AGE LIMITS OF EARTH'S & MARS' ATMOSPHERES ETC
ALSO BELOW EVIDENCE OF WHEN MASORETIC BIBLE WAS CORRUPTED
AGE LIMITS OF THE EARTH'S BIOSPHERE
https://saturniancosmology.org/files/th ... 997.03.txt
_By Dr. Robert W. Bass
_Cook is the author of the highly-scientific, very quantitative, and very difficult to read book "Prehistory & Earth Models" (PEM) published in London by Max Parrish & Co in 1966, but now out of print. The book is highly condensed ... but ... in my opinion extremely valuable.
_In 1993 Dr. Cook (a retired Prof. of Metallurgy at the U of Utah) updated PEM by a new book "Scientific Prehistory", 336 pages, many photos, tables, drawings, and graphs, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 93-74404. This is a leather-covered hardbound book. Cook had 150 copies printed and placed in 150 libraries so it CAN be borrowed, but I don't believe that any copies are available for sale.
_In December, 1993, Cook put out a 15-page privately-printed paper which summarizes the main findings (especially the main NOVEL findings in comparison to PEM) of his new book.
_Cook has chapters on ALL of the radiometric dating methods, and in my opinion, demolishes them all. He also computes that IF the cosmic rays are in "nuclear thermodynamic equilibrium" (NTE) then the Solar System and Earth are about 4.5 billion years old.
_However, the surface features of the Earth cannot possibly be more than 100,000 years old for many reasons. For example (& the Editor of "Nature" admitted that this is the biggest anomaly which ever crossed his desk) the radiogenic helium escaping from the Earth's crust at a known rate and escaping into outer space at a known rate "prove" that the present atmosphere cannot be more than 100,000 years old.
_See "Where is the earth's radiogenic helium?," _Nature_, vol. 177 (1957), p. 215.
_Also, radiocarbon is being produced in the stratosphere at a rate TWENTY FIVE PERCENT discrepant with its well-measured absorption into the hydrosphere, lithosphere & biosphere; Cook once showed me correspondence that he had with Willard Libby over 25 years wherein Libby finally admitted he was wrong, the discrepancy is REAL and cannot be ignored. The deduction is that the Earth's atmosphere cannot be more than 30,000 years old, else it would have attained equilibrium already, which it has NOT! In Cook's view, the radiocarbon balance in the earth's atmosphere has attained 73 percent of its equilibrium value in the approximately 5,000 years "since the Flood."
_Physicist Dr. Larry Vardiman has jumped onto the helium-escape problem, and written a 32-page mathematical paper: THE AGE OF THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE: a Study of the Helium Flux through the Atmosphere, 1990 in which he reviews in detail dozens of mainstream attempts to explain away the anomaly, and satisfied me (as a professional mathematician who checked his differential equations) that they have failed, and that the present atmosphere could have been produced in at most 2 million years. (This of course is 2,500 TIMES shorter than the uniformitarian age of the earth.) He quotes mainstream experts as admitting that "this helium escape problem will not go away, and it is unsolved."
Here's a link to The Age of the Earth’s Atmosphere Estimated by its Helium Content
http://static.icr.org/i/pdf/technical/T ... ontent.pdf
The following are some similar but brief search results from https://www.catastrophism.com/intro/sea ... zoom_query
If I get time, I can look up more info from these later.
Scientific Prehistory [Book]
_A Sequel of Prehistory and Earth Models, Melvin A. Cook, Chairman, Cook Associates, Inc.
_helium through the exosphere showing it would take a billion years to loose all helium now in the atmosphere I showed, however, that about 4000 times as much He should be entering the atmosphere from leakage from the crust.(Appendix I and my January 1957 paper in Nature) From this result I concluded that the upper limit of the age of the atmosphere from helium exudation alone is about 100,000 years ignoring all sources of He, aside from exudation from the crust. Some of these other sources, particularly micrometeorites, GCR and secondary nuclide reactions are large enough to reduce this upper limit substantially. Indeed the atmosphere is probably either holding its own or increasing in He
_from the atmosphere, a maximum age can be calculated for the atmosphere of 10,000 to 100,000 years. A calculation of the present run-off of uranium in rivers compared with the abundance in ocean sediments suggests an age for the oceans of 100,000 to 1,000,000 years. Moreover, calculations on the quantities
Collapsing Tests of Time [de Grazia books]
_of the lithosphere require that 10^20 grams of helium should have been released into the atmosphere whereupon some of it would escape into outer space. However, the rate of escape is too slow under solarian conditions to explain why so little helium exists in the atmosphere. Given the amount of helium present there, it has been calculated that the age of the atmosphere must be only 12,000 years . That is, some 12,000 years ago, the atmosphere was reconstituted. Radioactivity was discovered a century ago but time-measures of radioactivity are largely a post-World War II development. Despite the shortness of its life, changes in the field have been numerous and radical
Evidence of Careenings of the Globe [Books]
_From: Cataclysms of the Earth by Hugh Auchincloss Brown.
_This figure, however, is subject to correction. When at Lewiston the Falls were approximately 280 feet higher than they are now, and this indicates that the estimated age of the Niagara River is about 7,000 years. A diminution of forty feet in the perpendicular height of the Falls for every mile that they receded southward is
Mars in Upheaval [Journals] [Aeon]
_From: Aeon I:4 (Jul 1988) Charles Ginenthal.
