The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

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Brigit
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The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by Brigit » Tue Jun 08, 2021 9:14 pm

I came across an post by allynh which I think is a very important point and worth exploring further.

by allynh » Sun Jun 06, 2021 3:52 pm

"BTW, Personally, I got the J&J vaccine in April and had general aches and pains in my muscles for about a month. Then after a month I had flu like symptoms for a couple of days. Heavy aches and pains in my muscles. Real pain in my back and legs. I ignored what was happening and did not take my temp until night. I had a three degree temp the first day, two degrees the next with less muscle ache. Fine the third day.

The concept that the spikes are the source of the problems is interesting."


I am sorry about this month-long period of general aches and pains, but I am really happy to hear about allynh's recovery! Thank you for sharing your experience, allynh, there is a lot we may learn from it.

My own son chose to get the Pf izer shots, and after the second dose he was admitted to the hospital with severe chest pains. I was very thankful that he went to the ER that very night, and was being watched carefully. The tests revealed that he was indeed experiencing heart damage. He was discharged the next day.

It's hard to keep from crying. When I pick myself up, perhaps we can look into the action of the spike protein on the ACE-2 receptors.
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
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Re: The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by Brigit » Tue Jun 08, 2021 11:03 pm

I would like to frame this whole discussion in terms of exploring ligands and receptors generally, as well as discuss this particular spike (S) protein, how it is created, and how it binds to the ACE-2 receptors. Which cells in the human body have these ACE-2 receptors on their surfaces?

It turns out that multiple vital systems in the body are well-populated by ACE-2 receptors, including the reproductive system and the cardiovascular system.

At rough glance, the distress and inflammation of heart that my son experienced appears to be his own body's response to the spike protein having bound itself to the receptors in his heart tissues. His body responded as if it was under the extreme stress of a system-wide attack, by swelling, fever, and inflammation, but tragically it affected his heart in particular. He is a hale and healthy young man of 21. There is no pre-existing condition, and no reason for him to have sudden myocarditis, indicated by the sharp pain, the ekg and the elevated troponin levels.
  • ref: Troponin Levels "Normally, troponin is present in very small to undetectable quantities in the blood. When there is damage to heart muscle cells, troponin is released into the blood. The more damage there is, the greater the concentration in the blood. Primarily, troponin tests are used to help determine if an individual has suffered a heart attack. They may also be helpful in evaluating someone for other forms of heart injury."
I have found another widespread reaction to these experimental DNA and mRNA medications, and that is that many women are experiencing changed periods and excessive bleeding after receiving the second dose. In my view, it is a similar response of the body to the extreme stress of the blocked ACE-2 receptors, this time in the reproductive system.
  • ref: "C19 and Periods: Does the C Vacc ine Change Your Period" Channel: Natalie Crawford
    The comments at the time I viewed this showed quite a lot of women had disrupted cycles and bleeding.
Inflammation, aching, pain, swelling and fever are all means the body uses when it is trying to rid itself of a pathogen. In this case, it is responding by attacking its own cells because of the synthetic peptide that has blocked the ACE-2 receptors in many areas of the body.

This is an initial impression and leads to more questions.
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
~Homer

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Re: The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by Brigit » Fri Jun 25, 2021 10:40 pm

Perhaps a bit too close to current events.

The topic of ligand and receptor fits is still a wonderful area of microbiology to explore.

I think it's a lot more fun if you are not scrambling to try to figure out what the baddies are up to. It is much nicer to learn about how something works, I mean really works, when nothing is wrong.
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
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Re: The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by MotionTheory » Sat Jun 26, 2021 11:11 pm

Likely that vaccine shot was partially intravascular, thus lead to excessive heart vasal constriction and oxidative stress then eventual to extremity myocardium hypoxia (unfold similar to a heart attack, except cellular necrosis are distributed throughout the heart rather than localized per particular affected arterial branch). Likely a key factor: Occupied/busy ACE-2 allows high accumulation of angiotensin II.

