Astronomers find their missing baryons....again...and again.

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Astronomers find their missing baryons....again...and again.

Unread postby Michael Mozina » Thu Feb 14, 2019 12:25 pm

Chandra Press Room :: Where is the Universe Hiding its Missing Mass? :: 14 February 19

By extrapolating from these observations of oxygen to the full set of elements, and from the observed region to the local universe, the researchers report they can account for the complete amount of missing matter. At least in this particular case, the missing matter had been hiding in the WHIM after all.

"We were thrilled that we were able to track down some of this missing matter" said co-author Randall Smith, also of CfA. "In the future we can apply this same method to other quasar data to confirm that this long-standing mystery has at last been cracked."


For decades astronomers have struggled to find their so called "missing baryons" which has been considered to be separate from "dark matter" by the way.

Based on the LCDM model, astronomers estimated that they should be finding a specific amount of baryonic mass based on luminosity oriented mass estimation techniques of galaxies, but they've been consistently finding only about half of the expected amount of ordinary baryonic mass based on those luminosity oriented techniques. They knew that something was wrong, but they hadn't been able to locate the missing baryons and find the problem in their baryonic mass estimate techniques. This baryonic mass estimation technique was used in the now infamous Bullet Cluster study in 2006 when astronomers claimed to "prove" the existence of "dark matter" by estimating the total mass of the galaxy clusters based on a lensing technique associated with General Relativity and then subtracting the amount of baryonic mass in those galaxies that is estimated based on luminosity:

The Bullet Cluster – A Smoking Gun for Dark Matter!

This luminosity oriented baryonic mass estimation technique is based upon an IMF (initial mass function) of stars, and their expected luminosity. Only the largest stars in distant galaxies produce enough light to be seen on Earth, whereas smaller stars simply do not emit enough light to contribute much to the overall brightness of galaxies at large distances. They use an "estimation" process that essentially estimates the number of smaller stars that we cannot see on Earth compared to the larger sized stars which emit enough light to contribute to the overall galaxy brightness which we observe. They categorize the stars into different groups based on size, small red dwarfs being the most abundant but emitting the least amount of light, stars the size of our own sun which emit more light than red dwarfs, yet still too little light to be observed on Earth, and the largest stars in galaxies that emit enough light to contribute to the overall brightness.

Numerous assumptions are made in that baryonic mass estimation technique relating to the maximum size of massive (large) stars, the number of them found in various galaxies, the percentage of smaller sun size stars compared to larger stars, and the percentage of smaller sized red dwarfs compared to larger stars. They also estimate the amount of stars found between galaxies in various galaxy clusters. All of these 'assumptions' have recently (within the past 11 years) been shown to be incorrect:

Over the past 11 years. numerous problems have been identified in those luminosity oriented mass estimation techniques, and a *lot* of new 'normal' matter has been found:

In 2008, they figured out that distant galaxies are actually twice as bright as first suspected. About half of the light from ordinary stars has been absorbed/blocked by ordinary dust which surrounds every galaxy:

Universe shines twice as bright

The authors of that paper assumed that the larger stars in galaxies must be bigger and more massive than originally estimated by the IMF calculations. That assumption was confirmed last year when they discovered that the size of massive stars can actually be considerably larger than first estimated and the number of larger stars can be considerable greater than expected:

This massive star discovery could rewrite astrophysics

They found that the massive stars in 30 Doradus were actually larger and considerably more numerous than has been estimated in the luminosity oriented mass estimation techniques we've been using. In essence the two studies confirmed that we've been systematically underestimating the ordinary baryonic mass that is found in larger stars in every galaxy in those luminosity calculations.

In 2009 they also discovered that their luminosity oriented mass estimation techniques had been systematically underestimating the number of smaller sized stars like our own sun in various galaxies, which do not emit enough light to be seen on Earth, compared to the number of larger stars which can be observed on Earth. In fact we've been underestimating the number of such stars by a factor of four!

NASA - Galaxies Demand a Stellar Recount

The following year in 2010, they discovered that they've been underestimating the most *common* sized star (dwarf stars) in various galaxies by a *whopping* factor of between 3 and 20 times depending on the galaxy type. Again, they've been grossly underestimating the *normal baryonic material* that is present in galaxies.

Scientists Find 200 Sextillion More Stars in the Sky

In 2012 NASA reported that it had found a hot plasma halo around our galaxy and presumably every galaxy which is so massive that by itself that hot plasma halo might explain the entire missing baryon problem:

Milky Way is Surrounded by Huge Halo of Hot Gas | ChandraBlog | Fresh Chandra News

Data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory was used to estimate that the mass of the halo is comparable to the mass of all the stars in the Milky Way galaxy. If the size and mass of this gas halo is confirmed, it could be the solution to the "missing-baryon" problem for the Galaxy.


In 2014 it was discovered that there might be as many stars *outside* of galaxies in a galaxy cluster as the number of stars found in the galaxies themselves.

