In my opinion our understanding of what “makes the Earth” is in need of complete revision. I have offered an alternative- which is still a work in progress. I have presented my view on the origin of Earth’s ‘continental crust’ in my ‘An Alternative to Plate and Expansion Tectonics’ thread (viewtopic.php?f=4&t=16534&start=90#p120196).Lloyd wrote: _Questions: Do you agree that granite has the same density and element abundances as granite?
_And do you agree that granite comes from rock of the same element abundances and density as granite?
_Or do you contend that granite mostly comes from basalt, which is more mafic, I think?
_If so, do you know of evidence that electric currents can form granite from basalt? And what then would become of the mafic content?
Our ‘knowledge’ of the make-up of Earth’s interior is highly subjective and based on the 19th century idea that the Earth formed as a hot ball. From seismic studies geologists thought that the Conrad Discontinuity represented a change from granitic crust to basaltic crust. The well at the Kola superdeep borehole penetrated this region. At this depth no transition of rock types was found- “the change in the seismic wave velocity is caused by a metamorphic transition in the granite rock. In addition, the rock at that depth had been thoroughly fractured and was saturated with water, which was surprising”; current seismic interpretations should be treated with a degree of scepticism. Whilst experimental data can produce values for given seismic wave velocities is this not conducted in a laboratory, in a controlled environment? We have already seen that actual drilling data disproved the model.Lloyd wrote: _Question: Aren't geologists able to determine in the lab what the seismic wave velocities are for rocks of all densities?
“…the chemical contrasts between certain granites strongly suggest that there are two main types, one a chemically evolved, relatively potassium-rich, ‘S-type’, derived from crustal rocks that had previously passed through the erosional-sedimentary cycle, and another, more primitive, potassium poor, ‘I-type’, derived from crustal igneous rocks that had not previously been recycled.” (W. S. Pitcher; The Nature and Origin of Granite) The conventional view appears to be that granite acquires increasing amounts of potassium as it is “recycled”- I’m not too sure about that given my view on the origin of the ‘continental crust’. Nevertheless, the potassium content of granite can clearly vary.Lloyd wrote: _Question: Why would Potassium (K) be missing in Worzel Ash if it came from granite?
Other than the work done by the aforementioned Michael Steinbacher, I am unaware of any organised on-going research in this area but no doubt related work is being carried out (http://www.everythingselectric.com/pumice). Others may wish to contribute if they have first-hand knowledge of Michael Steinbacher’s work. It is known that downed high voltage power lines can produce Lechatelierite (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lechatelierite) what is interesting here is that it is also assumed that “Lechatelierite was formed during the impact of a meteorite into a layer of Coconino Sandstone at Meteor Crater in Arizona.”- having previously acknowledged that Lechatelierite can form electrically.Lloyd wrote: _Questions: Do you know of anyone doing or having done experiments on electrical formation of granite, basalt, schist etc?
_Do you agree that sedimentary rock was not formed electrically, but by megatsunami deposition?
_You added:Space plasmas appear to form cylinders of similar elements, sorted by ionization potential, around the filamentary currents
_Question: But is there any evidence it can do this in solid material?
Given that some 95% of the Phanerozoic fossil record consists of marine sea creatures, primarily molluscs, then it would be unwise to assume that large areal expanses of sedimentary rock were not deposited other than by water and rapidly. However, the question I have posed elsewhere (viewtopic.php?f=4&t=16534&start=90#p120196) is, are ALL sedimentary rocks a product of the rock cycle acting over aeons of time? Moreover, I consider it likely that in a cataclysm some of the previously deposited sedimentary rock was electrically eroded following uplift.
Hopefully you have received the copy of the NCGT Journal and read Robert Johnson’s paper; I am unable to answer your second question, maybe experiments are being carried out by individuals not connect with mainstream institutions?Lloyd wrote: _Questions: But I don't know of any evidence that electric currents can expand rock. Do you? I mean in order to form the mountain ranges?
_Is anyone doing experiments to test if electricity can expand rock? If not, why not?
I do not see that it would be necessary to conclude that an arc was not continuous based on the distribution of granite outcrops, surely we can conclude that the surface and subsurface material at that point has been electrically metamorphosed.Lloyd wrote: _Questions: Doesn't the separation between batholiths suggest there was no continuous electric current from southern South American Andes to the northern end of the North American Rockies, or vice versa, assuming batholiths were formed electrically?
_Did you know that Dwardu Cardona concluded that continental drift is real?
_Which of Mike Fischer's evidence at http://NewGeology.us do you dispute?
_If the east coasts of the Americas fit the west coasts of Europe and Africa very well and even have the same rock and fossil types, as they do where the coasts would have originally been adjacent, and if the Moho is a frictionless plasma layer over which the continents could slide easily after an impact, and if the impact evidence is available, as it is, what would make (rapid) continental drift impossible?
Dwardu Cardona may very well have reached that conclusion, many geologists disagree as I am sure you are aware- being familiar with the work of the Meyerhoffs.
Which of Mike Fischer's evidence (?) do I dispute? All of it- as I do all mobilist theories.
The Moho- as I have previously stated, we must exercise a degree of caution when geologists tell us with certainty that particular structures exist deep within the Earth having modelled seismic wave data. I have already given the example of the Conrad Discontinuity at the Baltic Shield. Deep drilling in the North Atlantic Ocean has similarly failed to reveal the Mohorovicic Discontinuity. (https://lhcrazyworld.wordpress.com/2015 ... u-oh-moho/).
"Hopes were running high early last month that geophysicists had finally come within striking distance of a decades-old goal. Drillers aboard the JOIDES Resolution in the mid-North Atlantic were making steady progress down through hundreds of meters of rocky ocean crust toward the legendary Mohorovicic discontinuity, or simply the Moho, the boundary between the thin veneer of Earth's crust and the 2900 kilometer thick mantle.
"But as drilling proceeded with unparalleled ease through 700 meters of crust, then 1000 meters, and even 1400 meters, the Moho was a no-show. Seismic probing had put it at a depth of 1 kilometer or less just off the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but drilling cores never showed any sign of the predicted fresh mantle rock. It seems Earth is more complicated than the best geophysical tools had suggested, says Jay Miller, the onboard project manager during the 4 months of drilling...
"After running through a dozen drill bits in 54 days of drilling through 1415 meters of solid rock, however, scientists onboard Resolution had recovered nothing that looked like the underlying mantle. “I'm surprised,” says Collins. Possibly, he says, his vertical, two-dimensional seismic picture missed an unexpected deepening of the Moho off to one side: “Perhaps they were unfortunate in where they drilled.” WHOI colleague and seismologist Robert Detrick adds that identifying deep rock “is a hard call to make based on seismic velocity alone.” Rocks of different compositions can have the same seismic velocity, he notes: “It's a problem that plagues seismology.”(My emphasis)
It may well be that the Moho – where it exists- is simply water saturated fractured rock.