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https://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/php ... =4&t=16534
Continuing from the v2.0 Forum (link above) an addendum to links to the New Concepts in Global Tectonics group is required as the old links no longer work.
NCGT publications can be found at the International Earthquake and Volcano Prediction Center at: http://ievpc.org/index.html
Referenced Journals and Newsletters can be found at: http://ievpc.org/ncgt-journal.html
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Robertus Maximus says »
Nov 23, 2016
An Alternative to Plate and Expansion Tectonics
Electret Discharge Tectonics
The Earth as an Electret: the driver of Global Tectonics
The current favoured geological paradigm, Plate Tectonics, has many detractors and their writings can be found in print and/or online in publications such as the New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal (1). From works published in the NCGT Journal and others, it is clear that since its inception not all geologists accepted the new Plate Tectonics paradigm, some went down the path of retaining the Plate Tectonic notion of continental ‘fits’ and produced Expanding Earth models whilst other geologists produced entirely different models altogether.
For the supporters of Plate Tectonics however, one question that has remained unanswered is why Plate Tectonics is unique to the Earth. No other terrestrial planet or natural satellites show any evidence of the alleged mobile plates.
Most terrestrial bodies have intensely cratered surfaces, of the inner planets only Venus and Earth display a distinct lack of craters. Indeed, Venus a planet only slightly smaller than Earth, our so-called ‘twin’ is one that would be most likely to exhibit Plate Tectonics yet shows no signs of any plates. Planetary geologists explain this evidence, that something may be wrong with our current understanding, away with ad hoc suggestions that usually involves Venus having a thicker crust or lacking convection in the mantle but with no seismological measurements taken on Venus this is complete guesswork.
The exploration of the solar system over the last 50 years has revealed a huge amount of information about the individual planets and their satellites but none of the terrestrial planets or satellites exhibit anywhere near the amount of geological activity evident on the Earth.
From this exploration we now know that the planets and their satellites are immersed in an electrified plasma and it is from this perspective that we should seek a cause of planetary geological activity.
In 1972 Ralph Juergens suggested that the Sun was powered by means of an electric discharge, in that paper Juergens described some of the features of plasmas:
- ‘Up to this point I have neglected to mention two most important facts about space-charge sheaths and plasmas:
‘1. An isolated body whose alien potential is not continually renewed by means of electric currents will quickly acquire the potential of the surrounding plasma, and its sheath will disappear; and
‘2. A plasma does not necessarily possess an intrinsic electric potential. Where plasmas form in electrical discharges, however--and this is the connection in which Langmuir studied them--they do acquire non-zero potentials.
‘These are clearly matters of immense importance. I will return to them later.
‘For now, we can say that in a solar system pervaded by plasma, each charged planet with a potential unlike that of the local plasma must have its electric field bound up in a space-charge sheath of limited volume. When no orbital conflict exists, the system operates serenely under the direction of forces accounted for in conventional celestial mechanics.’(2)
The innermost planet Mercury has a global dipolar magnetic field nearly aligned with the planet's rotational axis about 1.1% the strength of Earth's. Measurements from the MESSENGER spacecraft indicate that the field is offset north of the planet’s centre by 300miles, when compared to measurements taken by Mariner 10 in 1975 the field is 7% weaker today. MESSENGER also found areas of a stronger remnant magnetic field of opposite polarity to the direction of today’s field in Mercury’s northern plains.
Today’s field is somewhat of a puzzle, Mercury’s small size and slow 59-day-long rotation provide a challenge for the popular dynamo model for the generation of planetary magnetic fields and conventionally the planet has had plenty of time to cool down.
Venus has no intrinsic magnetosphere but does interact with the solar wind. A recent report of on-going volcanic activity on Venus is inconclusive as the Venus Express spacecraft only observed a number of ‘hotspots’ in a rift system that varied in intensity over a period of (Earth)days. (3)
Both the Moon and Mars have no intrinsic magnetospheres but both bodies do exhibit patches of what is called crustal or remnant magnetism. Like Mercury this crustal magnetism is mainly found in the heavily cratered highlands. (4)
From these observations and to paraphrase Juergens we can infer that the Moon, Mars and Venus have acquired the potential of the surrounding plasma and their sheaths have disappeared; remnant magnetism on the Moon, Mars and Mercury may be due to electrical scarring events at some time in the past.
These observations would also indicate that Mercury and the Earth have not acquired the potential of the surrounding plasma, are Mercury and the Earth recent arrivals in their current orbits, perhaps after having gained additional charge following a close encounter with bodies unknown?