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Re: The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by MotionTheory » Wed Jun 30, 2021 10:06 pm

Here is a preprint
2021.06.29: Thrombocytopenia and splenic platelet directed immune responses after intravenous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 administration
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101 ... collection

Intravensous injection of mRNA most likely resulted with different clinical features (bad stuff).

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Re: The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by Brigit » Tue Jul 06, 2021 5:51 pm

Thank you for clarifying that there is possibly a problem related to accidental intravenous injection. I am not very happy about this Motion Theory.


From the summary:

"Here, we employ in vitro and in vivo models to characterize the possible mechanisms of this platelet-targeted autoimmunity. We show that intravenous but not intramuscular injection of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 triggers platelet-adenovirus aggregate formation and platelet activation."

I am not quite able to grasp what is meant by "employing a model" here. There may be a bit too much of this going on in science and the way things are going I would not even be surprised at this point if this experimental mRNA & DNA injection is actually partially the result of some computer model output.
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
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Re: The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by Brigit » Tue Jul 06, 2021 6:14 pm

But I'd like to work out a little further what the implications of blocking the ACE-2 receptors are.

As Motion Theory said, "Likely that vaccine shot was partially intravascular, thus lead to excessive heart vasal constriction and oxidative stress then eventual to extremity myocardium hypoxia (unfold similar to a heart attack, except cellular necrosis are distributed throughout the heart rather than localized per particular affected arterial branch). Likely a key factor: Occupied/busy ACE-2 allows high accumulation of angiotensin II."


When the receptors on a cell's surface are occupied by a ligand produced by the body's own endocrine system, it is a perfect fit, and polarizes and depolarizes within a limited time so that the receptor is then cleared and the body carries on its business of maintaining thousands of chemical balances every second of every day.

That is the case for endogenous ligands but not the case quite often for exogenous ligands, such as this protein spike (S1). It may occupy this receptor for much longer than a natural substance.

So we have now two questions to ask: what are the consequences of the high accumulation of angiotensin II? and what are the consequences of blocking the instructions to the cell and its DNA, which are usually delivered by the angiotensin II?
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
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The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by Brigit » Wed Jul 07, 2021 2:06 am

Now because I am a little stubborn I really really don't like to get all of my information from the internet. In my library there is not much on that particular peptide, but I found this:

(Sorry about the descriptive animal experimentation ):


"Is there one kind of peptide that is specific to each emotion? Perhaps. I believe so, but we have a way to go to work this out. In the case of angiotensin, a classical hormone that is also a peptide, we have a good, simple example of the relationship between a neuropeptide and a mood state, and how that mood state can coordinate and integrate what happens in the body with what happens in the brain. It has long been known that angiotensin mediates thirst, so if one implants a tube in the area of a rat's brain that is rich with angiotensin receptors and drops a little angiotensin down the tube, within ten seconds the rat will start to drink water, evien if it is totally sated with water.... Similarly, angiotensin applied to its receptors in the lung or kidney will also cause bodily changes, all of them aimed at conserving water. For example, there will be less water vapor in each breath exhaled from the lung and less water in urine excreted by the kidneys. All systems are working together toward one goal -- more water -- which has been dictated by an emotion (or what the experimental psychologist would call a 'drive state') -- that of thirst."

Candace Pert
Molecules of Emotion
pg 145

Now a more specific and proper search on angiotensin reveals that it is a part of the RAAS, or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, a complex system responsible for regulating the body's blood pressure.

One interesting aspect of this sophisticated biochemical bunch of responses involved in the RAASystem -- which I read from a common sports website -- is that when the body experiences too much fluid, then cells absorb fluid from the blood in order to get the sodium-fluid balance right.

So perhaps that is why there is such a common complaint of swelling, and even a dangerous swelling of the heart? I don't know. Perhaps the body (quite falsely) perceives it has too much water (because of the ACE II blockers), and starts trying to remove some of it?

But there is more. There are ACE blocking drugs which we can look at.
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
~Homer

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Re: The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by MotionTheory » Wed Jul 07, 2021 9:37 pm

My 1st post implied AT-II lead to Oxidative Stress lead to hypoxia of myocardium. A full intravascular shot of (any covid) vaccine would most likely to cause acute multi-organs failure and eventual possible death. Exactly why I wrote accidental 'partial' intravascular injection.

