Are the planets growing?

Beyond the boundaries of established science an avalanche of exotic ideas compete for our attention. Experts tell us that these ideas should not be permitted to take up the time of working scientists, and for the most part they are surely correct. But what about the gems in the rubble pile? By what ground-rules might we bring extraordinary new possibilities to light? If you have a personal favorite theory, that is in someway related to the Electric Universe, this is where it can be posted.
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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by johnm33 » Sat Feb 06, 2021 11:42 am

From allynh, .
Since I looked at what was down the Kola hole I've been trying to account for all that excess water and hydrogen, my best guess is that over the aeons high energy radiation transmutes the ironic core into heavier and lighter elements, and for as long as the core[s] remain cool nothing much happens just the hydrogen ions which result slowly diffuse upwards. Then comes a kinetic or electric shock which heats the suffused 'rock' and the hydrogen harvests the available oxygen instantly permeating said 'rock' with supercritical water. Then all the ore bodies of hydroreactive metals 'explode', and hydrogen carbon and oxygen begin reactive cycles catalysed by heavy metals, where they dissolve, mix and precipitate all those minerals soluble in supercritical H2O-CO2-CH4 . Thus I suspect that the mantle rather than being mostly composed of molten lava may be composed of supersaturated 'clays' at extreme temperatures. Perhaps some volcanic eruptions happen when two high temperature 'clay' solutions are brought into contact, via gravitational and centrifugal/centripetal processes, and react.
Generally the reactions with hydrogen would be exothermic and would create less dense elements, lower density would explain the ulvz better and since so much of the more recent crust is beneath the Pacific where else? The fact of the Earth being a near perfect sphere after such event[s], and it seems at least one was quite recent, implies a force/field of some type superior to gravitation.

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by allynh » Sat Feb 06, 2021 10:09 pm

I like the way they did the page, showing graphics of what they see with the data. The only thing that I disagree with their diagram is having the iron core of the Earth.

It is more likely that the core is hollow, filled with hydrogen

As time goes by, the images that they create from the data will sharpen what they see.

I suspect that the material around the core would come together in the original shell of that inner hollow Earth if they mapped the reduced size Earth.

- Volcanos, lava, is like a short circuit. Most of the material is "plastic" or like the "clay" that you mentioned.

- Transmutation, Low Energy Nuclear Reaction(LENR), catalyzed by the surrounding material, generates all of the modern elements in the crust. All built from the hydrogen being created in the core from the aether.

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by spark » Mon Feb 08, 2021 7:16 am

The cores of hollow planets are likely made of solar wind materials ejected from the Sun and Z pinched at the center of all planets forming a plasma core. There are openings at the rotation axis of all planets naturally formed by centrifugal force and expansion of the planets. Materials in the solar wind is electromagnetically pulled to the center of planets through polar openings delivering charged, radioactive and ionized matter ejected from the Sun via solar wind to feed and sustain the plasma cores of all planets.

Centrifugal force creating opening at rotation axis: In micro gravity: On earth:

North Polar Opening of Mars observed by Hubble telescope: ... confirmed/

Plasma Core of Jupiter observed by Cassini Spacecraft through North Polar Opening of Jupiter: ... seen_from/

Fractal Nature: ... thplanets/

Electric Gravity theory by Wal Thornhill: ... ic_hollow/

Repulsive gravity inside planets and centrifugal force would work together. The oblate spheroid shell is pressurized between inner repulsive gravity and outer attractive gravity. If one were to reach between the shell, somewhere around 1500 kilometer below the surface, one would experience tremendous heat and pressure but also microgravity. Center of planet would be the another place where gravity would be zero. So there are two places inside all planets where gravity nulls. If one were to reach the inner surface of the shell, atmospheric pressure and heat here would be the same as on the outer surface of earth where we live due to polar openings connecting both atmospheres via polar vortex. From inner surface of the shell, pressure would continue to slowly decrease until one reaches almost at the center of earth. At the center of earth and all other planets, pressure would again increase due to electromagnetic Z pinching effect which maintains the plasma core which spins faster than the shell and also provides light and heat to inner surface of the shell.

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by allynh » Wed May 12, 2021 7:55 pm

This is the latest lecture by Maxlow.

Expansion Tectonics: BLIND FAITH with Dr. James Maxlow

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by allynh » Thu Aug 12, 2021 4:34 pm

The discovery of pterosaur fossil shows prehistoric reptile was close to 'a real-life dragon' ... /100356798
Yesterday at 2:12am
Scientists have discovered a new species of a prehistoric flying reptile in outback Queensland, describing it as the closest thing we have to Australia's very own dragon.