If Mercury is still adjusting to its solar environment does it show any signs of activity today? Images from the MESSENGER spacecraft revealed what planetary geologists call ‘hollows’ on the surface and attributed their formation to ‘something sublimating’. Now, I suggest a more likely explanation is that ‘hollows’ are a formed by spark discharge or electric discharge machining. A similar more energetic process has been suggested as a cause of the ‘volcanoes’ on Jupiter’s moon Io. (5) Given that Mercury lacks any atmosphere to speak of and has an intrinsic but weakening magnetic field, geological activity is now at a minimum- a trickle discharge is all that remains to drive Mercurian tectonics. (6)
The Earth however does have a substantial atmosphere and magnetic field, is far more geologically active and has yet to ‘acquire the potential of the surrounding plasma’.
What drives the Earth’s magnetic field? The current mainstream explanation involves a dynamo effect generated in the Earth’s core. Seismic studies have led geologists to believe that the outer core is a conducting fluid (liquid nickel/iron) whilst the inner core is believed to be solid iron. The motion of the inner and outer cores generates an electric current which in turn generates a magnetic field. As simple as this sounds there are problems however, Joseph Cater explains:
- ‘Scientists are somewhat vague as to how a magnetic field could extend 2,000 miles beyond an electric current. It requires a very powerful current to produce even relatively weak magnetic effects a very short distance above the flow. The electrical resistance of iron, at the alleged temperatures of the core, would be staggering. A steady flow of electricity requires constant potential differences. How are such potential differences produced and maintained in this hypothetical core?
‘The magnitude, width, and depth of such currents would have to be unbelievable to extend the magnetic field even a small fraction of the distance required, and the EMF [electromotive force] required to produce it would be even more incredible. Where could such an EMF come from? So far, scientists seem reluctant to explain this, especially since these currents are confined to a ball and would therefore follow closed paths.’(7)
The Earth as a rotating charged body will generate a magnetic field indistinguishable from the hypothetical dynamo, this field is ‘actively imposed’ and will remain active until the Earth ‘acquire(s) the potential of the surrounding plasma’. (2, 8)
Do we have any evidence that the Earth is adjusting to its electrical environment? Dr Thomas Barnes noted that measurements taken between 1835 and 1965 revealed that Earth’s magnetic field was decaying at a rate of 5% per century. (9) Other researchers estimate that the field will disappear altogether in just 2000 years. (10) This would seem to indicate that the Earth is discharging to meet the electrical demands of its environment, if so how is this process driving global tectonics?
The Earth is a hollow electret; (11) this may seem a ludicrous suggestion, after all we have plenty of seismic data that tells us otherwise but a degree of caution is needed when interpreting that data. The researcher and author Jan Lamprecht has devised a model of the Earth’s interior which is consistent with known seismic data with one important difference- the Earth is hollow. (12) In Lamprecht’s model a cavity, about the size of the currently hypothesized inner core, exists at the centre of the Earth. How might such a cavity form?
The conventional account of the formation of the Earth, through accretion, would rule out a hollow planet, as planets are assumed to be assembled slowly piece by piece. However, it has been suggested that if terrestrial bodies are formed in an electric discharge then the bodies may very well be hollow. (13)
In link No. 13, researcher and author Peter Mungo Jupp asks: ’How homogenous is the earth? Is it moulded within by strict boundaries or is it perhaps like the illustration of the internals of a classic thunderegg with a 3D star shaped interior? Plasma pioneers, such as C.J Ransom, recreated spherical Martian rock blueberries in the lab with electrical discharge techniques. Were thundereggs created by similar means? And if electrical effects are scalable could our larger earth body perhaps replicate a thunderegg formation with its gaseous enclosures and spiky outreaches that may, perhaps, resemble the jets of a comet?’
In this image of a sliced thunderegg (14) we see the cavity is not smooth as in Lamprecht’s model but has projections that appear to reach the inside edge of the thunderegg, in this image (15) the projection are more pronounced and form a regular pentagram or five-pointed star pattern. For a more spherical body such as the Earth we could imagine the cavity to take on the appearance of a great icosidodecahedron. (16)
Could it be that what geologists refer to as spreading centres (mid-ocean ridges) and subduction zones are actually surface puncturing fractures related to deep polyhedral structures within the Earth and that these fracture lines provide ‘discharge channels’ for the transmission of electric charge from the Earth to its ‘electrified cosmic environment?’
Our understanding of the Earth’s interior is very limited and what we do know came as a surprise to geologists. Findings from the Kola Superdeep Borehole near Murmansk, Russia which reached a depth of 40,220 feet (7.6 miles) and the super-deep borehole at Oberpfälz, Germany which reached a depth of 29,860 feet (5.6 miles) were not anticipated.
