Anaconda wrote:The area in front of the Zagros Mountains is called a foreland-arc and the area in front of the Hellenic Arc is an island forearc. Both the Zagros Mountains and the Hellenic Arc are described as having back-arc basins. The Zagros Mountains are not as long as the Mediterranean Ridge. All in all, the Mediterranean Ridge is the bigger geological complex. From examining the map in figure 6. above, it's clear oil & gas deposits parallel the Zagros Mountains, an orogenic deformation of great magnitude. It's highly likely oil & gas deposits parallel the Hellenic Arc in the Mediterranean Ridge accretionary complex:The oil- and gas-fields are located along the faulted and fissured zones of the crust of the earth, parallel to the great orogenic and volcanic dislocations. -- Eugene Coste, abiotic oil theorist & hydrocarbon explorationist, 1905
Gong & Gerken wrote:Figure 6. Key structural elements in the Zagros province, with oil and gas fields (from Versfelt, 2001). LEGEND [Green hash-line] Approximate extent of Zagros foreland Basin (ZFB), [Blue saw-tooth] Edge of mountain front...
Wikipedia entry wrote:The Mediterranean Ridge is a wide ridge in the bed of the Mediterranean Sea, running along a rough quarter circle from Calabria, south of Crete, to the southwest corner of Turkey, and from there eastwards south of Turkey, including Cyprus. [Image of Mediterranean accretionary ridge complex at link.]
Stanley B. Keith wrote:For example, petroleum resources in the largest hydrothermal mineral deposit in the world, the Ghawar field of Saudi Arabia (Cantrell et al., 2002), may be related to deposition of‚ regional-scale hydrothermal dolomites in a north-northeast-trending dextral slip zone that is 175 miles long and 30 miles wide.
Stanley B. Keith wrote:[Hydrothermal dolomite] HTD is associated with large oil and gas accumulations including the supergiant Ghawar field in Saudi Arabia (Cantrell and others, 2001).
The Hellenic trench consists of a series of depressions with depth to about 5km [16,000 feet]. It parallels the Hellenic arc and includes some linear trenches, as are the Pliny and Strabo southeast of Crete and the Ionian trench.
H. Stewart Edgell wrote:As can be extrapolated, these Upper Precambrian crystalline rocks dip beneath the sediments of the Interior Homocline and the Arabian Platform, so that they are found at depths of from 4,500 m to 13,700 m [14,700 feet to 45,000 feet] in the Saudi oil-field areas.
Much of the evidence regarding depth to basement has been deduced from geophysical surveys, primarily gravity and magnetic investigations.
Geo Expro wrote:The Stable Shelf, located in western and southern Iraq, may be divided into three zones: ... The Mesopotamian Zone, which is drained by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, is a Cenozoic foreland basin of the Zagros orogen superimposed on the Tethys shelf sediments. Here Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments are fully developed to a thickness of 8-13 km [26,000 feet to 42,000 feet], thickening to the east. The western boundary of the Mesopotamian zone is a basement high, probably formed in the Late Permian... The Unstable Shelf, located to the northeast of Iraq, is divided into two zones: (2A) The Foothill Zone is structurally an extension of the Simply Folded Zagros Zone in southwest Iran, and is stratigraphically similar to the Mesopotamian Zone. It contains numerous anticlines and a Phanerozoic sedimentary succession of up to 13 km [42,500 feet]
H. Stewart Edgell wrote:The oil-field areas of Saudi Arabia are all located in the northeast part of the Kingdom, both onshore and offshore, in a tectonostratigraphic province referred to as the Arabian Platform, or Unstable Shelf (Henson 1951). It is composed of a sedimentary sequence, which is virtually subhorizontal, except for a few basement-induced and diapiric folds (Greig 1958), comprising the Arabian Platform, and thickening northeast from 4,500m to 13,700m. To the southwest of the Arabian Platform, the NE-dipping, scarp-forming, Mesozoic and Paleozoic strata form the Interior Homocline, which rests nonconformably on the northeast edge of the Arabian Shield.