The pterosaur, named Thapunngaka shawi, is the largest of its kind found in Australia.

With an estimated wingspan of seven metres, the reptile once soared above the vast ancient Eromanga sea, which covered much of western Queensland during the age of the dinosaurs.

University of Queensland (UQ) researchers have published their findings in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.

The pterosaur fossil — a lower jaw bone — was discovered in a quarry near Richmond in 2011 by Len Shaw, a local fossicker who had been "scratching around" in the area for decades.

Mr Shaw recognised it as something significant and called Paul Stumkat, the then-curator at Richmond's Kronosaurus Korner marine fossil museum and co-author of the research paper to help to excavate it. Mr Stumkat recognised it belonged to a pterosaur and prepared the specimen in the museum prior to it being studied.

The discovery of a new pterosaur species follows the official recognition of Australia's largest dinosaur species in June 2021.

The Australotitan cooperensis or "southern titan" sauropod would have been up to 6.5 metres tall and 30 metres long and is among the biggest dinosaurs in the world.

Its bones were found near Cooper Creek in central west Queensland in 2006.

'A fearsome beast'

The pterosaur fossil remained a mystery for a decade after Mr Shaw found it. It may have stayed that way for longer if researcher Tim Richards had stuck with his acting career.

The NIDA graduate, who performed on stage with Cate Blanchett in A Streetcar Named Desire in 2009 and played Pumbaa in the first Australian tour of The Lion King, became a paleontologist in 2015.

A chance meeting with Dr Patrick Smith, then the curator of the Kronosaurus Korner museum, at a Palaeo Down Under conference in Adelaide in 2016 led Mr Richards to the ancient jaw that was held in a drawer at the Richmond museum.

A large piece of Thapunngaka shawi jaw bone next to a ruler. ... f2e3407189

The fossil remained a mystery for a decade before Tim Richards heard about its existence.(
Supplied: University of Queensland
Mr Richards went on to lead the UQ Dinosaur Lab research team that analysed the fossil.

"The more I worked on it, I realised we had never seen some of the anatomical features before and thought this must be something new," he said.

"It's the closest thing we have to a real-life dragon.

"It would have been a fearsome beast with a spear-like mouth and a wingspan around seven metres.

"It was essentially just a skull with a long neck, bolted onto a pair of long wings.

"This thing would have been quite savage.

"It would have cast a great shadow over some quivering little dinosaur that wouldn't have heard it until it was too late."

Mr Richards said the skull alone would have been just over a metre long and contained around 40 teeth, perfectly suited to grasping the many fish known to inhabit Queensland's no-longer-existent Eromanga Sea.

"It was nothing like a bird or even a bat," he said.

"Pterosaurs were a successful and diverse group of reptiles. The very first back-boned animals to take a stab at powered flight."

A black and white graphic comparing the size of Thapunngaka shawi to an eagle and a hang glider. ... 695d01420a

This graphic shows how big Thapunngaka shawi was compared to an eagle and a hang glider.(
Supplied: University of Queensland
The new species belongs to a group of pterosaurs known as Anhanguerians, which inhabited every continent during the latter part of the time of the dinosaurs.

Their fossilised remains are rare and often poorly preserved because pterosaurs had thin-walled and relatively hollow bones to enable powerful flight.

"It's quite amazing [that] fossils of these animals exist at all," Mr Richards said.

"By world standards, the Australian pterosaur record is poor but the discovery of Thapunngaka contributes greatly to our understanding of Australian pterosaur diversity."

Mr Richards is currently researching other pterosaur fossils found at Richmond.

"We are not sure if they are new (species) and they may be too fragmentary to be able to determine the species," he said.

Shaw's spear mouth

Thapunngaka shawi is only the third species of Anhanguerian pterosaur discovered in Australia — all of which have been found in western Queensland.

Dr Steven Salisbury, the co-author of the research paper, said this new species is striking for the massive size of the bony crest on its lower jaw.

"These crests probably played a role in the flight dynamics of these creatures and hopefully future research will deliver more definitive answers," Dr Salisbury said.

Australia's newly recognised pterosaur species remains at the Kronosaurus Korner museum in Richmond. It now takes pride of place in a display case and its label has been updated from "pterosaur ad indeterminatum" (indeterminate pterosaur).