At the Kola hole the Soviet Minister of Geology stated, ‘with increasing depth in the Kola hole, the expected increase in rock densities was therefore not recorded. Neither was any increase in the speed of seismic waves nor any other changes in the physical properties of the rocks detected. Thus the traditional idea that geological data obtained from the surface can be directly correlated with geological materials in the deep crust must be re-examined.'
Deep drilling also revealed the presence of hydrogen, helium, methane, and other gases. Rock density failed to meet expectations instead strongly mineralized water was found circulating through fractures at pressures of more than 3000 bar. At the Oberpfälz hole hot fluids in open fractures at a depth of 11,150 feet (2.1 miles) were found. The brine was rich in potassium and twice as salty as ocean water. Temperatures recorded in super-deep boreholes came as a surprise. Temperature was found to increase with depth far more rapidly than predicted. In the Kola borehole, at 32,810 feet (6.2 miles) deep the temperature was 180°C not the expected 100°C. Overall, the rate of temperature increase rose from 11° to 24°per 3,281 feet, down to a depth of nearly 22,970 feet (4.3 miles) and then started to decline. (17)
Deep drilling suggests that overall the Earth is far more porous than currently understood. Indeed, Thomas Gold in his Deep Earth Gas theory proposed that helium and various hydrocarbons well up from great depths through pores and channels in the mantle and crust. (18) Not only a variety of gases originate at great depth but water also appears to originate from great depths as well. (19)
Charge carrying material drifting up from depth takes the form of liquids, gases and nearer the surface, molten rock. At the surface charge transfer takes the form of volcanic activity. To explain the observed electrical activity associated with volcanic activity it is now postulated that silica, an ingredient of magma is highly charged before it even enters the atmosphere. (20, 21) Basalt, an igneous rock, covers large areas of the Earth’s surface, most of the ocean basins are covered in basalt. Results from the Deep Sea Drilling Project indicate that the basaltic ‘basement’ layer had been subjected to sub-aerial weathering, meaning oceanic basalts formed in terrestrial or shallow sea conditions. (22) If the outflows of basalt occurred during a time of global upheaval then it is likely that electrical discharges left their mark before the crust collapsed, forming the deep ocean basins. Interestingly, most basalts on the ocean floor are tholeiitic basalts which are relatively rich in silica which as was noted earlier is now regarded as being highly charged. Perhaps, the expansive outflow of basalt was triggered by a change in Earth’s gravity as a result of its new electrical environment. (23) The process, still continues today but at a reduced pace, as the demands of the environment, on the Earth, diminish.
Earthquake activity is another form of charge transfer. Most earthquakes occur no deeper that 15.5 miles, however, nearly one third occur at depths greater than 43.5 miles with the deepest reaching 435 miles. Conventionally, earthquakes are said to occur at ‘plate boundaries’ but many are recorded far from the nearest plate boundary and the most violent can leave the Earth ‘ringing like a bell’. (24)
Rather than lateral movement earthquakes indicate vertical movement, geomorphologist Lester King wrote: ‘So the fundamental tectonic mechanisms of global geology are vertical, up or down and the normal and most general tectonic structures in the crust are also vertically disposed…But one must bear in mind that every part of the globe- on the continents or in the ocean basins- provides direct geological evidence that formerly it stood at different levels, up or down…’ (25)
It would appear then, that entire sections of the Earth’s crust have collapsed mainly along fracture lines related to structures deeper within the Earth, as the main collapse ensued magma, saline water, hydrocarbons and other gases were expelled in great quantities, this activity was linked to the charge transfer process, moreover, most geologists agree that mountain formation took place fairly recently, conventionally placed in the Pliocene – Pleistocene Epochs, uplift in certain parts of the crust could well have been a consequence of the complete collapse of the crust in other areas.
If charge is being conducted today through these discharge channels/ fracture lines then we would expect to find accounts in the literature of unusual atmospheric phenomena associated with earthquake activity, recorded phenomena include: bulging of the Earth’s surface, changing well water levels, ground-hugging fog, low frequency electromagnetic emission, earthquake lights from ridges and mountain tops, magnetic field anomalies up to 0.5% of the Earth’s dipole field, temperature anomalies by several degrees over wide areas as seen in satellite images, changes in the plasma density of the ionosphere, strange animal behaviour and unusual cloud formations.