Figure 3. Major Tectonic Zones of Arabia (modified from Henson 1951).
Geo Expro wrote:The Unstable Shelf, located to the northeast of Iraq, is divided into two zones: (2A) The Foothill Zone is structurally an extension of the Simply Folded Zagros Zone in southwest Iran, and is stratigraphically similar to the Mesopotamian Zone. It contains numerous anticlines and a Phanerozoic sedimentary succession of up to 13 km. (2B) The High Folded Zone, an extension of the High Zagros Zone, is a 25-50 km wide deformed zone uplifted during the Cenozoic collision. This zone contains thrust-bounded elongated fold structures with Paleogene carbonates in their cores and Neogene clastics on their flanks. It is in tectonic contact with the Zagros Suture Zone.
H. Stewart Edgell wrote:Four trends of basement faulting control the oil fields of Saudi Arabia (Henson 1951), most prominently the N-S Arabian Trend, as well as the N-E Aualitic Trend and the N-W Erythraean Trend in offshore diapiric fields. Least conspicuous is the E-W Tethyan Trend.
H. Stewart Edgell wrote:After the formation of successive island arcs which accreted to form the Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Arabian Shield, E-W block faulting took place with the formation of the collapsed Central Arabian grabens accompanied by transcurrent faulting along the Najd Fault and the Wadi Fatima Fault. These are attributed by Davies (1984) to converging plate boundaries up to 700 Ma ago. Late Proterozoic uplift of the Arabian Shield led to extensional tectonics. This E-W extension, due to the initial updoming of the Arabo-Nubian Shield, stretched the brittle crystalline, Precambrian rocks, causing a series of subparallel N-S horsts and grabens and initiated the 'old grain of Arabia', now widely known as the Arabian Trend. Repeated, periodic uplifts of the Arabian Shield have continued this faulting and basement uplift until historic times, as shown by the N-S trending Late Tertiary-Quaternary lava fields (Harrat) and cinder cones along fractures in the shield, with eruption as recently as 1250 AD in the Harrat Rahat, south of Al Madinah. This uparching of the shield probably also led to the formation of less pronounced, E-W fault trends, which can be seen clearly on the running difference gravity map of northern onshore Saudi Arabia (Barnes 1987).
H. Stewart Edgell wrote:There is evidence to suggest that the basement was already faulted along the Arabian Trend in the Late Precambrian, so that the Proterozoic Hormuz Series sediments were deposited in a series of N-S troughs, between uplifts or headlands. Repeated rejuvenation of these uplifts, or basement horsts, particularly along the N-S Arabian Trend, is reflected in the pattern of deposition throughout the Phanerozoic. It is seen in many formations, such as the Arab Formation, which has oolitic facies in the Arab C and D member over these highs (Steineke et alii 1958), and in the Rus Formation, which is a dolomite over basement highs and a thicker anhydrite-marl sequence in the intervening troughs.
Abdulkader M. Afifi wrote:[Partial] Abstract
Aramco initially discovered oil in Ghawar in 1948, based on surface mapping and shallow structure drilling. Ghawar is a large north-trending anticlinal structure, some 250 kilometers long and 30 kilometers wide. It is a drape fold over a basement horst, which grew initially during the Carboniferous Hercynian deformation and was reactivated episodically, particularly during the Late Cretaceous. In detail, the deep structure consists of several en echelon horst blocks that probably formed in response to right-lateral transpression. The bounding faults have throws exceeding 3000 feet at the Silurian level but terminate within the Triassic section. The episodic structural growth influenced sedimentation of the Permo-Carboniferous sandstone reservoirs, which onlap the structure and the Jurassic and Permian carbonate reservoirs, which accumulated in shoals above structural culminations...
Figure 11. Basement Fault Structures in the Saudi Arabian Oil Fields and Adjacent Areas.