The name of the new species honours the First Nations peoples of the Richmond area where the fossil was found, incorporating words from the now-extinct language of the Wanamara Nation.

"The genus name, Thapunngaka, incorporates thapun and ngaka, the Wanamara words for 'spear' and 'mouth', respectively," Dr Salisbury said.

"The species name, shawi, honours the fossil's discoverer Len Shaw, so the name means 'Shaw's spear mouth'."

Mr Richards paid tribute to Mr Shaw.

"He had the nous to know it was scientifically important and called in the museum," he said.

"Hats off to Len because unfortunately people find stuff and it ends up on someone's mantlepiece. The science world will never hear about it and the world won't know about it.

"You can't research stuff that's on someone's mantlepiece."

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by johnm33 » Wed Sep 22, 2021 10:49 am

If the Earth was stable for a long enough period the whole mantle and near surface would become suffused with hydrogen ions/protons, given Wal Thornhills explanation of gravity, would these hydrogen ions affect the downward 'pull' on electrons sufficiently to effectively reduce gravity. In this scenario I'm imagining the interia has cooled sufficiently to be unreactive and only slowing Earths orbital or rotational speed would supply enough diffuse heat to begin a reactive phase.

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by allynh » Tue Oct 26, 2021 1:04 am

Keep an eye on this.

It is an example of an "Atmospheric River" that I have mentioned in the past in Forum 2.0. I have two posts about an ARkStorm that flooded California over a century ago. Links after the article.

An ‘extreme and possible historic atmospheric river’ is battering California
Copious rainfall and many feet of mountain snow are expected in the parched state ... er-soaked/
Atmospheric rivers are long, narrow swaths of exceptionally moist air, sometimes sourced from the tropics, that can produce excessive amounts of precipitation.

“It will be a wild 24 to 36 hours across northern California as we will see an extreme and possible historic atmospheric river push through the region,” wrote the National Weather Service in Sacramento, calling it a “dangerous, high-impact weather system.”

Flash flood watches are up for most of Central and Northern California, blanketing some of the same areas that went upward of six months without a stitch of measurable rain. Sacramento recorded its first 0.01 inches of rain last week since March 19, capping off a record-setting 222 days without precipitation. Now it is bracing for more than half a foot of rain and flooding.

Through early evening local time Sunday, Sacramento had received more than 4 inches of rain, topping its Oct. 24 daily record. To its west, more than 6 inches of rain had fallen in Santa Rosa, where flash flooding was occurring.

Between 3 and 4 inches were reported in San Francisco and Oakland, which clocked wind gusts up to 60 mph. Around 160,000 customers were without power in California, mostly around the Bay Area due to the combination of wind and rain.

A large truck was flipped over on the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge on Oct. 24 as heavy rain and intense winds slammed the Bay Area. (@TheRealJFeld via Spectee)
The drenching rain prompted flood advisories in much of the Bay Area, with numerous reports of high water.

Rainfall totals in Marin County just north of San Francisco had surpassed a foot in some areas.

The National Weather Service declared rare “high risk” of excessive rainfall for parts of Northern California, referring to the potential for “life-threatening flash floods and mudslides.” The threat is maximized over burn scars left by wildfires since 2018.

Strong, gusty winds will pervade even outside of thunderstorms, particularly in the mountains, where extreme snowfall is expected. Parts of the Sierra Nevada will measure snow by the foot, while wind gusts over 100 mph have been clocked on some peaks.

Videos posted to social media on Oct. 24 showed storm damage and flooding in California and Oregon as an “atmospheric river” pummeled the region. (The Washington Post)
The heavy precipitation has essentially ended the fire season in central and northern California, with most of the major fire complexes 90 to 100 percent contained as of Sunday evening.

The offshore storm system instigating the deluge set a record as an exceptionally intense “bomb cyclone,” with minimum air pressures rivaling those of Hurricane Sandy in 2012.

On Sunday evening, the parent storm system was located about three hundred miles due west of the Washington-Oregon border, low pressure swirling a rich stream of moisture from the tropical Pacific north of Hawaii into the California coastline. Moderate to heavy rain was located from San Jose to Reno, running through both San Francisco and Sacramento, with a nonstop stream of drenching moisture continuing to charge ashore.

Weather models indicate that the atmospheric river will remain aimed at the Bay Area before thinning and sliding down the coastline on Monday.