See this frame of (or perhaps watch this) video: https://youtu.be/gzx8LH4Fjic?t=233

ACE & AT are interesting by themselves however low relevancy in context of this thread.

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Re: The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by Brigit » Sat Jul 24, 2021 11:58 pm

by MotionTheory » Wed Jul 07, 2021 2:37 pm
"See this frame of (or perhaps watch this) video:...

ACE & AT are interesting by themselves however low relevancy in context of this thread."


Thanks for the video. It was helpful, but my ears really perked up toward the end when he mentioned the use of nitric oxide. There is a doctor who early on was working with NO to help with respiratory infections. It appears to me that plants and animals all use NO to kill microbes, and what is rather lovely about that is that rainstorms and lightning create a lot of Nitrogen-Oxygen compounds. It is healing and helps our macrophages do their work.

I would start a thread about that but I might start whinging and crying about how certain people have caused NOx to be labeled as a pollutant, when in fact it is everywhere and is a product of lightning discharges in the earth's atmosphere. So to prevent anyone having to experience that, I have not posted about the chemical reactions from lightning arcs in air.

Regarding angiotensin, it's conversion to ACE2, and it's receptors throughout the body, I feel like our searches are only returning C!9 results. That isn't good. What do our ACE2 receptors do every day when they are not under any attack by a fake peptide?
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
~Homer

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The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by Brigit » Mon Jul 26, 2021 10:39 pm

Despite a typo here and there, I have found this article about the Renin-Angiotensin System to be helpful, and I am going to link it for information and discussion:

https://www.precisionhydration.com/perf ... d-balance/

I had to use duckduckgo and play around a bit with my search terms to find anything that treated this subject, because every result involving ACE 2 is either about c!9 or it is about the use of ACE 2 receptor blockers in experimental drugs for a surprising variety of ailments. The spike protein is indeed patented and for some time uses for it have been researched in my view, at rough glance, if I was forced to guess. Not the subject here. We continue talking about how angiotensin/I/II is involved in maintaining the balance of sodium and water in the blood plasma. (:

What is of interest is that this is the system that the mRNA spike protein may interfere with through it's action of blocking the ACE 2 receptors. So let's have a little look.
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
~Homer

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Re: The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by Brigit » Mon Jul 26, 2021 10:45 pm

How are sodium and water balanced in the body?
By Abby Coleman | 10 Minute Read | Medically reviewed by Dr Raj Jutley
Our bodies enjoy balance and will strive for equilibrium to help ensure that our sodium and water levels remain at a constant level. Why link sodium and water together?
Well, the two are a double act...in that water acts to hold the sodium ion in the body, so we must look at the two together when it comes to achieving the correct balance.
But how does the body go about finding that all-important balance? We take a look...
Contents:
How sodium and fluid are balanced in the body
Water balance in the body
Too little water in the body
Too much water in the body
WAY too much water in the body
Sodium balance in the body
Too little sodium in the body
Too much sodium
How sodium and fluid are balanced in the body

The kidneys are our most important homeostatic control point (i.e. a bit like the heating control in your home) for both sodium and water.
The balance happens in the kidneys with sensors from various parts of the body providing feedback with the end goal being preserving the plasma osmolality (saltiness) tightly between 275-300 mOsm/kg and sodium levels between 135-145 mEq/L. Osmolality, by the way, is how much of one substance is dissolved in another substance, and in humans the most important substance contributing to osmolality happens to be sodium.
When plasma volume or sodium concentration gets too high (osmolality increases) [break in text] volume sensors in the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys detect when the body's sodium or water levels get too high, and set in motion processes which lead to their greater excretion through the kidneys.
Last edited by Brigit on Mon Jul 26, 2021 11:26 pm, edited 1 time in total.
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
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Re: The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by Brigit » Mon Jul 26, 2021 10:51 pm

How are sodium and water balanced in the body?
By Abby Coleman | 10 Minute Read | Medically reviewed by Dr Raj Jutley