H. Stewart Edgell wrote:A striking feature of sedimentation in the Arabian Platform is the very extensive lateral persistence of many formations over distances of up to several thousand kilometres. The lateral continuity of these blanket lithosomes, such as the Anima, Wasia, Arab and Khuff formations (Edgell 1977, 1987), is noticeable in a NW-SE direction paralleling the Gulf, but across the Gulf, as seen in Iran, almost ail these units are replaced by different lithostratigraphic units (James and Wynd 1965).
W. Hiekea, et al., wrote:Abstract
During Meteor Cruise in 1993, a multibeam bathymetric (Hydrosweep) survey was carried out on the Mediterranean Ridge in an area south of Crete (comprising the original Olimpi and Prometheus-2 mud diapir fields). The morphology is characterized by subcircular (domes) and elongated (ridges) features. The studied area is subdivided from west to east in three relief provinces with predominance of the domes in the middle one. We suggest that all the domes are related to mud diapirism (as is proved for some of them by sonographic surveys and already published sediment cores).
The orientation of the relief elements (domes and ridges) corresponds to that of the large morphotectonic features: The NW-SE orientation (Hellenic Trench) prevails in the western province, the NE-SW orientation (Ptolemy, Pliny and Strabo Trenches) is dominant in the eastern province. The domes occur in the middle province where both orientations influence jointly the morphotectonic pattern on the Mediterranean Ridge. The concentration of the mud diapirs is inferred to be due to crossing fault systems which may have led to an enhancement of conduits for ascending mud breccias and fluids.
The high-resolving sonographic records of a W-E running survey displayed a detailed anatomy of mud domes/volcanoes with features of broad variation of backscatter intensities such as flow lobes and streams, circular elevations (mini-domes) and depressions (pockmarks) of small and smallest scale.
As a very characteristic feature not described before, in the areas outside the mud domes an extensive network-like pattern of small high-backscatter lineations has been observed which is tentatively interpreted as a system of fractures (joints) of near-surface Mg-calcite crusts. Their orientations were found to correspond to the regional morphotectonic pattern.
W. Hiekea, et al., wrote:... The concentration of the mud diapirs is inferred to be due to crossing fault systems which may have led to an enhancement of conduits for ascending mud breccias and fluids... As a very characteristic feature not described before, in the areas outside the mud domes an extensive network-like pattern of small high-backscatter lineations has been observed which is tentatively interpreted as a system of fractures (joints) of near-surface Mg-calcite crusts.
L Dimitrov wrote:Abstract
A great number of circular to isometric depressions have been observed on the deep water seafloor in the eastern Mediterranean by MAK-1 and ORETech deep-tow side-scan sonar during several TTR cruises of the UNESCO Floating University Program since 1993, and also by visual observations made during the late 1998 French-Dutch MEDINAUT expedition. They extend from the Cobblestone mud volcano area in the west, passing all along the Mediterranean Ridge through the Olimpi and United Nation Rise mud volcano provinces to the Anaximander Mountains and Eratosthenes Seamount to the east. Several environments in which deep water pockmarks preferentially occur in the eastern Mediterranean are: (1) active mud volcanoes such as those of the Olimpi mud field and the Anaximander mountains; (2) remnant mud volcanoes and corresponding fault systems, like pockmarks on the flanks of buried volcanoes in the Cobblestone and United Nation Rise areas; (3) most abundantly on active faults like those on the Eratosthenes Seamount, Anaximander Mountains and on the Mediterranean Ridge; and (4) submarine slumps. Some pockmarks on the Mediterranean Ridge contain brines with high gas content.