Atmospheric rivers are rated on their integrated water vapor transport, or a measure of how much moisture they are transporting over a given distance. Nearly a ton and a half of water is moving over every one-meter cross section of the atmospheric river each second, which makes this event a Level 5 on the scale devised by the Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes in La Jolla.

Atmospheric rivers that drench the West Coast are now rated on 1 to 5 scale like hurricanes

Atmospheric rivers carry most of their moisture at the mid-levels of the atmosphere, meaning the greatest rain and snow totals will be in the higher terrain. Rainfall rates could top an inch per hour, with snow falling at nearly six inches per hour above the freezing line.

Impressive, and, in some spots, problematic rainfall totals are on the way for Northern and Central California just days after slightly tamer atmospheric rivers laid the groundwork for flooding. Up to 1.39 inches fell on Amador County east of Sacramento on Saturday, but the real rain didn’t pick up in areal coverage or intensity until very early Sunday.

Downtown San Francisco saw roughly two inches out of the first set of atmospheric rivers, quadrupling this month’s performance compared with an average October.

There’s a decent chance that Oakland sees a record “PWAT,” or precipitable water value, in a Sunday weather balloon launch. PWATs describe column-integrated moisture, or how much water is present in a column of atmosphere.

A general five to eight inches of rainfall is expected in the higher elevations of the Coastal Ranges with up to a foot possible in the Sierra Nevada. The lowlands of the Central Valley may see comparatively lesser amounts, generally between two and five inches, but that’s still remarkable considering the recent half-year spate of no rainfall. The National Weather Service in Sacramento is forecasting half a foot there.

The same moisture could translate to more than four feet of snow in the Sierra Nevada, mainly at elevations above 8,000 feet, where winter storm warnings are in effect. Below that level, mostly rain is expected; however, the rain may change to snow before ending on Monday down to about 5,000 feet in elevation. Near mountain peaks, winds could gust over 100 mph.

The Weather Prediction Center issued a “high risk” of excessive rainfall and flash flooding in the northern Sierra Nevada on the “upslope,” or west-facing side. That’s where moisture-loaded air will be forced up the mountains, cooling, condensing and ridding itself of humidity.

The National Weather Service has cautioned that there’s a moderate risk of mudslides with this system, particularly in the mountains.

The ground in California is mostly starved of moisture and can more efficiently manage rainfall, a small token of good news. That said, intense rainfall rates in the heaviest bands, which may also include some thunder and lightning, could overwhelm soils and quickly brew concern.

Given the widespread heavy rain and predictions of more to come, the risk of debris flows in areas recently affected by wildfires is high. A combined 6.7 million acres have burned in the past two years, much of that in Northern California.

The threat remains greatest for the Dixie and Caldor burn areas because of the recent and severe nature of the fires, the steep terrain, and forecast extreme rainfall overlapping with the fire footprints. While many of this year’s fires did not burn near densely populated areas, small and remote communities are at risk, as are transportation corridors, such as Highway 50 near the Caldor Fire.

On Sunday morning, the Weather Service in Sacramento issued a flash-flood and debris-flow warnings for both the Dixie and Caldor burn areas, where it received reports of debris flows.

During the evening, a similar warning was issued for the River Fire area.

Mudslides and debris flows are still possible on areas burned in the 2020 wildfires, including those in the San Francisco Bay area and on the Central Coast. The Weather Service in Sacramento has issued flash-flood watches for fires dating to 2018.

Jason Kean, a research hydrologist with the U.S. Geological Survey, called some of the rain rates forecast for Sunday “concerning” in terms of the likelihood of initiating mudslides and debris flows.

He also said that the vast area burned by wildfires in Northern California presents a particular challenge because the process is less well understood there than it is for Southern California, where debris flows that follow wildfires are historically much more common.

“This just exposes huge terrain that we didn’t have before,” he said.

With the forecast impacts escalating in the last few days, weather offices have stepped up messaging for Sunday’s storm. Officials have issued evacuation warnings, asking residents of several counties to prepare to evacuate. Preemptive evacuation orders have been issued in parts of Santa Cruz and Santa Barbara counties.

Having a storm of this magnitude so early in the season means that there has been less time to assess and plan for post-fire hazards. Recently burned slopes are also more susceptible to flooding and erosion.

Amy East, a research geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Santa Cruz was in the field studying the Dixie and Caldor fires last week. “The early timing of such a major storm means that the 2021 burn scars have had very little opportunity yet for vegetation recovery,” she wrote in an email. “The Dixie Fire is still smoldering, and that area is showing only the very beginning of plant regrowth.”

