Bacteria wave forms

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Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby flyingcloud » Fri Jul 17, 2009 11:12 pm

By Manipulating Oxygen, Scientists Coax Bacteria Into Never-Before-Seen Solitary Wave

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 134903.htm

ScienceDaily (July 17, 2009) — Bacteria know that they are too small to make an impact individually. So they wait, they multiply, and then they engage in behaviors that are only successful when all cells participate in unison. There are hundreds of behaviors that bacteria carry out in such communities. Now researchers at Rockefeller University have discovered one that has never been observed or described before in a living system
In research published in the May 12 issue of Physical Review Letters, Albert J. Libchaber, head of the Laboratory of Experimental Condensed Matter Physics, and his colleagues, including first author Carine Douarche, a postdoctoral associate in the lab, show that when oxygen penetrates a sample of oxygen-deprived Escherichia coli bacteria, they do something that no living community had been seen to do before: The bacteria accumulate and form a solitary propagating wave that moves with constant velocity and without changing shape. But while the front is moving, each bacterium in it isn’t moving at all.

“It’s like a soliton,” says Douarche. “A self-reinforcing solitary wave.”

Unlike the undulating pattern of an ocean wave, which flattens or topples over as it approaches the shore, a soliton is a solitary, self-sustaining wave that behaves like a particle. For example, when two solitons collide, they merge into one and then separate into two with the same shape and velocity as before the collision. The first soliton was observed in 1834 at a canal in Scotland by John Scott Russell, a scientist who was so fascinated with what he saw that he followed it on horseback for miles and then set up a 30-foot water tank in his yard where he successfully simulated it, sparking considerable controversy.

The work began when Libchaber, Douarche and their colleagues placed E. coli bacteria in a sealed square chamber and measured the oxygen concentration and the density of bacteria every two hours until the bacteria consumed all the oxygen. (Bacteria, unlike humans, don’t die when starved for oxygen, but switch to a nonmotile state from which they can be revived.) The researchers then cracked the seals of the chamber, allowing oxygen to flow in.

The result: The motionless bacteria, which had spread out uniformly, began to move; first those around the perimeter, nearest to the seals, and then those further away. A few hours later, the bacteria began to spatially segregate into two domains of moving and nonmoving bacteria and pile up into a ring at the border of low-oxygen and no-oxygen. There they formed a solitary wave that propagated slowly but steadily toward the center of the chamber without changing its shape.

The effect, which lasted for more than 15 hours and covered a considerable distance (for bacteria), could not be explained by the expression of new proteins or by the addition of energy in the system. Instead, the creation of the front depends on the dispersion of the active bacteria and on the time it takes for oxygen-starved bacteria to completely stop moving, 15 minutes. The former allows the bacteria to propagate at a constant velocity, while the latter keeps the front from changing shape.

However, a propagating front of bacteria wasn’t all that was created. “To me, the biggest surprise was that the bacteria control the flow of oxygen in the regime,” says Libchaber. “There’s a propagating front of bacteria, but there is a propagating front of oxygen, too. And the bacteria, by absorbing the oxygen, control it very precisely.”

Oxygen, Libchaber explains, is one of the fastest-diffusing molecules, moving from regions of high concentration to low concentration such that the greater the distance it needs to travel, the faster it will diffuse there. But that is not what they observed. Rather, oxygen penetrated the chamber very slowly in a linear manner. Equal time, equal distance. “This pattern is not due to biology,” says Libchaber. “It has to do with the laws of physics. And it is organized in such an elegant way that the only thing it tells us is that we have a lot to learn from bacteria.”
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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby flyingcloud » Fri Jul 17, 2009 11:21 pm

http://www.lymebook.com/top10forms

spirochete_89387_7.jpg
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Greater Understanding Of Lyme Disease-causing Bacteria

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 163156.htm
ScienceDaily (July 3, 2009) — Lyme disease in theU.S. is caused by the tick-borne bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi and usually begins with a skin lesion, after which the bacteria spread throughout the body to the nervous system, heart or joints. About 60 percent of untreated individuals develop arthritis, which affects the knees in particular
Lyme disease usually responds well to antibiotic therapy, but in rare cases arthritis can persist for months or years after treatment, a rare condition known as antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis. Joint fluid usually tests negative for B burgdorferi after treatment, indicating that joint inflammation may persist even after the bacteria has been eradicated.

