The Electric Sun

Plasma and electricity in space. Failure of gravity-only cosmology. Exposing the myths of dark matter, dark energy, black holes, neutron stars, and other mathematical constructs. The electric model of stars. Predictions and confirmations of the electric comet.

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Re: Recovered: The Electric Sun

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Mar 19, 2008 5:37 am

- 30 -

All that I was able to locate.
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
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bboyer
 
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Photospheric electric currents feed energy into the solar co

Unread postby StefanR » Wed Mar 19, 2008 4:37 pm

Photospheric electric currents feed energy into the solar corona
The solar magnetic field is an important quantity which couples the solar interior with the photosphere and corona. Unfortunately we cannot measure the coronal magnetic field directly, but we have to extrapolate it from photospheric measurements. In the past this has been achieved mainly by the assumption that the coronal magnetic field as a potential field which ignores the influence of electric currents. Photospheric vector magnetograph measurements, e.g., with the Solar Flare Telescope (SFT) in Tokyo show, however, that strong electric currents are present in the photosphere. We now take account of these currents in advanced models of the coronal magnetic field. The strong nonlinearity of the underlying mathematical model (nonlinear force-free magnetic fields) complicates this task. Additionally one has to consider that the solar photosphere and the corona are physically very different. In the photosphere the gas pressure of the plasma is about as strong as the magnetic pressure, but in the corona the magnetic pressure dominates and is approximately four orders of magnitudes larger than the gas pressure. The difference of the plasma parameters of photosphere and corona require a special preprocessing of the photospheric magnetic observations in order to serve as coronal boundary conditions. As a consequence of the magnetic field dominance in the corona, the electric currents must flow parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field lines. These parallel electric currents are important for the structure and topology of the coronal magnetic field on all scales. A significant amount of energy, in particular in the vicinity of Active Regions, is stored in these currents.
Image
The figure shows nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field lines above Active Region 7231. The photospheric magnetic field (colour coded: red positive, blue negative) and the photospheric electric currents have been measured with the solar flare telescope (SFT) in Tokyo. As a consequence of the localized electric currents the energy content of the Active Region is 30% higher than the corresponding current free configuration. This excess energy is assumed to be responsible for eruptive phenomena like flares and coronal mass ejections. The investigation of the energy release mechanism is subject of the future NASA-ESA mission >STEREO.


http://www.mps.mpg.de/en/topics/topic_200604.html
The illusion from which we are seeking to extricate ourselves is not that constituted by the realm of space and time, but that which comes from failing to know that realm from the standpoint of a higher vision. -L.H.
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Links between magnetic fields / plasma flows in coronal hole

Unread postby StefanR » Wed Mar 19, 2008 4:42 pm

We compare the small-scale features visible in the Ne VIII Doppler-shift map of an equatorial coronal hole as observed by linkSUMER with the small-scale structures of the magnetic field as constructed from a simultaneous photospheric magnetogram by a potential magnetic-field extrapolation. The left figure shows closed magnetic loops (yellow)and the right figure open field lines (red-brown). The black line outlines the boundary of the coronal hole and the red box marks the field of view of SUMER. We find that long closed loops are absent in the coronal hole, but present just outside (close to the upper right edge) in the quiet Sun.
Image
We project the extrapolated magnetic field lines (closed in yellow, open in red-brown) onto a map of the Doppler shift of the Ne VIII (77 nm) emission line. A blue shift corresponds to and outflow of the plasma and red shift to inflow. In white patches the plasma is at rest. We find that the coronal magnetic field is a key player in constraining plasma flow and guiding the nascent solar wind outflow. We find the largest blue shifts (outflow) with speeds up to 20 km/s (darkest blue patches) are associated with those regions where intense open fields of uniform polarity are concentrated. In contrast, the plasma confined in small loops in the coronal hole does not reveal any significant flow.
Image


http://www.mps.mpg.de/en/topics/topic_200504.html
The illusion from which we are seeking to extricate ourselves is not that constituted by the realm of space and time, but that which comes from failing to know that realm from the standpoint of a higher vision. -L.H.
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