Numerous Saturn Flare-up cycles
Each cycle involved:
a) a Saturn Flare-up, similar to solar flares, but much more powerful; the flare-ups resulted from Saturn's plasmasphere encountering other stellar plasmaspheres, while moving from the Sagittarius Galaxy to the Milky Way;
Lloyd wrote:The lesser light apparently referred to the Sun, because Saturn and the Sun were the only objects visible at that time.
Lloyd wrote:* I don't think anyone has said that Saturn was invisible during the Age of Darkness except for far south of the equator. It was just not very bright, but probably brighter than our full moon. It wasn't till the Golden Age began after Saturn's last flare that Saturn became awe inspiring. The Bible may have referred to the beginning of the Golden Age. The lesser light apparently referred to the Sun, because Saturn and the Sun were the only objects visible at that time. As the Earth and Saturn got steadily closer to the Sun, the Sun became increasingly bright. The following link has discussions of the Age of Darkness: https://www.google.com/search?q=site%3Ahttp%3A%2F%2Fthunderbolts.info+%22cardona+interview%22+%22age+of+darkness%22.
All of these puzzles are simply explained by an electric star. There is no lower limit to the size of a body that can accept electric power from the galaxy so the temperatures of smaller dwarfs will range down to levels conducive to life. The light of a red star is due to the distended anode glow of an electrically low-stressed star. The blue and ultraviolet light come from a low-energy corona. (Our Sun’s more compact red anode glow is seen briefly as the chromosphere during total solar eclipses. And the Sun is electrically stressed to the extent that bright anode “tufting” covers its surface with granulations and the corona emits higher energy ultraviolet light and x-rays as relativistic electrons strike it).
At the other extremity of size, Red Giants are a more visible and scaled-up example of what an L-type Brown Dwarf star might look like close-up. The Red Giant Betelgeuse is so huge that if it were to replace our Sun then Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars and Jupiter would be engulfed by it. Astronomers recognize that such stars could swallow planets yet their plasma envelope is so tenuous that it would not impede the planetary orbits within the star’s atmosphere. However, astronomers believe that any planet it swallowed would be gradually vaporized by intense heat from the star’s core. But the standard stellar model has to be seriously fudged to explain Red Giants, their central temperature turns out to be so low that no known nuclear process can possibly supply the observed energy output. The electric model, on the other hand, works seamlessly from Supergiant star to a planet-sized Brown Dwarf.
Since an electric star is heated externally a planet need not be destroyed by orbiting beneath its anode glow. In fact life is not only possible inside the glow of a small brown dwarf, it seems far more likely than on a planet orbiting outside a star! This is because the radiant energy arriving on a planet orbiting inside a glowing sphere is evenly distributed over the entire surface of the planet.
There are no seasons, no tropics and no ice-caps. A planet does not have to rotate, its axis can point in any direction and its orbit can be eccentric. The radiant energy received by the planet will be strongest at the blue and red ends of the spectrum. Photosynthesis relies on red light. Sky light would be a pale purple (the classical “purple dawn of creation”). L-type Brown Dwarfs have water as a dominant molecule in their spectra, along with many other biologically important molecules and elements. Its “children” would accumulate atmospheres and water would mist down. It is therefore of particular interest that most of the extra-solar planets discovered are gas giants, several times the size of Jupiter, orbiting their star extremely closely. It is our system of distantly orbiting planets that seems the odd one out. In fact it argues in favor of a galactic traffic accident between the Sun and a sub-Brown Dwarf like Jupiter or Saturn.
Electric stars offer radically new ideas about life on other worlds and the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. A galactic source of electrical energy provides more possibilities for sustaining life in the universe than the lottery of finding an Earth-like planet orbiting in a narrow ‘habitable zone’ about a bright star like the Sun. The probability of the latter occurrence is very low. But with electric stars, we can turn to the most numerous stars in the galaxy as likely incubators of life — the brown ‘dwarfs’ —which are actually red in color. They could be described as ‘cosmic plasma eggs.’ This picture is much more encouraging than conventional thinking on such dwarf stars.
Imagine giant Jupiter (or Saturn) and its moons floating independently in deep space. Outside the Sun’s dominating electrical influence, Jupiter (or Saturn) would become a dim electric star enclosed in the huge radiant red plasma shell of its ‘anode glow’ — a brown dwarf. Inside the glowing sheath is the most hospitable environment in the universe for life because the radiant energy received by each satellite is evenly distributed over its entire surface. There are no seasons, no tropics and no ice caps.
Radiant energy environment within the envelope of a brown dwarf star.
The radiant energy from the plasma cell of a brown dwarf star is strongest at the blue and red ends of the spectrum. Photosynthesis relies on red light (and blue light). L-type brown dwarfs have water as a dominant molecule in their spectra, along with many other biologically important molecules and elements. Satellites would accumulate atmospheres from the brown dwarf and water would mist down. Regardless of its spin and axial tilt, a satellite orbiting inside the sheath of a brown dwarf could experience an ideal environment for life.
It is instructive to note the icy nature of the moons of our gas giant planets. Those planets may be electrically captured brown dwarf stars. That would explain their odd axial tilts, excess heat, and remnants of expulsion disks or rings.
However, the brown dwarf ‘Garden of Eden’ comes with a caveat. Stars off the main sequence do not have the self-regulating photospheric discharge to smooth out variations in electrical power input. Consequently, brown dwarfs are subject to sudden outbursts, or ‘flaring,’ when they encounter a surge in the circuit that powers them. These flares could cause sparking to and between the satellites orbiting inside the sheath and lead to sudden extinction events, vast fallout deposits and fossilization. There is much food for new thoughts!
WHY NO CALL FROM ET?