Eugene Coste wrote:In all the oil- and gas-fields or petroleum-deposits, the gaseous products are under a strong pressure which is not artesian or hydrostatic, which increases with depth, and which cannot be be anything else but a volcanic pressure. Oil, gas and bitumens are never indigenous to the strata in which they are found -- they are secondary products impregnating and cutting porous rocks of all ages, exactly as volcanic products alone can do. Oil and gas are stored products, in great abundance in certain localities, while neighboring localities often are entirely barren; and many of the strata among which they are found are impervious, that the source of these hydrocarbons must be the source below, which alone is abundant enough, and alone possesses sufficient energy, to force and accumulate such large quantities of these and associated products in so many spots through such impervious strata. The oil- and gas-fields are located along the faulted and fissured zones of the crust of the earth, parallel to the great orogenic and volcanic dislocations. -- Eugene Coste, geologist, abiotic oil theorist & hydrocarbon explorationist, 1905
Galindo-Zaldivar, et al., wrote:Abstract
New information on the geometry of the mud volcanoes, folds and faults located in the central part of the Mediterranean Ridge is provided from long range and deep-tow sidescan sonar images, high resolution seismic and low frequency echosounder profiles, and gravity cores obtained on the R/V Gelendzhik during the 1993 UNESCO-ESF Training Through Research cruise. Symmetrical gentle folds, with a mean wavelength of 750 m, deform predominantly Pliocene-Quaternary sediments, but also perhaps as old as Messinian. In most areas of the Mediterranean Ridge, the north-northeast directed subduction of the African plate below the Eurasian plate at the Hellenic arc produces folds with hinge lines subparallel to the trend of the ridge. However, the hinge lines of the folds curve around the southern part of the area with highest concentration of mud volcanoes and produce an irregular U-shape fold belt. Some of the folds show an intrusive nucleus and, in some of them, mud breccia appears to have flowed from the flanks of the folds into the troughs.
The mud volcanoes consist of domes of interlayered pelagic sediments and mud breccias containing sediments and rock fragments of Late Aptian to Pleistocene ages. Mud breccia flows are mainly extruded radially from vents, although rare fissure extrusions are also observed. The mud volcanoes have an irregular to elliptical shape, with diameters up to 16 km [10 miles]. The distribution of mud volcanoes in the area is irregular, but they are more frequent in an area called the Olimpi Field.
Faults in the uppermost part of the Mediterranean Ridge are rare. Most of the faults are normal and subparallel to fold limbs. In addition, N20°E and N100°E subvertical faults are found controlling the shape of the mud volcanoes.
Chao Lei, et al., wrote:6. Conclusions
In the Central Yinggehai Depression of YGH - SH Basin a series of diapirs is observed. Interpretation of newly released seismic reflection data now allows us to map 18 larger-scale diapirs in detail. They are arranged along six zones N-S-striking en echelon zones. We clearly identifed gas Chimneys, diapiric faults and palaeo-craters associated with the diapirs. Three stages of diapir evolution are proposed, reflecting the process of initiation, emplacement, and subsequent collapse. Our survey has identified a variety of buried diapirs, piercing diapirs and collapsed diapirs within the basin.
Our seismic interpretation adjacent to the Linggao Uplift shows two major anticlines, associated with motion on the strike-slip Red River Fault. Motion on the Red River Fault also generated distributed faults and fractures, which are the most significant migration pathways for releasing overpressure initiated by high sedimentation rate and high geothermal gradiant. We propose that diapirism is controlled by a combination of overpressure, largely driven by high sediment delivery, together with strike-slip tectonism associated with Red River Fault, which focuses the diapirism into the six en echelon zones by forming weakened pathways to flow.
Marine Talk wrote:Transocean announced that Chevron Corporation has awarded the company a contract for the construction of an enhanced Enterprise-class drillship...with an estimated total capital expenditure of approximately $650 million...drillship target the drilling of wells up to 40,000 feet of total depth...and will be capable of drilling in water depths of up to 12,000 feet...the world water-depth drilling record of 10,011 feet held by the Discoverer Deep Seas.
The oil- and gas-fields are located along the faulted and fissured zones of the crust of the earth, parallel to the great orogenic and volcanic dislocations. -- Eugene Coste, geologist, abiotic oil theorist & hydrocarbon explorationist, 1905
Anaconda wrote:Hi Webolife:
I agree with your comment.