_years old and thus deny Velikovsky's hypothesis. We, however, will show that Mars' craters could not have ages of even millions of years or hundred of thousand of years, but are only a few thousand years old at
EVIDENCE OF WHEN MASORETIC BIBLE WAS CORRUPTED
Julius Africanus, Septuagint & Masoretic Chronology since the Creation of the World c. 5500 BC
http://www.bible.ca/manuscripts/Julius- ... -221AD.htm
1. Julius Africanus Sextus grew up on Jerusalem and was highly educated.
a. Julius Africanus Sextus created a detailed chronology from Creation to the year 221 AD.
b. His chronological numbers are an exact match to the LXX yet we know he was following the Hebrew Masoretic text because he does not include Cainan.
c. Cainan is found in the New Testament and the LXX Tanakh but not in the Masoretic.
d. This proves that as late as 221 AD the accepted numbers in the Hebrew text had not yet been corrupted and changed by the Jews as witnessed in the modern Masoretic text.
2. In 221 AD, Julius Africanus Sextus was using the Hebrew Masoretic text whose numbers agreed with the longer chronological numbers in the Septuagint exactly and not the shorter numbers in today’s Masoretic Text.
a. He told us he was using a Hebrew not Greek text.
b.His chronology did not include Cainan, which the LXX does include and the modern MT does not.
c. Julius Africanus Sextus calculated creation in 5500 BC.
d.Julius Africanus Sextus also correctly interpreted the end of the 70 weeks of Daniel 9 to happen at the resurrection of Christ.
e.The Hebrew text that Julius Africanus Sextus had before him are identical to the LXX and divergent from the modern Masoretic MT.
f. The fact that Julius Africanus Sextus was using a HEBREW text and not the Greek Septuagint (LXX) is powerful evidence that at this point in history, the numbers in the MT were identical to the LXX.
g. This shows that the corruption of the chronological numbers in the MT text was either very recent in the past (150 AD) or that it was soon to happen.
h.It is also possible that Julius Africanus Sextus produced this chronology from one of the uncorrupted original Hebrew (proto-Masoretic) texts in protest to the new revision by the Jewish corrupters in an effort to counter Christianity.
i. “Fragment 15 reads: “. . . and from their remaining Hebrew histories, they [the Jews] have handed down a period of 5500 years up to the advent of the Word of salvation [Christ] . . .” (Wallraff, Roberto, and Pinggera 2007, 25). Africanus resided in Israel most of his life, and had knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. He even refers to Hebrew as “our” way of speaking (Wallraff, Roberto, and Pinggera 2007, xv–xvi). Thus, Africanus would have been able to compare manuscripts of the LXX to those available to him in Hebrew. It is interesting that Africanus never mentions the numerical divergences between the (proto) MT and LXX in Genesis 5 and 11. Perhaps this is evidence that his particular Hebrew texts contained the higher begetting ages. (Henry Smith, Methuselah, 2017)
3. It is utterly astounding and fascinating that the interpretive chronological errors cancel each other out to present day knowledge so that the creation date (5500 BC) of Julius Africanus Sextus was almost exactly correct to modern scholarship standards.
4. About Julius Africanus Sextus:
a. “Julius was born in Jerusalem and was well educated. In his younger years he traveled extensively, visiting various biblical sites. For a time he lived in Emmaus and eventually went as an ambassador from that city to Rome. He so impressed Emperor Alexander Severus with his learning that the emperor appointed him to build the library at the Pantheon.” (Who’s Who in Christian History, W. R. Godfrey, Julius Africanus Sextus, p918, 1992 AD)
b.“Sextus Julius Africanus, a native of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem), was an official under Septimius Severus. We know that Alexander Severus charged him with organizing a library at Rome in the Pantheon. He was at Alexandria at the school of Heracles and made the acquaintance of Origen. We find him later in Palestine, at Nicopolis, where he died around 240 AD. There are only fragments surviving of the two principal works composed by him: the Chronicles, starting from the creation of the world up to 221 AD, put side by side in a synchronic form biblical dates and events with the events of Greek and Roman history. Julius Africanus, who compiled the work with probably millenarist intentions, fixed the duration of the world at 6,000 years and the birth of Christ at the year 5,500.” (Encyclopedia of Ancient Christianity, Julius Africanus, Volume 2, Page 488, 2014 AD)
c. “His chief work was a ‘History of the World’ (Χρονογραφίαι) to AD 217 in five Books, of which fragments are preserved in Eusebius’ ‘Chronicle’, George Syncellus, and other writers. He held that the world would last for 6,000 years from the Creation and that the Birth of Christ, which he antedated in relation to his own times by three years, took place in the year 5500. His ‘Embroidered Girdles’ (Κεστοί) is an encyclopaedic work in 24 Books, dedicated to Alexander Severus, on natural history, medicine, military science, magic, and miscellaneous subjects. This, too, survives only in fragments. He was also the author of two letters, one to Origen contesting the genuineness of the story of Susanna and the other to a certain Aristides on the genealogies of Christ in Matthew and Luke, both epistles showing good critical powers.” (The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Julius Africanus Sextus, 2005 AD)