The problem for SETI is that no radio signals can penetrate the glowing plasma shell of such a brown dwarf star. Even the dim twinkling of other stars would be obscured. Intelligent life forms living on the satellites of a brown dwarf star would be unaware of the spectacle of the universe that we are privileged to witness. Seeing only a purple glow in their sky, they would have no cause to attempt to communicate. This may explain why SETI hears only eerie static on the galactic phone.
Computer simulations are fun but they have no significance if the models are wrong. The lack of brown dwarf stars is expected in the electric universe model. In that model, stars are essentially a plasma discharge phenomenon. A bright star usurps almost the entire electrical power in its vicinity. Hypothetically, (in fact truly,) if Jupiter were to be removed beyond the Sun’s electrical influence it would become a more electrically active brown dwarf star. Its moons would become a small planetary system orbiting a dim star. The dull red (magenta/purple) shell, or “anode glow,” of a brown dwarf would surround most of the moons. The conditions for establishment of atmospheres and life on those satellites within the glowing shell would likely be fulfilled. Just like real estate, the prime requirement to become a star is LOCATION. A brown dwarf simply won’t shine when placed close to a bright star.
Unfortunately, astrophysicists and most plasma physicists never contemplate an electrically driven model because they assume strict electrical neutrality throughout the universe. Meanwhile the observational evidence shrieks of electric discharge effects in plasma. A few examples are: all X-ray sources; stupendously long glowing filaments and jets; radiant nebulae with no effective internal energy source; and compact pulsating radiation sources.
The north celestial “pole” was commemorated by all ancient cultures as the home of the prehistoric sun and the planetary gods. A true history of the Earth must explain these astronomical enigmas. And a true history of the Earth is necessary before we can speculate meaningfully about planet origins.
“Like a man was the sun (Saturn) when it showed itself, and its face glowed when it dried the surface of the earth…It showed itself when it was born and remained fixed in the sky like a mirror. Certainly it was not the same sun which we see, it is said in their old tales.”
- D. Goetz & S. Morley, Popol Vuh, 1972, p. 188.
Not all stars shine brightly like the Sun. There is a discontinuity in plasma discharge phenomena that causes the bright ‘anode tufting’ seen as granulation on our own Sun. At lower power densities there is no need for ‘tufting’ and the red chromospheric ‘anode glow’ becomes dominant. That is the realm of red stars, both so-called dwarfs and giants. Both appear giant relative to the physical size of the star because their red chromospheric anode glow expands into space seeking electrons to satisfy their discharge. Brown dwarfs are like our own gas giants but leading an electrical existence independent of a bright star. They are more abundant than bright stars in the galaxy. All bodies in the universe are supplied with electrical power.
Capture of another star by the Sun is likely because orbits are changed strongly by charge exchange. Change the charge on a celestial body and its mass is changed. By simple conservation of energy, its orbit is changed in the same proportion. Entering the Sun’s circuit, the electric light goes out on a captured dwarf star and it becomes a gas giant planet in a distant orbit. It seems that electrogravitic restoring forces due to repeated passages of a strongly discharging planet (comet) through the Sun’s equatorial current sheet during capture causes the captive star to settle toward that plane.
Given this scenario we are much better placed to understand our ‘fruit salad’ of a solar system. The distant gas giant planets are captured brown dwarf stars, each bringing its entourage of minor planets (moons), some actually being born (expelled electrically from the core) in the process of charge exchange and capture. Saturn retains its ‘expulsion disk’ and is the most recent addition to the solar system. Saturn is remembered by the earliest civilizations as THE SUN! (See “Cassini’s Homecoming.” Our book, Thunderbolts of the Gods, details the global petroglyph evidence for powerful electrical effects witnessed in Saturn’s transition from star to gas giant. The strange, complex figures are accurate renditions of plasma instabilities seen only recently in the highest energy electrical experiments on Earth.
This throws into sharp relief how recently the solar system last changed. It is exactly as it appears — a blended family. The Sun is our foster parent. Looking for gradations in properties of the planets according to a retrocalculated theoretical order is futile. We must learn to appreciate the familial differences and in the process learn more about our neighborhood in the Milky Way. We don’t need to travel to study the nearest stars. Some have come to us!
Like cosmic streetlights, all stars in interstellar space are connected to the galactic power lines (Birkeland current filaments). So instead of being dark and dead, independent giant planets shine as dim stars — red or brown dwarfs. And these dwarf stars are the most numerous in the galaxy.
The cross-section for electrical capture of a dwarf star by the Sun is huge, involving the plasma sheaths of both bodies. For example, the Sun’s plasma sheath is roughly 200 AU in diameter or .07% of the distance to the star system of Alpha Centauri. When stellar plasma sheaths touch the two stars ‘see’ each other electrically for the first time and an ‘anomalous’ acceleration toward the Sun (also experienced by charged spacecraft) takes the interloper in its grip. The electric light of the dwarf star is snuffed out and it becomes a gigantic comet, flaring and fragmenting to form new satellites, comets and ejecta rings before settling as a new gas giant into a solar orbit that provides electrical equilibrium.
Capture of a brown dwarf requires that the dim star accommodate to a new electrical environment within the plasma sheath of the Sun. The brown dwarf flares and ejects matter, which becomes planets, moons and smaller debris. The ‘dead’ dwarf star becomes a gas giant planet.
If the geological and archaeological dates are to be believed at all, then it would seem that there have been catastrophes at around 13,000 year intervals. La V[io]lette's Superwave theory is probably the best known proposal. I'd also consider the event may be from something happening to our Sun without the galactic centre event. And I do believe we should heed the ancient Greek philosophers tales of many past and future catastrophes.
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