Two genetic marker systems are used to correlate the variation of this bacterial strain with clinical outcomes: OspC typing divides B burgdorferi strains into 21 types, while the ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer type (RST) system divides them into just three groups, with certain RST groups corresponding uniquely to specific OspC types.

A new study led by Allen Steere of Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School analyzed joint fluid samples from 124 patients with Lyme arthritis who were seen over a 30-year period. It identified B. burgdorferi strains in the joints of patients with Lyme arthritis and found that the genotype frequencies in joints reflected those in skin lesions. However, RST1 strains were the most frequent in patients with antibiotic-refractory arthritis.

The researchers were able to identify 10 of the 16 B burgdorferi OspC types found in the northeastern U.S. and all three RST types in the joint fluid of patients with Lyme arthritis. Although it was only possible to determine B burgdorferi phenotypes in 40 percent of the samples, the researchers feel confident that the distribution reflects what has been observed in the skin because they were able to identify numerous OspC and RST types, and the distribution was similar to what has been reported in previous studies of skin lesions.

One might presume that the association of RST1 strains with antibiotic-refractory arthritis may reflect a greater ability of these strains to survive in the joint despite antibiotic therapy. However, this seems not to be the case. Rather, RST1 strains seem to induce a more marked immune response, which may set the stage for joint inflammation that persists after antibiotic therapy in genetically susceptible individuals.

“We hypothesize that RST1 strains are more virulent, leading to larger numbers of organisms in blood, and more inflammation in joints,” the authors state. They conclude that the results of this study “add to the emerging literature concerning the differential pathogenicity of strains of B burgdorferi.”
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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby flyingcloud » Fri Jul 17, 2009 11:27 pm

Borrelia burgdorferi, Host-Derived Proteases, and the Blood-Brain Barrier

http://iai.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/73/2/1014

Neurological manifestations of Lyme disease in humans are attributed in part to penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) by Borrelia burgdorferi. However, how the spirochetes cross the BBB remains an unresolved issue. We examined the traversal of B. burgdorferi across the human BBB and systemic endothelial cell barriers using in vitro model systems constructed of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) and EA.hy 926, a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) line grown on Costar Transwell inserts. These studies showed that B. burgdorferi differentially crosses human BMEC and HUVEC and that the human BMEC form a barrier to traversal. During the transmigration by the spirochetes, it was found that the integrity of the endothelial cell monolayers was maintained, as assessed by transendothelial electrical resistance measurements at the end of the experimental period, and that B. burgdorferi appeared to bind human BMEC by their tips near or at cell borders, suggesting a paracellular route of transmigration. Importantly, traversal of B. burgdorferi across human BMEC induces the expression of plasminogen activators, plasminogen activator receptors, and matrix metalloproteinases. Thus, the fibrinolytic system linked by an activation cascade may lead to focal and transient degradation of tight junction proteins that allows B. burgdorferi to invade the CNS.


Horizontal Genetic Exchange, Evolution, and Spread of Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria

http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/514917

Extensive Diversity of Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacteria Recovered from Sonoran Desert Soil and Description of Nine New Species of the Genus Deinococcus Obtained from a Single Soil Sample
http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/71/9/5225
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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby flyingcloud » Fri Jul 17, 2009 11:47 pm