Temperature rises have been recorded before earthquake activity and it is speculated that this is due to the movement of charge within the crust. New Scientist magazine reported that: ‘Geophysicists Guangmeng Guo and Bin Wang of Nanyang Normal University in Henan, China, noticed a gap in the clouds in satellite images from December 2004 that precisely matched the location of the main fault in southern Iran. It stretched for hundreds of kilometres, was visible for several hours and remained in the same place, although the clouds around it were moving. At the same time, thermal images of the ground showed that the temperature was higher along the fault. Sixty-nine days later, on 22 February 2005, an earthquake of magnitude 6.4 hit the area, killing more than 600 people.’(26)
As the Earth has yet to reach the potential of the surrounding plasma it is still subject to fluctuations in the Sun’s output via a more direct electrical link, this link can also influence earthquake activity. (27)
We have seen that it is becoming increasingly recognised that both volcanic and earthquake activity are both accompanied with electrical activity. Rather than being secondary phenomena I suggest that electrical activity, in the form of charge transfer, is the driver of global tectonics. A vast reservoir of chemical elements at the centre of the Earth is impelled to drift towards the surface, mainly through deep ancient structures and more recent fracture lines, as part of the discharge.
Having left the body of the Earth, charge accumulates in the oceans and atmosphere- here it drives a wide variety of atmospheric phenomena. Over the oceans we find electrified events ranging from hurricanes to St. Elmo’s fire on the continents we find a similar range from tornadoes to lightning. However, the discharge doesn’t end in the atmosphere as Wal Thornhill and David Talbott explain: ‘If the Earth is continually interacting with an external electric field, the terrestrial lightning surely involves something more than wind-driven charge separation in storm clouds in a circuit restricted to the lower atmosphere. In recent years it has been found that lightning storms are often accompanied by strange flashes, playfully called elves, sprites, and gnomes, radiating into space high above the clouds… If the Earth is a charged body connected to the Sun’s electric field, then the storm, the lightning and the sprites will be manifestations of a single phenomenon…Lightning is the spark of a celestial current as it connects to the Earth.’(28)
To summarise; both the Earth and Mercury have yet to reach to potential of their respective plasma environments. The Moon, Venus and Mars all appear to be at electrical equilibrium with their plasma environments and display no intrinsic magnetic fields or magnetospheres and appear in comparison to the Earth, geologically inactive. The magnetic fields of the Earth and Mercury are showing signs of steady decay. Deep within the Earth a cavity exists from which water and other volatiles migrate to the surface- this migration is part of a global discharge that powers tectonic activity- the like of which is not seen on any other planet.
The Earth will remain a geologically active planet until such a time that it meets ‘the potential of the surrounding plasma’ then, to quote Velikovsky: ‘And the Earth would go on shuddering for centuries, slowly quieting down, and as time passed one after another the volcanoes would burn themselves out.’ (29)
2. Juergens. Ralph. E. 1972. Reconciling Celestial Mechanics and Velikovskian Catastrophism. Pensée Vol. 2 No 3.
4. http://www.space.dtu.dk/english/Researc ... etic_field
6. http://www.planetary.org/blogs/emily-la ... llows.html
8. Juergens. Ralph. E. 1977. On the Convection of Electric Charge by the Rotating Earth. Kronos Vol. 2 No 3.
9. http://creation.com/the-earths-magnetic ... -the-earth
12. http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/tierr ... ueca_9.htm
13. https://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2015/0 ... os-part-1/
15. http://www.sailorenergy.net/Agates/Agat ... h01Blg.jpg
18. Gold. Thomas. 1999. The Deep Hot Biosphere. Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
19. https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn ... rths-core/
20. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lightning ... _magnetism
21. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news ... fb02102009
22. Ioganson. Lidia. 2014. Beloussov’s View of the Origin of Oceans. NCGT Journal Vol. 2 No 2.
23. Thornhill. Wallace. 2008. Electricity or Gravity: Which Rules the Universe? SIS C&C Review.
25. Oard. Michael. J. 2015. How did the Waters of Noah’s Flood drain off the Continents? Creation Vol.37 No3
26. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg ... to-quakes/
27. http://www.thunderbolts.info/tpod/2005/ ... hquake.htm
28. Thornhill. Wallace, Talbott. David. 2007. The Electric Universe. Mikamar Publishing, Portland.
29. Velikovsky. Immanuel. 1955. Earth in Upheaval. Doubleday. New York.
- JP Michael
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I suggest this presentation on Birkeland currents and weather by Dr. Donald Scott, posted by nick c in the Multimedia forum, is relevant to the discussion here.
https://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2022/0 ... nderbolts/