A record-setting ‘bomb cyclone’

The storm offshore of the Pacific Northwest driving this atmospheric river into the coastline intensified at a staggering rate. Meteorologists refer to a storm as a “bomb” if its minimum central air pressure drops by 24 millibars or more in 24 hours, signifying intense and speedy “deepening.” That sucks in more air and allows the storm to intensify.

This particular storm strengthened at twice that rate as a “double bomb” with its pressure tanking to 942.5 millibars, which made it the strongest on record its location.

Over the mainland United States, such low atmospheric pressure is practically unheard of. Even on the East Coast, where cyclones regularly strengthen into massive nor’easters, pressures seldom fall this low. The powerful March 1993 “superstorm,” among the most intense and damaging storms ever to strike the United States, bottomed out at “only” 960 millibars.

This Pacific storm’s air pressure may drop nearly as low as Hurricane Sandy’s in 2012, which dipped to 940 millibars.

Along the West Coast, monumental low-pressure systems generally weaken before landfall; this storm will be no exception. That being said, a 963 millibar pressure was recorded in coastal Washington during a destructive December 1995 event; while weaker than Sunday’s Pacific low, the 1995 storm’s proximity to land allowed it to cause tremendous damage.
Atmospheric river


This is a link to Forum 2.0 where I mentioned ARkStorm in the past. ... 55#p117083

And the prior link to that as well. ... 039#p47712

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by spark » Tue Oct 26, 2021 3:04 am

How i think earth and its plasma core possibly gains mass slowly internally.
Earth's mostly gaseous plasma core at z-pinch receives matter via birkeland current plasma filaments and solar wind coming from the Sun which enters the polar openings of the earth located at the rotation axis, resulting in earth's plasma core slowly growing in size as well as powered by it.
The heavier materials ejected from plasma core slowly rain down on earth's 3000 km thick shell equatorially from the fast rotating plasma core due to centrifugal force and inverted gravity inside the earth. This causes earth's 3000 km thick shell which is orbiting the plasma core at 23.44 degrees axial tilt, slowly gain mass as the raining heavier material accumulates on the inner surface of the shell creating layers, eventually leading to the cracking and expansion of the shell. Plasma core generates earths magnetic field and rotates at axial tilt of 11.7 degrees.
Almost all matter slowly received by earth originates from Sun's solar wind and birkeland current plasma filaments.

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by allynh » Tue Oct 26, 2021 7:46 pm


Before we worry about "how" the planets are growing, we have to see that they are.

James Maxlow's new book should be out come December.

Beyond Plate Tectonics by James Maxlow ... 09JDG2K4R/

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by allynh » Tue Nov 23, 2021 8:01 pm

After reading the series of Thunderbolt articles by Andrew Hall, I suspect that this was the result of a plasma storm rather than a comet. The fact that it occurred at the same time the large mammals died out, indicates this was part of the electrical event where the Earth grew at least 10% to 15%.

BTW, Andrew Halls' articles are deeply terrifying. I like that.

Did a Comet Explode Over South America 12,000 Years Ago? ... years-ago/
Huge chunks and twisted slabs of dark glass are strewn across a patch of the Chilean Atacama Desert. Do they have a cosmic origin?

Glass slabs in the Atacama
Concentration of glassy slabs (dark masses) at Quebrada de Chipana.
P. Schultz et al. / Geology 2021

A decade ago, researchers discovered huge chunks and slabs of dark green and black glass strewn across a 75 kilometer–long swath of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. New evidence suggests they were created by an incoming fireball.

The glass pieces are uncannily similar to trinitite, the glassy mineral forged by the heat of the first atomic bomb test in the New Mexico desert in 1945. Carbon-14 dating of organic matter in soil directly beneath and in contact with the glass indicated that the chunks formed about 12,000 years ago, when the area was a grassy wetland dotted with trees.

Early investigators speculated that intense grassfires melted sandy soil to create the vast fields of glass. But new findings by a team led by Peter Schulz of Brown University disprove that explanation. Reporting November 2nd in Geology, the team instead suggests a far more violent — and cosmic — origin.

Schultz and his colleagues subjected 300 glass samples, collected at widely separated sites, to a comprehensive chemical analysis. They found that grains of the mineral zircon (zirconium silicate) embedded in the glass had been partially converted into baddeleyite, a rare form of essentially pure zirconium oxide. That transformation requires temperatures exceeding 1,670°C (3,040°F), much hotter than any grass fire.

