonates in their grains.”

(See, also, information panel p. 94.)

Page 99
Astronomers applied the same interpretation to the energetic jets of Borrelly and Wild 2 (pronounced 'Vilt 2'). But in the case of Wild 2, the close-up photographs gave no indication of caverns shaped into 'jet venturis' that could confine the jets to a narrow stream and produce the measured high jet velocities. And even with velocities up to 1 km/ sec (well above the 0.25 km/sec corresponding to ice subliming into a vacuum) the jets are too weak to influence the orbit of a comet the size of a small mountain. However, if the value of the gravitational 'constant,' G, is dependent upon the electrical polarization inside a comet, strong electrical discharging will change that value. And changes in G between the Sun and a comet will directly affect the comet's orbit.

98 Astrophysicists as a whole have never considered that, if gravity is a dipolar electric force between distorted subatomic particles, similar to the 'London force' between electrically neutral molecules, then the universal 'constant' of gravitation, G, is actually a variable, dependent on the electrified state of the body. This disturbing idea is supported not just by the electrical behavior of comets, but by the fact that G on Earth is the most elusive physical 'constant' in physics.


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The Electric Universe
The Electric Universe
David Talbott and Wallace Thornhill
Mikamar Publishing

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Authors David Talbott and Wallace Thornhill introduce the reader to an age of planetary instability and earthshaking electrical events in ancient times. If their hypothesis is correct, it could not fail to alter many paths of scientific investigation.
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Professor of engineering Donald Scott systematically unravels the myths of the "Big Bang" cosmology, and he does so without resorting to black holes, dark matter, dark energy, neutron stars, magnetic "reconnection", or any other fictions needed to prop up a failed theory.
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In language designed for scientists and non-scientists alike, authors Wallace Thornhill and David Talbott show that even the greatest surprises of the space age are predictable patterns in an electric universe.
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EXECUTIVE EDITORS: David Talbott, Wallace Thornhill
SENIOR EDITORS: Donald Scott, Annis Pepion Scott
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS: Michael Goodspeed, Michael Gmirkin,
'Solar', The Soupdragon,
Guest's Contributions
WEBMASTER: Brian Talbott
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