I haven't gotten to the magnetic fields of electric currents problem yet, but I'll start with problems with the Anode Sun model now. I think the magnetic field issue comes up in that same thread.
On TB forum 2.0, I organized Electric Sun Discussions on the Thursday preceding Tue May 15, 2012 10:57 am when I started posting the discussions at https://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/php ... =10&t=6124
The discussions began with me, Charles Chandler and Michael Mozina and were later joined by Brant Callahan (Upriver). I invited Thornhill, Scott and others to join in discussions, but they declined. The weekly discussions lasted about 3 months. All 3 participants happened to share the view that the Sun is a cathode.
Lately I gave an argument for why stars are not powered from outside. This is one of the points discussed in our discussions from 8 years ago. In this post
https://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/php ... =15#p67212
go down to the section I called "Negative Sun; Outward Flowing Electrons". Here are some quotes from that section of the discussion.
_LK: I’d like to see you guys critique Don Scott’s speech from the EU conference in January, which is posted on the TB website at http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/mm/elec
... -excerpts/ [[ I think the link works in the actual thread]].
Toward the middle he shows a vacuum tube diagram with cathode and anode and describes his theory there.
_CC: I saw that. But the specificity of the contentions is extremely low. He’s just basically saying that same thing as Alfven & others have said before, that you can get anode tufting.
_LK: Doesn’t he say which part of the vacuum tube is equivalent to the tufted photosphere?
_CC: I think they’re saying that the tufts at the anode (the positive electrode) are analogous to the granules in the photosphere. But he doesn’t say anything about the charging mechanism, or why the interplanetary medium would be negatively charged. It is mentioned frequently by Juergens & others that there is a stream of electrons, flowing into from the interstellar medium, that lights up the Sun. But we would actually expect that to be positive, and there is no evidence of such an electron stream, and if there was, it would connect with the Sun in discharges that would look like lightning strikes, not tufts.
_CC: I think that the granules ARE tufts, but I think that this is actually a “negative glow” plasma.
_CC: As concerns the difference between typical negative glows and typical anode tufts, I’m thinking that if we take the stringy plasma in a negative glow, and subject it to an enormous gravitational and electric force, such that it clings tightly to the negative electrode, we’ll get the kind of “tufting” that would be somewhat more typical at the anode.
_LK: Do you mean typical on the Sun? Or photosphere?
_CC: In the lab, we’re seeing distinctive characteristics of discharges in gases, especially low density gases. I think that this is why Juergens picked the anode as the most analogous to the appearance of the granules in the photosphere. But I think that this is incorrect. I think that a cathode glow could produce that kind of tufting.
_CC: ... I don’t mean to bore everybody with the solar polarity thing, but I think that the ES model has it backwards, and that this is preventing progress in the model. Flipping the polarity makes it possible to build on it, and everything starts to fall into place.
_LK: CC may have a list of problems with the ES model ere long, Eh?
_CC: Yes, I’ll be working on it, but I want to hear what Brant and Michael have to say first. Never know what you’re going to learn!
_BC: I agree.. The cathode model seems to fit the observations very well. The photosphere is .6 eV in temperature which is not very far from the surface in negative glow terms. The Corona is 100eV giving you pretty good bounds on where the electron emitting surface is...
_LK: Those observations need to go on CC’s list, Brant.
_CC: The helmet streamers in the corona baffled me for the longest time. And the fact that the particles accelerate away from the Sun, which wouldn’t make any sense at all if the electrons were flowing in from outer space, because they would accelerate toward the Sun, but it makes perfect sense if the electrons are breaking away from a current divider near the Sun’s surface, and then accelerating toward a positive charge in the interplanetary medium.
- Next time I like to ask BC more questions about eV’s and temps and ionization levels in spectroscopy. I’m intrigued by the antenna idea. But indeed, the point of convergence in both models is at the cathode, and then the properties of the photosphere make sense.
In this post https://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/php ... =15#p67441
_CC added: ... The standard model actually is just an energy budget. There really isn’t much physics in it. If it was a fusion furnace, we’d see a diffuse glow of gamma rays from an indistinct blob of plasma, whose density dropped off gradually. What we’re actually see[ing] is light from lower temperatures coming from a specific layer.
- The evidence that the electrons are exiting the Sun, rather than arriving at it, is the nature of the discharge. With the Sun as a cathode, the electrons distribute themselves around the edge, and leave the cathode, headed for the heliosphere, from all over the surface. They accelerate away, which is what we would expect for electrons that were close to a current divider. The further they get from the current divider, the less ambiguous the field, and they accelerate. We can also see the outward flow [[helmet streamers]] in coronagraphs. So the Sun-as-cathode makes sense. If the Sun was an anode, we’d expect the electron streams to get pinched into discrete channels as they approached the positively charged Sun. In other words, the flow of electrons would take the form of lightning, burrowing through the solar atmosphere. This, of course, is not at all what happens. The “spicules” that we see sometimes near active regions are the form that I’m talking about. But the flow in spicules is outward, and these are the exception rather than the rule. So I find the Sun-as-anode model to be untenable.
Then see "Brant's Referenced Cathode Spot Paper" in this post:
https://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/php ... =30#p68696
_LK2b: Brant, what did you want us to understand from that paragraph?
_BC: That here is a mechanism for the solar wind that is pretty well studied, based on lab experiments, if you use the cathode model.