Impact glass ... .00-PM.png
Detailed images of zircon inclusions in the impact glass show that some of the zirconium silicate has transformed into zirconium oxide, indicating extreme heat.
Schultz et al. / Geology 2021

Volcanic eruptions can transport baddeleyite to the surface from the upper mantle, where it coats zircon particles in the diamond-bearing rock kimberlite. Yet there’s no evidence that volcanic activity created the Atacama Desert glass.

The glass is also riddled with inclusions of several “alien” minerals found in samples of Comet Wild 2, which NASA’s Stardust mission retrieved in 2006. Many of the slabs appear twisted and folded, as if subjected to tornado-force winds while molten.

To Schultz and his colleagues, the chemical signature of exceptionally high temperatures, the otherworldly composition of the entrained particles, the contorted forms of many glass shards, and the absence of an impact crater are compelling evidence that a cosmic intruder exploded over South America at an altitude of less than a mile. The fireball’s intense radiant heat fused the underlying soil into molten glass; a series of blast waves then sheared and tossed the glass about before it solidified.

Twisted glass slab ... .01-PM.png
This twisted glass slab was found in Puquio de Núñez.
P. Schultz et al. / Geology 2021

The elongated shape of the glass field may be the result of a single cometary body with a grazing trajectory or a cluster of comet fragments that entered the atmosphere at a higher angle, like the collision of tidally disrupted Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter in 1994. According to Schultz, the energy of the airburst over Chile dwarfed the 12-megaton Tunguska Event that felled 80 million trees in a remote Siberian wilderness in 1908.

The age of the Atacama Desert glass coincides with the re-advance of glaciers in the Andes and the sudden disappearance of more than 80% of the large mammals in South America. Schultz doesn’t claim a direct causal link to these climate and extinction events, but he does find the timing intriguing.

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by allynh » Mon Nov 29, 2021 7:37 pm


Weird Tracks in Texas Indicate Giant Sauropods Walking on Their Front Feet Only ... -feet-only
They were the largest animals to ever walk the Earth: sauropods, a dinosaur clade of such immense size and stature, they're sometimes dubbed 'thunder lizards'.

These towering hulks – including Brontosaurus, Brachiosaurus, and Diplodocus among others – needed four thick, powerful legs to support and transport their massive bodies. At least, most of the time. Perhaps.

Some mysterious, ancient tracks described in a 2019 study could offer fresh support for a disputed view in paleontology: that these lumbering giants sometimes got around on two legs, not four, belying what their quadruped status (and simple physics) would seem to demand.

010 sauropods 2 ... pods-1.jpg
Sauropod footprints at the Coffee Hollow A-Male trackways. (Heritage Museum of the Texas Hill Country)

As strange as it might sound, this hypothesis dates back several decades, to when fossil researcher Roland T. Bird identified some unusual dinosaur tracks laid down on ranch grounds in the county of Bandera, Texas.

What made the tracks unusual was that the marks were manus only, referring to footprint impressions made by front limbs, not the rear limbs (known as pes).

"Without a doubt made by a sauropod, but as I interpret them, made by an individual while swimming," Bird wrote in a letter in 1940.

"They were all typical forefeet impressions as if the animal had just been barely kicking bottom."

With time, Bird's interpretation of these manus-only tracks fell out of favor, as modern paleontology came to realize that sauropods were primarily land animals, not aquatic as was once thought.

The alternative view to explain manus-only tracks like this is that the forefeet of sauropods (supporting more of the animals' body weight) are all that leaves track marks on certain kinds of ground surfaces, as the rear limbs, supporting less weight, leave less impression on soil and sediment.

010 sauropods 2 ... pods-2.jpg
"A whimsical exploration of the punting hypothesis." (Illustration by R.T. Bakker/Farlow et al., Ichnos, 2019)

While that might now be the generally preferred interpretation of manus-only sauropod tracks, the case for dinosaurs treading through shallow, shoulder-height bodies of water on their front limbs (with their rear limbs not reaching the ground) has never been definitively ruled out.

A series of sauropod tracks in Texas gave paleontologists a chance to reconsider the merits of the arguments.

The marks were first identified in 2007 in a limestone quarry called the Coffee Hollow, which makes up part of the Glen Rose Formation, a geological site that preserves numerous dinosaur footprints dating back approximately 110 million years ago (within the Cretaceous period).