In contrast, when blood plasma volume or sodium concentration becomes too low (osmolality decreases), the sensors trigger processes which increase their reabsorption through the kidneys.
Both functions are actioned and regulated by the body’s endocrine system - a complex chemical messaging system made up of feedback loops of hormones.
Because osmolality is exquisitely sensitive to the volume changes, any alterations in water has important effects. Which brings us to water balance…
Water balance in the body

Humans are a soggy bunch and water makes up ~50 to 70% of our body mass, depending on our age, gender and body composition.
Water is obtained mostly through consumption but also via our internal metabolism (e.g. the breakdown of glycogen), and it's lost in urine, the gastrointestinal tract, sweat, and through the respiratory tract during breathing.
Put simply, water balance is achieved by ensuring that the water we consume in food and drink is equal to that of excretion.
But what happens when we take on too little or too much water?

Too little water in the body

A decrease in total body water, perhaps due to not drinking enough, excessive urination, sweat production, blood loss, diarrhea or vomiting, pushes the body to find ways of conserving fluids.
Depending on the cause of water loss the body may need to conserve sodium as well.
For instance, blood loss from a trauma will see sodium (in blood) and water (in blood) lost in equal proportion, and the body must try to retain both. Whereas in dehydration you lose proportionately more water than sodium, so the osmolality of your plasma increases and the body must conserve water, but not sodium.
The hormone responsible for regulating the body’s retention of water is the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin.
ADH is secreted by the hypothalamus, a kind of regulator in the brain for many bodily systems in response to an increase in plasma osmolality, decreased blood volume, decreased blood pressure and/or stress. The hormone acts on the nephrons of the kidneys (which basically produce urine, and remove waste and excess substances from the blood) and facilitates greater reabsorption of water by dramatically increasing the water permeability of the cell walls (i.e. how much water those cell walls let through).
As a result, the passive movement (no energy required) of water out of the kidney back into the bloodstream is increased, and the urine produced is small in volume and concentrated.
Last edited by Brigit on Mon Jul 26, 2021 11:31 pm, edited 1 time in total.
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
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Re: The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by Brigit » Mon Jul 26, 2021 10:57 pm

What about thirst?

Whilst the kidneys can conserve water, they can’t do anything about producing more, so for that reason we must drink. Water intake is regulated by thirst; the stimulus for which, like ADH, is an increase in plasma osmolality (as little as 2-3% gives a strong desire to drink) or a decrease in blood volume.
The combined effect of water retention (thanks to our good friend ADH) AND increased water consumption leads to an increase in blood volume and subsequent restoration of fluid balance in the body.
By increasing blood volume, ADH also plays a role in reducing plasma osmolality (and therefore sodium concentration).
Too much water in the body

In a scenario where there is an increase in our total body water, plasma osmolality falls due to the relative decrease in sodium concentration.
So, under these conditions, water moves out of the extracellular fluid into the body cells to try and maintain balance, which causes them to expand.
Receptors within the cells respond to this swelling by signalling to the hypothalamus to slow down the secretion of ADH (‘stop conserving water, we have enough!’).
Less circulating ADH means less aquaporin-2 channels get inserted into the kidneys’ walls and there’s a reduction in the amount of water reabsorbed into the blood. With fewer channels available for removal, a greater volume of water moves undeterred through the kidneys and is subsequently excreted in the urine.
The outcome? A reduced blood plasma volume, an increase in plasma osmolality, and urine which is diluted and large in volume...
WAY too much water in the body

An excessive overconsumption of water can be hugely counterproductive and produce the potentially fatal medical complication of hyponatremia (low sodium concentration of the blood).
There are a few different causes of hyponatremia, but the one which affects athletes most frequently is the dilution of sodium levels driven by drinking TOO MUCH or 'water intoxication'.
In an attempt to restore water balance, the body goes into overdrive pulling water out of the bloodstream and into the body cells, causing them to swell irrationally and damage or destroy cellular structure, thus disrupting normal cellular function. When this occurs in the brain cells the condition can escalate from confusion to seizures, coma or even death.
The risk of hyponatremia is in part why drinking to thirst is pretty sound advice during everyday life and shorter, less intense activities where you’re not sweating much - and also why listening to your body’s signals is important.
Sodium balance in the body