Short of publishing your theory in a scientific journal (which would allow you to protect your ideas from others taking credit), this board is as good as any. Or if you want more freedom, the New Insights and Mad Ideas board is also available on the Thunderbolts Forum. I promise I won't bite
BobDodds wrote:Anaconda, thanks for new material which flips salt domes from biogenic's sedimentary simplisms into abiotic model. Now we can see wonders underground. Fresh water separated from salt as water goes super-crit, formation of salt domes(also "islands","cones" in the Eugene Coste lit), metals(Saunders&Thomas) in those salt domes carried in by movement of super-crit water. Dolomite prob answered, re-dolomite McKenzie answered, I would say.
1975 Abstract wrote:ABSTRACT
The occurrence of exotic blocks of igneous and sedimentary rocks in piercement salt dome cap rock is a common phenomenon around the world. Although salt piercements in many basins are known to have pierced through great thicknesses of sedimentary overburden, fragments of the sediments traversed do not appear to have been incorporated in cap rock. Jurassic, Cretaceous or Tertiary material has not been found in salt piercements of the Gulf Coast interior salt basins nor have post Cambrian sediments been found amongst Hormuz cap rock detritus of the numerous Persian and Arabian Gulf piercements.
Evidence from salt piercements in the Persian Gulf area suggests that insoluble cap rock material is derived either from rocks interbedded with the parent evaporite or from sub-salt formations as a result of glacier-like plucking from the salt sub-crop during flow toward the diapiric exit.
In basins where bedded salt is too deep for penetration by the drill the age of exotic material in piercement cap rock often has been used as an age indicator of the salt deposit when, in fact, the exotics probably represent pre-salt formations often lying unconformably below the evaporite deposit.
Evidence from the Salina basin in southeastern Mexico suggests that salt structures may be cored by Oligocene rather than Jurassic evaporite and, likewise, the salt in the Moron basin diapirs, northeast Cuba may be Oligo-Miocene rather than Jurassic as is currently supposed.
The possibility that Oligo-Miocene salt may core many of the offshore Texas and Louisiana structures is suggested both by diapiric immaturity of many of the structures and by the presence of Oligo-Miocene sediments in Belle Isle and Eugene Island piercements of Louisiana.
Jurassic, Cretaceous or Tertiary material has not been found in salt piercements of the Gulf Coast interior salt basins nor have post Cambrian sediments been found amongst Hormuz cap rock detritus of the numerous Persian and Arabian Gulf piercements.
1977 Abstract wrote:ABSTRACT
Previous theories for the origin of salt dome cap rock have relied in varying degrees on the introduction of minerals and fluids from the sediments surrounding the dome. This paper proposes a sub-salt origin for the minerals. The occurrence of cap rock minerals beneath the salt of most evaporate basins is a well-known fact, but the idea of these minerals becoming an integral part of the diapiric mass has not been broached. Studies of other diapiric structures have revealed that materials underlying the principal diapiric constituent can be incorporated into the diapiric mass.
Irregularities in the thickness of salt dome cap rock are associated with similar irregularities in the top of the salt. These irregularities may result from spines of movement which serve as avenues for the expulsion of cap rock minerals. The presence of hydrogen sulphide, sulphur and pressured brine at depth in salt domes adds support to a sub-salt origin for cap rock.
The species of minerals present in the cap rock of a particular dome are generally related to the amount of growth of the dome and its position in the evaporite basin. Domes which have undergone the most upward growth are more likely to have a greater number of the minerals which precipitated early in the evaporite sequence. Metallic sulphides found in some domes are commonly associated with sapropels which mark the beginning of the evaporite stage and, therefore, represent the oldest of the mineral species to reach the cap rock.
The presence of hydrogen sulphide, sulphur and pressured brine at depth in salt domes adds support to a sub-salt origin for cap rock.
Previous theories for the origin of salt dome cap rock have relied in varying degrees on the introduction of minerals and fluids from the sediments surrounding the dome. This paper proposes a sub-salt origin for the minerals.