Three different trails of parallel, manus-only sauropod trackways were investigated at the site by teams from Purdue University Fort Wayne and the Houston Museum of Natural Sciences, with several dozen individual footprints being preserved for study (before the surface layers were removed for commercial purposes).

While we don't know for sure what kind of sauropods left these manus-only marks, the researchers highlighted the possibility that it could be a different kind of dinosaur to those responsible for other manus-only footprints previously seen in the Glen Rose Formation.

Given the size of the footprints (up to about 70 centimeters [27.5 inches] long and wide), it is likely the tracks belonged to larger kinds of sauropods, and the trackmarks look to be 'true tracks' left on the upper surface, as opposed to undertracks (impressions made in lower layers of sediment).

As for whether the marks support the idea of differential foot pressure or of "unusual behavior" (left by dinosaurs semi-swimming, or punting through shallow water), the researchers said it's impossible to be sure, but acknowledge what is perhaps more likely, given the weight of what other fossil evidence tends to suggest.

"Greater differential pressure exerted on the substrate by the forefeet than the hindfeet probably explains the Coffee Hollow trackways, like other manus-only sauropod trackways, but the possibility that they indicate unusual locomotion cannot at present be ruled out," the authors wrote in their paper.

"Although hypothesized unusual behavior would not necessarily involve 'swimming', it is worth considering the possibility that R.T. Bird might have been correct in thinking that (at least some?) Glen Rose Formation manus-only sauropod trackways were made by dinosaurs that were wading in water deep enough for their makers to punt, pulling themselves along by their forefeet, while their hind legs floated above the bottom."

Ultimately, the team said future discoveries will be needed to settle the matter – which means the punting sauropod still has a chance to wade into reality.

The findings are reported in Ichnos.

A version of this story was first published in January 2020.

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by allynh » Wed Dec 22, 2021 10:46 pm

James Maxlow's new book is available now.

Beyond Plate Tectonics by James Maxlow ... 09JDG2K4R/

It is nice to be able to point to a real book that explains things. The ebook is priced right.

Then here is another classic article, where they claim "higher oxygen levels"(which would lead to fires) or now they are saying "high-nutrient diet". Right.

Millipedes ‘as big as cars’ once roamed Northern England, fossil find reveals
Sarah Collins

The fossil – the remains of a creature called Arthropleura – dates from the Carboniferous Period, about 326 million years ago, over 100 million years before the Age of Dinosaurs. The fossil reveals that Arthropleura was the largest-known invertebrate animal of all time, larger than the ancient sea scorpions that were the previous record holders.

The specimen, found on a Northumberland beach about 40 miles north of Newcastle, is made up of multiple articulated exoskeleton segments, broadly similar in form to modern millipedes. It is just the third such fossil ever found. It is also the oldest and largest: the segment is about 75 centimetres long, while the original creature is estimated to have measured around 2.7 metres long and weighed around 50 kilograms. The results are reported in the Journal of the Geological Society. ... 4x426.jpeg

Credit: J.W. Schneider. TU Bergakademie Freiberg

The fossil was discovered in January 2018 in a large block of sandstone that had fallen from a cliff to the beach at Howick Bay in Northumberland. “It was a complete fluke of a discovery,” said Dr Neil Davies from Cambridge’s Department of Earth Sciences, the paper’s lead author. “The way the boulder had fallen, it had cracked open and perfectly exposed the fossil, which one of our former PhD students happened to spot when walking by.”

Unlike the cool and wet weather associated with the region today, Northumberland had a more tropical climate in the Carboniferous Period, when Great Britain lay near the Equator. Invertebrates and early amphibians lived off the scattered vegetation around a series of creeks and rivers. The specimen identified by the researchers was found in a fossilised river channel: it was likely a moulted segment of the Arthropleura’s exoskeleton that filled with sand, preserving it for hundreds of millions of years.

The fossil was extracted in May 2018 with permission from Natural England and the landowners, the Howick Estate. “It was an incredibly exciting find, but the fossil is so large it took four of us to carry it up the cliff face,” said Davies.

The fossil was brought back to Cambridge so that it could be examined in detail. It was compared with all previous records and revealed new information about the animal’s habitat and evolution. The animal can be seen to have only existed in places that were once located at the Equator, such as Great Britain during the Carboniferous. Previous reconstructions have suggested that the animal lived in coal swamps, but this specimen showed Arthropleura preferred open woodland habitats near the coast.

