Dark Inertia - Part Two
The Nature of "Expansion"
Included in the growing list of untenable theories tossed in
the Big Bang quilt is the concept of "dark energy". It is assumed
that the universe is not only expanding but that this supposed
expansion is accelerating.
"Lacking any deep understanding of
this mysterious force, and without the ability to probe it directly
with existing technology, physicists coined the generic term "dark
energy" to describe it. Whatever dark energy actually is, detailed
measurements from independent techniques reveal that it comprises a
whopping 74% of our Universe's total mass-energy."
- What is the
Mysterious Dark Energy Pulling the Universe Apart? - NASA
It is claimed that when General Relativity is applied the result
is a universe that either infinitely expands or contracts back
towards the mathematical "singularity" from which it sprang. To coral
this problem and stay in line with the prevailing notions of the day
Einstein conjured a "cosmological constant" to keep the universe from
doing either (static). Later, Edwin Hubble's expansive interpretation
of redshift brought about the assumption that galaxies were receding
away from us and each other. This caused Einstein to reject his
earlier invocation calling it his "greatest blunder".
Things become even more unusual. Not only is empty space given an
expansive quality but it also "warps" and "curves" around celestial
objects. The assumed recession of galaxies away from us is not because
galaxies are expanding into space but because space itself is
expanding into...? - and carrying all matter and galaxies with it.
Thus, the Hubble constant, a rate of expansion, is needed to explain
how far space is moving over a given time unit. This would
supposedly allow the theoretical big bang to be reversed and an age
of the universe to be calculated.
Thus goes the universe according to the standard model and it's
"runaway acceleration" based on a flawed redshift assumption and the
invocation of negative pressure via "dark energy". Eventually, stars
will have spent their supposed thermonuclear fuel and the universe
will grow cold and dark. The "Big Chill". Or. The tide will turn and
gravity will reclaim it's overrated domain and crush everything in a
"Big Crunch". Both scenarios present a bleak future to an
unobservable time billions of years into the future. Perhaps the
"greatest blunder" is assuming that the universe had a beginning, or
will have an end, in the first place.
"There is no rational reason to doubt
that the universe has existed indefinitely..." - Hannes Alfvén
as relayed in The Bang Never
Happened by Eric J. Lerner
Another option: Induced Magnetic
"The action simulates in the laboratory,
in a fraction of a second, what takes place in perhaps a billion
years during the formation of a galaxy in outer space."
- 24 Dec
1956. Lima News (Lima, Ohio) as sourced from Plasma
In 1956 plasma physicist Winston
H. Bostick used actual plasmoids via a makeshift "plasma gun" and
achieved characteristics remarkably like that of spiral galaxies as
seen in the photo above. The photo is the first in a sequence of 6
from one of the actual lab experiments featured in Ohio's Lima News.
Several such experiments were conducted and subsequently supported by
"... galaxies should be able to convert
an appreciable fraction of the energy from their gravitationally
collapsing plasmas to coherently increasing magnetic energy via their
coherent self-exciting homopolar-generator action. A simple
calculation is presented here to show that the resulting
mutually induced magnetic repulsions between
neighboring galaxies are greater than the gravitational attractive
forces between the galaxies. The observed expansion of the universe
can be thus simply accounted for without recourse to the Big Bang
hypothesis." - The Hubble
expansion as ascribed to mutual magnetic induction between
neighboring galaxies - Winston H. Bostick
In an electric circuit 'induction' is a change in the state of a
body or system as the result of a field. It is the linkage that can
cause current flow, current density and electromagnetic fields
to increase or decrease between neighboring systems
and therefore alter their dynamic. When considered in relation to
galaxies and galaxy clusters the electrical property of induction
poses a different outlook to the concept of "expansion".
Bostick was able to determine that the conversion of gravitational
energy from compressed plasma into "mutually induced magnetic
repulsions" could account for the observed expansion of the universe.
Magnetism is a property of electrical activity and galaxies have
magnetic fields invigorated by Birkeland currents. Therefore the
concept of 'expansion' is not that as assumed by mainstream
astrophysics, but moreso the repulsive movement of galaxies and
celestial formations via [electro]magnetic induction. Depending upon
the intensity of the Birkeland currents invigorating each galaxy, and
the resulting magnetic field, both attraction and repulsion can occur
at these scales.
Professor Don Scott's book The Electric Sky cites an interesting
observation. If you have an electric current flowing through two
parallel conductors in close proximity to one another their
respective magnetic fields will overlap. As one considers the overall
view of the two electromagnetic fields surrounding those wires, the
further away you get the more the two magnetic fields act as one
'system' and become indistinguishable as individual fields. The same
would undoubtedly occur on lager scales with interacting galaxies and
could be expanded to include galaxy clusters.
A very simple analogy may allude to the properties discussed
above. In a YouTube video entitled Searl and Newton
Part 1. At 1:39 seconds into the video John Searl places a series
of stacked disk magnets called a "roller set" onto his device.
Observe what the "roller sets" do as they are placed. As he states
the "rollers" repel each other and seek a position of equilibrium
within the 'troughs'. Each new roller set added "disturbs" the
distribution of the 'troughs' and a new distribution is dynamically
updated. The "troughs" of which he speaks are the [electro]magnetic
equivalent of gravitational Lagrange
Points aka "saddle points". They are areas of minimal magnetic
influence between existing systems. Expanding this analogy to
planets, stars, galaxies, and galaxy clusters, supposed "collisions"
become inappropriate and dynamic interactions of electric plasma
formations become the order of the day.
An example of this is the separation or repulsion via increases in
the mutual strength of respective magnetic fields as used today in a
sheet fanner". This is the same magnetic repulsion sensed when
pushing like poles of magnets together but on a much smaller scale.
Not only could he account for observed expansion of the universe ... without
recourse to the Big Bang hypothesis, Bostick also concluded
this repulsive activity is "...greater than
the gravitational attractive forces between the galaxies" which
demonstrates the 1039 orders of magnitude greater
influence of electrical forces over gravity.
"The fact that measured values of redshift do not vary
continuously but come in steps - certain preferred values - is so
unexpected that conventional astronomy has never been able to accept it,
in spite of the overwhelming observational evidence"
- Halton Arp Seeing Red
The interpretation of redshift as being the result of space itself
'expanding' and all matter being carried along for the ride like so
many raisins in a rising batter is untenable. That same assumption
is then cantilevered with additional conjecture which posits that
reversing the assumed 'expansion' infers that everything was once
together at a single point. An alternative view as put forth by
and Cocke as well as
Halton Arp shows that the quantization of redshift in discernable steps
means that it cannot equate with velocity. Thus, the "expansion"
of space could not exist.
Galaxies and galaxy clusters move and interact. The universe being
99.999% in the plasma state, those motions then become primarily
susceptible to electromagnetism. The interrelated hierarchical nature
of electric plasma dynamics may account for celestial
motions via the electromotive force, without the need for an
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