J. Rahnama Rad, et al., wrote:Abstract
The Arabian Platform containing the Zagros Mountain Ranges (ZMR) is located to the Northeast of the Arabian Shield. There are nearly 200 salt domes on the Arabian Platform. In the ZMR, structural anomalies are frequently associated with similar facies distribution patterns. In the eastern portion of the region, emergent salt plugs of Infra-Cambrian age exhibit the same alignment patterns. Such trends bear no apparent genetic relationship to the Tertiary folding responsible for the present Zagros fold belt but rather indicate their affinity with linear basement features which are readily observable on Landsat imagery and aerial photographs. Bending of anticlines in the competent cover rock, combined with minor strike-slip faults and horizontal displacements of parts of folded structures, strongly point to the presence of these basement faults. The salt plugs, which have pierced cover rocks of up to 10000 m thick, are distributed on the Arabian Platform along regional basement faults. The area of diapir outcrops is bounded by the Oman Line to the East and by the Kazerun Fault to the West. The fragments were transported by rotational ascent of the Hormuz Salt Formation to the present and former land surfaces. The recognition of features related to basement tectonic and realization of their implication in the control and modification of geological processes in an important adjunct to the search for hydrocarbon accumulations in this region. To our best knowledge, data of basement faults in the study area is scarce. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine basement faults and their relation to salt dome distribution. Considering the fold axis bending, the trend of the salt plugs and also the distribution of epicenters of the last century, numerous new basement faults are introduced in this study.
Such trends bear no apparent genetic relationship to the Tertiary folding responsible for the present Zagros fold belt but rather indicate their affinity with linear basement features which are readily observable on Landsat imagery and aerial photographs.
Bending of anticlines in the competent cover rock, combined with minor strike-slip faults and horizontal displacements of parts of folded structures, strongly point to the presence of these basement faults. The salt plugs, which have pierced cover rocks of up to 10000 m thick, are distributed on the Arabian Platform along regional basement faults.
Pieces of the basement have been brought up to the surface on some of the salt domes.
The recognition of features related to basement tectonic and realization of their implication in the control and modification of geological processes in an important adjunct to the search for hydrocarbon accumulations in this region.
L. M. Cathles wrote:The offshore Louisiana Gulf of Mexico is one of the earth's most active margins. The erosional debris of an entire continent is depositing there, in places at over 2 km/Ma. Sediments have accumulated to over 16 km thickness. Temperatures at the base of this section are hotter than those in a pizza oven (∼300° C). Hydrocarbons are maturing, brines expelling, reservoirs filling, hydrates accumulating, and gas and oil migrating into the ocean, and all this is happening today.
We have known for some time how to model hydrocarbon maturation and to some extent migration. We don't know precisely the richness or thickness of the source beds, but we can geochemically constrain their age and place reasonable bounds on their volume. Perhaps our largest uncertainty for a long time has been the retention of gas and oil between the source strata and the surface.
Fortuitously, we have been able to address this question in the offshore Louisiana basin because two very different hydrocarbon sources (which we characterize here as Eocene and Jurassic, although the reality may be more complex) exist there in the right positions. The requirement from chemical data that Eocene displace Jurassic oil, and in turn be washed by Jurassic gas means that the out-of-source retention of hydrocarbons must be very small (<0.025% of the pore space).
This means that the active portions of the Northern Gulf of Mexico basin are acting like a giant flow-through system. As soon as oil or gas is generated, most is expelled into the Gulf waters. Only crumbs are retained in the basin (outside of the source). These crumbs are still of great economic value. What's happening today (or in geologically very recent times) is what is important. As stated eloquently by Gatenby (2002), “in the Gulf of Mexico, the present is the …
David S. Holland, et al., wrote:Based upon their system, the Eugene Island Block 330 field is near the northern edge of the salt-tectonic province characterized by semicontinuous diapiric uplifts
Figure 14. Major groups of salt diapirs and salt tectonic provinces in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Holland et al 1980, after Woodbury, et al., 1973) LEGEND E. I. BLOCK 330 FIELD
David S. Holland, et al., wrote:The Eugene Island Block 330 oils show abundant evidence of long-distance vertical migration.