There are only two other known Arthropleura fossils, both from Germany, and both much smaller than the new specimen. Although this is the largest Arthropleura fossil skeleton ever found, there is still much to learn about these creatures. “Finding these giant millipede fossils is rare, because once they died, their bodies tend to disarticulate, so it’s likely that the fossil is a moulted carapace that the animal shed as it grew,” said Davies. “We have not yet found a fossilised head, so it’s difficult to know everything about them.”

The great size of Arthropleura has previously been attributed to a peak in atmospheric oxygen during the late Carboniferous and Permian periods, but because the new fossil comes from rocks deposited before this peak, it shows that oxygen cannot be the only explanation.

The researchers believe that to get to such a large size, Arthropleura must have had a high-nutrient diet. “While we can’t know for sure what they ate, there were plenty of nutritious nuts and seeds available in the leaf litter at the time, and they may even have been predators that fed off other invertebrates and even small vertebrates such as amphibians,” said Davies.

Arthropleura animals crawled around Earth’s equatorial region for around 45 million years, before going extinct during the Permian period. The cause of their extinction is uncertain, but could be due to global warming that made the climate too dry for them to survive, or to the rise of reptiles, who out-competed them for food and soon dominated the same habitats.

The fossil will go on public display at Cambridge’s Sedgwick Museum in the New Year.

Neil Davies is a Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge. The research was supported in part by the Natural Environment Research Council.

Neil S. Davies et al. ‘The largest arthropod in Earth history: insights from newly discovered Arthropleura remains (Serpukhovian Stainmore Formation, Northumberland, England).’ Journal of the Geological Society (2021). DOI: 10.1144/jgs2021-115

All photographs credit: Neil Davies

The text in this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by spark » Tue Dec 28, 2021 10:37 am

Earth not only expanded but also shrunk thus raising the sea level.

Part 1:
Part 2:

If Earth once had lower gravity when it was orbiting brown dwarf star Saturn and was later captured by the Sun which caused increase in gravity on Earth due to Sun's more powerful electrical environment, it could cause Earth to shrink to some extent.

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by KTMKim » Sat Jan 01, 2022 3:44 pm

spark wrote:
Mon Feb 08, 2021 7:16 am
The cores of hollow planets are likely made of solar wind materials ejected from the Sun and Z pinched at the center of all planets forming a plasma core. There are openings at the rotation axis of all planets naturally formed by centrifugal force and expansion of the planets. Materials in the solar wind is electromagnetically pulled to the center of planets through polar openings delivering charged, radioactive and ionized matter ejected from the Sun via solar wind to feed and sustain the plasma cores of all planets.
These topics have blown my mind for decades. And I am glad EU addresses them. I remember Wal mentioning in a talk that he has suspicions of the earth being hollow as well, have to wait to hear more on that from him.

This concept finally holds enough water to consider a more literal interpretation of previous ‘myth. It encourages more digging in topics such as Thule Society and what the Germans may have accomplished with Haunebu craft, Neuschwabenland, and travel into the deeper spaces of the earth.

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Re: Are the planets growing?

Unread post by allynh » Mon Jan 03, 2022 9:56 pm

This is an interesting video that makes it more obvious that pterosaurs could not fly in the present, with our 1g gravity.

- How can people look at the reality of the skeletons Today and not see that they are impossible in this gravity.

Seeing the video and discussing the attempt to ride a pterosaur misses the point that the person would be swallowed whole as well. Yikes!

It’s a massive, winged Cretaceous beast – could a human ride one? ... n-ride-one
The Late Cretaceous flying reptiles known as pterosaurs were contemporaries and close relatives of dinosaurs and, as far as we know, the first vertebrates to master powered flight. They came in a variety of sizes, from tiny bats to small planes. When you see the skeleton of a massive one – with a wingspan up to 39 feet (nearly 12 metres) – in a natural history museum, you might wonder how such a creature ever left the ground. Perhaps no one has spent more time pondering this question than Liz Martin-Silverstone, a palaeontologist at the University of Bristol in the UK, who specialises in biomechanics. This short video from the Sicily-based filmmaker Pierangelo Pirak uses Martin-Silverstone’s expertise in pterosaur flight as a springboard for a perhaps unanswerable, but still fun-to-ponder question – would it be possible for a human to ride one?
Here is the same video on YouTube.

How to ride a pterosaur, according to science

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