Sodium is the main substance dissolved in the body, so it mostly determines the osmolality of plasma.
Sodium plays a key role in every cell in the body, particularly nerve and muscle function where deficiencies or excesses become noticeable first, There are no body stores for so what you lose through the gut, sweat and urine, you must ingest – as simple as that.
Last edited by Brigit on Mon Jul 26, 2021 11:32 pm, edited 1 time in total.
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
~Homer

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Re: The Ubiquity of ACE-2 Receptors in the Human Body

Unread post by Brigit » Mon Jul 26, 2021 11:16 pm

Just like water, sodium balance is maintained very cleverly by the kidneys adjusting the amount of sodium it filters, reabsorbs and excretes depending on whether the body is in deficit or excess.
Too little sodium in the body

A depletion of sodium, such as through extreme sweating (particularly if a person’s sweat sodium concentration is high) and/or a chronically low sodium diet, gives rise to low plasma volume, which in turn leads to low blood pressures.
These low blood pressures throughout the cardiovascular system are recognised via baroreceptors (pressure sensors in the blood vessels which detect the pressure changes via changes in tension of the walls).
These cause a decrease in the fancily named 'glomerular filtration rate' (the volume of fluid filtered through the kidneys), which is key because the less fluid which passes through the kidneys means less opportunity for sodium to be lost through urinary excretion.
In addition, the fluid which is filtered by the kidney undergoes greater sodium reabsorption. The hormone responsible for regulating this sodium reabsorption is aldosterone, a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal glands. The reabsorbed sodium is followed back into the blood by water and, as a result, blood volume, salt levels and blood pressure all rise.
It’s important to note that aldosterone’s release is regulated by the renin-angiotensin hormonal system (RAS) which is responsible for managing blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as vascular resistance.
In the event of sodium depletion, the kidneys produce renin, a peptide hormone that initiates a hormonal cascade that ultimately produces angiotensin II. It is angiotensin II which, once in the blood, stimulates
the peripheral arteries to tighten and increase cardiac output, resulting in an increase in blood pressure {and]
a decrease in glomerular filtration rate, resulting in water retention
Renin-Angiotensin System
1. Increased renin secretion (from kidneys)
2. Increased plasma renin concentration
3. Increased plasma angiotensin I concentration (from angiotensinogen)
4. Increased plasma angiotensin II concentration
5. Increased aldosterone release (from adrenal cortex)
6. Increased plasma aldosterone concentration
7. Stimulates sodium reabsorption in the kidney...
This is quite a meaty and complex topic area (congratulations if you made it this far in the blog), but what hopefully comes through loud and clear is that:
1. Sodium and water travel together and their ‘saltiness’ must be tightly regulated.
2. Their balance is ultimately in the kidney.
3. Feedback to the kidney is from ‘pressure and saltiness’ receptors in the heart, blood vessels, kidneys and brain.
4. Regulation is a finely balanced and complex interplay between several hormones depending on whether water or sodium is less or more.
Ultimately, the kidneys and the hormonal system play a vital role in helping the body to find equilibrium when it comes to sodium and fluid balance.
Now this is not just a benign piece of a virus, it blocks receptors on the cell walls and therefore gives your body an entirely different signal. By introducing an exogenous ACEII blocker, it is artificially blocking the signal the cell needs from the endogenous angiotensinII; also, wouldn't there be excess angiotensinII which did not bind with the receptor which causes it to remain in circulation?

I suggest that in the RASystem, this S1 vaccine is interrupting right about here:
  • Renin-Angiotensin System
    1. Increased renin secretion (from kidneys)
    2. Increased plasma renin concentration
    3. Increased plasma angiotensin I concentration (from angiotensinogen)
    4. Increased plasma angiotensin II concentration
    5. Increased aldosterone release (from adrenal cortex)
    6. Increased plasma aldosterone concentration

    7. Stimulates sodium reabsorption in the kidney
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
~Homer

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