David S. Holland, et al., wrote:Petroleum migration along faults is indicated based on the observed temperature and hydrocarbon anomalies at the surface and the distribution of pay in the subsurface.
David S. Holland, et al., wrote:Grabens and down-to-the-basin faulting are present along the inner coastal plain. These graben and fault systems are related to the formation of the Gulf of Mexico by early rifting and subsequent sea-floor spreading and subsidence in the Jurassic through Early Cretaceous (Hall et al., 1982).
David S. Holland, et al., wrote:More than 25 Pleistocene sandstones are productive at depths of 701 to 3658 m (2300 to 12,000 ft).
1959 partial abstract wrote:...As examples of offshore deep-seated salt dome fields, structure maps are presented for the Block 110 Field, West Cameron Area, and the Block 39 (Roll-over) Field, Vermilion Area, Louisiana. A structure map and cross section of the Block 126 Field, Eugene Island Area, Louisiana, exemplify the shallow piercement salt dome fields...
J. Rahnama Rad, et al., wrote:Pieces of the basement have been brought up to the surface on some of the salt domes.
J. Rahnama Rad, et al., wrote:...The salt plugs, which have pierced cover rocks of up to 10000 m thick, are distributed on the Arabian Platform along regional basement faults. The area of diapir outcrops is bounded by the Oman Line to the East and by the Kazerun Fault to the West. Pieces of the basement have been brought up to the surface on some of the salt domes. The fragments were transported by rotational ascent of the Hormuz Salt Formation to the present and former land surfaces...
According to a 1999 Wall Street Journal article:
"Something mysterious is going on at Eugene Island 330. Production at the oil field, deep in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana, was supposed to have declined years ago. And for a while, it behaved like any normal field: Following its 1973 discovery, Eugene Island 330's output peaked at about 15,000 barrels per day. By 1989, production had slowed to about 4,000 barrels per day. Then suddenly -- some say almost inexplicably -- Eugene Island's fortunes reversed. The field, operated by PennzEnergy Co., is now producing 13,000 barrels per day, and probable reserves have rocketed to more than 400 million barrels from 60 million."
Dr. William Dillon, U.S. Geological Survey wrote:The Carolina Trough is a significant offshore oil and gas frontier area where no wells have been drilled. It is a very large basin, about the size of the State of South Carolina, that has accumulated a great thickness of sediment, perhaps more than 13 kilometers. Salt diapirs, reefs, and faults, in addition to hydrate gas, may provide greater potential for conventional oil and gas traps than is present in other east coast basins.
Dr. William Dillon, U.S. Geological Survey wrote:Some of the gas was formed by bacteria in the sediments, but some may be derived from deep strata of the Carolina Trough.
Map showing location and inferred thickness (in meters) of hydrates within sediments in high concentration area off North Carolina and South Carolina
Sparky wrote:sureshbansal, I have not read all of your posts, so excuse me if you have answered these questions elsewhere.
Are you a chemist or biologists?
Have you published a paper, outlining your hypothesis? If so, is there a good English translation available online?
Are you associated with any university or are you near to one?
I can see why the Gaia hypothesis has some basis for consideration.
c) i want the safety of my hypothesis.
3. hydrocarbons are very much scientific evidence of Gaia hypothesis because we have valid evidence of its deep origin as well as biogenic origin also. it is clear evidence that crude oil has deep origin .unfortunately they have diverted it toward abiogenic origin because they are not aware about this model. there is no solid reason that oil can not be biogenic in origin while it has deep origin also.they have manipluated the strong chemical evidence of its biogenic origin.
more over i have solved the mystery that sediments are only good signatures of presence of oil near there but no involvement to produce it.
when people will know this basic point it will be easy to find oil without mistake.
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