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006hep.ph...12311G
abstarct
The questions of how did life arise and is there life on other planets are some of the most profound questions that humanity asks Although there has been controversial signs of past bacterial life in meteorites which originated on Mars and there are current claims of bacterial life high in the atmosphere the issues of origin by chemical process or contamination make these types of results arguable and they will likely remain that way until a comprehensive theory is developed to explain why the claims might be true This paper proposes a complete theory for the spread of bacterial life throughout the galaxy by combining current knowledge from the fields of bacteriology stellar evolution and space weather Here we show the possibility that the forces of uplift on a charged bacteria particle are sufficient bring at least some lighter types of bacteria high into the ionosphere and subsequently move the charged spore onto magnetic field lines The bacteria spore is then driven down the magnetotail where during a solar storm a structure known as a plasmoid is propelled radially outward into space at velocities exceeding solar system escape velocity From that point the plasmoids are capable of reaching Mars the outer planets and even others systems eventually depositing the bacterial spores either via comets or direct interaction with the receiving planet The solid observational evidence for the strength of the electric fields and the speeds that the plasmoids leave the magnetotail during geomagnetic storms provide a firm
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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby junglelord » Sat Jul 18, 2009 5:59 am

Thanks for these. I have been thinking about bateria and consciousness lately. The Soliton paper was very cool.
8-)
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Casting Out the Nines from PHI into Indigs reveals the Cosmic Harmonic Code.
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Knowledge is Structured in Consciouness. Structure and Function Cannot Be Seperated.
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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby flyingcloud » Sat Jul 25, 2009 4:44 am

'Bacterial Computers': Genetically Engineered Bacteria Have Potential To Solve Complicated Mathematical Problems
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 194321.htm
ScienceDaily (July 24, 2009) — US researchers have created 'bacterial computers' with the potential to solve complicated mathematics problems. The findings of the research demonstrate that computing in living cells is feasible, opening the door to a number of applications. The second-generation bacterial computers illustrate the feasibility of extending the approach to other computationally challenging math problems.
A research team made up of four faculty members and 15 undergraduate students from the biology and mathematics departments at Missouri Western State University in Missouri and Davidson College in North Carolina, USA engineered the DNA of Escherichia coli bacteria, creating bacterial computers capable of solving a classic mathematical problem known as the Hamiltonian Path Problem.

The research extends previous work published last year in the same journal to produce bacterial computers that could solve the Burnt Pancake Problem.

The Hamiltonian Path Problem asks whether there is a route in a network from a beginning node to an ending node, visiting each node exactly once. The student and faculty researchers modified the genetic circuitry of the bacteria to enable them to find a Hamiltonian path in a three-node graph. Bacteria that successfully solved the problem reported their success by fluorescing both red and green, resulting in yellow colonies.

Synthetic biology is the use of molecular biology techniques, engineering principles, and mathematical modeling to design and construct genetic circuits that enable living cells to carry out novel functions. "Our research contributed more than 60 parts to the Registry of Standard Biological Parts, which are available for use by the larger synthetic biology community, including the newly split red fluorescent protein and green fluorescent protein genes," said Jordan Baumgardner, recent graduate of Missouri Western and first author of the research paper. "The research provides yet another example of how powerful and dynamic synthetic biology can be. We used synthetic biology to solve mathematical problems; others find applications in medicine, energy and the environment. Synthetic biology has great potential in the real world."

According to Dr. Eckdahl, the corresponding author of the article, synthetic biology affords a new opportunity for multidisciplinary undergraduate research training. "We have found synthetic biology to be an excellent way to engage students in research that connects biology and mathematics. Our students learn firsthand the value of crossing traditional disciplinary lines."



I can hear them singing ;)
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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby flyingcloud » Thu Aug 13, 2009 10:32 am

Anthrax Bacteria Conspire With Viruses To Stay Alive
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 035445.htm
...The researchers further show that in both the gut of the earthworm and the stark confines of a Petri dish, viruses can alter the lifestyle of B. anthracis in two principal ways. One is associated with the ability to build communities, the state in which bacteria prefer to live in the environment; the other affects the bacterium's ability to produce spores: round, dormant cells with a thick cell wall that enables them to endure harsh environmental conditions that the rod-shaped bacteria cannot. What's more, they found that depending on the conditions of the environment, the virus's DNA manipulates the bacterium's genome to toggle between spore production and community building.

The relationship appears to result from some sort of evolutionary contract that keeps the interests of bacterium and virus in balance. Since viruses cannot infect and grow in spores, they have an interest in silencing genes that ramp up spore production and in activating genes that help build B. anthracis communities. But when soil conditions threaten the survival of anthrax-causing bacteria, spawning a tougher line of defense to weather the soil's extreme conditions benefits both parties. The unveiling of the bacterium's life cycle opens up completely new strategies to combat anthrax infection, says Fischetti.

This isn't the first time that Fischetti and Schuch have seen that bacteriophages can affect the survival of B. anthracis. In 2006 they showed that infected anthrax-causing bacteria become more resistant to a natural antibiotic found in the soil. The new studies now go further, showing how these survival capabilities are not just affected by bacteriophages but actually depend on them.

Bacteriophages, the researchers found, exert their control via molecules known as sigma factors, which delegate proteins to turn specific host genes on or off. Different viruses encode different sigma factors, so the appearance of different traits depends on which virus infects the bacterium. While the DNA of some bacteriophages gets incorporated into the bacterium's single chromosome, the DNA of others exists as separate circular entities called episomes. These episomes can either stay inside one bacterium or flit in and out, infecting several bacteria in a matter of hours.

The finding has implications for the sequencing of genomes. "What that means is that sequencing the genome may not be enough," says Fischetti. "There are more than 1,000 known isolates of anthrax and there is little genetic variation between one isolate and the next. So at face value, it is a really boring genome. But what we see here is that the phage DNA, which works together with the anthrax genome, has always been overlooked."

If bacteriophages can govern the fate of bacteria and bacteria affect human health, the transformation of these bacteria may be able to explain the recurrent and cyclical nature of certain diseases. Humans have 10 times more bacteria on them or in them than the number of human cells, explains Fischetti. And there are 10 times more bacteriophages than there are bacteria. "Bacteriophages play a major role in us and what goes on around us in nature," he says. "I am convinced of that."



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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby flyingcloud » Thu Aug 13, 2009 10:46 am

Tiny Magnetic Crystals In Bacteria Are A Compass, Say Scientists
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 201412.htm

Magnetic Bacteria Maintain Their Mystery

http://www.scienceagogo.com/news/200609 ... _sys.shtml
"We determined that being magnetic actually makes the bacteria much more sensitive to oxygen when in a magnetic field, so that they swim away from oxygen at much lower concentrations,"




Bacteria With A Built-in Thermometer:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 114703.htm
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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby flyingcloud » Thu Aug 20, 2009 10:36 am

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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby flyingcloud » Sat Aug 22, 2009 8:27 am

Artificial Life One Step Closer: Scientists Clone And Engineer Bacterial Genomes In Yeast And Transplant Genomes Back Into Bacterial Cells

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 205730.htm
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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby flyingcloud » Wed Sep 09, 2009 5:24 am

Bacteria Take On Completely New Flat Shape To Fit Through Nanoslits

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 190644.htm
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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby flyingcloud » Wed Sep 09, 2009 8:55 am

Bacteria Used To Make Radioactive Metals Inert
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 193444.htm

"Knowledge of the way bacteria live in the environment, in microbial communities, is still in its infancy," Wall said. "We just don't know a lot about the communication systems among microbes."
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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby flyingcloud » Tue Dec 15, 2009 12:12 pm

'Rock-Breathing' Bacteria Could Generate Electricity and Clean Up Oil Spills

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 151931.htm
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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby flyingcloud » Thu Dec 17, 2009 11:21 am

Puzzling 'Dance' of Electricity-Producing Bacteria Near Energy Sources
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 141518.htm
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Re: Bacteria wave forms

Unread postby seraulu1 » Mon Mar 15, 2010 4:02 am

;) ;) ;) ,

Thanks for that information you give that's good help,thanks again! how to hypnotize people
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