A Universe of Stars May Exist Outside Galaxies | RealClearScience

"If confirmed, these observations reveal an unexpected stellar population, with as many as half the stars in the local universe being outside galaxies," NASA astronomer Harvey Moseley commented. "It is remarkable that such a major component of the universe could have been hiding in plain sight as an infrared background between the stars and galaxies."


In 2017 a *second* massive halo of cooler baryonic hydrogen gas was also discovered around our galaxy which also potentially holds enough ordinary baryonic mass to account for the so called "missing" baryons.

Galaxy’s hydrogen halo hides missing mass | Cosmos

Drilling through the data, Zaritsky and Zhang confirmed not only the existence of the gas, but also that its mass matches that missing in the baryonic-to-dark-matter equation.


Today's Chandra announcement marks the third time now in the last 7 years that astronomers have reported finding their 'missing baryons', first they reported finding them in a hot million degree plasma halo in 2012, again they claimed to find them in a cooler hydrogen gas halo in 2017, and a third time today in a "hot/warm" plasma medium found in the filaments connecting galaxies. This is *on top of* all of the of the stellar mass underestimates discovered since 2008. Astronomers no longer have a 'missing baryon" problem, they have an *excess* of baryon problem on their hands in 2019. The have now reported to have found triple the number of missing baryons inside of a hot plasma halo, again inside of a cooler gas halo, and for a third time in the hot/warm filaments between galaxies, *plus* they've reported a bunch of baryon underestimation problems related to their stellar IMF calculations!

There is no absolutely no evidence of any need for exotic forms of "dark matter", and there is now plenty of evidence to suggest that our baryonic mass estimation techniques have never been worth the paper they've been printed on.
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Missing links

Unread postby Michael Mozina » Thu Feb 14, 2019 4:40 pm

I didn't catch the fact that my links didn't come over properly when I posted my previous entry. Here they are in order:

Chandra Press Room :: Where is the Universe Hiding its Missing Mass? :: 14 February 19
http://chandra.si.edu/press/19_releases ... 21419.html

The Bullet Cluster – A Smoking Gun for Dark Matter!
https://astrobites.org/2016/11/04/the-b ... rk-matter/

Universe shines twice as bright
https://www.skymania.com/wp/universe-sh ... as-bright/

This massive star discovery could rewrite astrophysics
https://www.newsweek.com/massive-stars- ... ics-770791

NASA - Galaxies Demand a Stellar Recount
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/gale ... 90819.html

Scientists Find 200 Sextillion More Stars in the Sky
https://www.foxnews.com/science/scienti ... in-the-sky.

A Universe of Stars May Exist Outside Galaxies | RealClearScience
https://www.realclearscience.com/journa ... 08929.html

Galaxy’s hydrogen halo hides missing mass | Cosmos
https://cosmosmagazine.com/space/galaxy ... ssing-mass

I'm sorry that I didn't catch that problem earlier when I had the opportunity to fix the broken links in the original post.
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and again.....

Unread postby Michael Mozina » Fri Feb 15, 2019 8:03 pm

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4497

Using infrared survey images from WISE, the team discovered two clusters of stars thousands of light-years below the galactic disk. The stars live in dense clumps of gas called giant molecular clouds.

This is the first time astronomers have found stars being born in such a remote location. Clouds of star-forming material at very high latitudes away from the galactic plane are rare and, in general, are not expected to form stars.

"Our work shows that the space around the galaxy is a lot less empty that we thought," said Camargo. "The new clusters of stars are truly exotic. In a few million years, any inhabitants of planets around the stars will have a grand view of the outside of the Milky Way, something no human being will probably ever experience."


It's no wonder that galaxies rotate as though there's a lot of mass beyond the obvious visible edges of galaxies. We're still finding additional mass that is located out in the 'suburbs' of our own galaxy. Exotic dark matter theory is simply the result of a horribly flawed baryonic mass estimation technique that has never been accurate and has never been updated to address all of these documented mass underestimation problems.
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Re: Astronomers find their missing baryons....again...and ag

Unread postby nick c » Sat Feb 16, 2019 9:36 am

Michael,
There is not anywhere near enough baryonic mass in the necessary locations to account for galactic rotations. If there were it would form into stars, nebula, etc. and make itself visible, wouldn't it? I am sure mainstream theorists have already considered that possibility as it would make their jobs much easier. They need Dark Matter because the correct amount of baryonic matter is not found where it needs to be in order to explain galactic rotation.
The problem is solved by discarding the assumption that galactic form, rotation, and motion is solely governed by gravity. There are electrical forces at play. The Electric Universe explanation for galaxies does not require hidden baryonic matter or Dark matter.
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Re: Astronomers find their missing baryons....again...and ag

Unread postby Michael Mozina » Sat Feb 16, 2019 10:39 am

nick c wrote:Michael,
There is not anywhere near enough baryonic mass in the necessary locations to account for galactic rotations. If there were it would form into stars, nebula, etc. and make itself visible, wouldn't it?


Yes, but it wouldn't all necessarily be visible from Earth. Even smaller stars are not directly visible in distant galaxies. The dust between there and Earth, and the inverse square law of light make them virtually "invisible" over some distance. If the plasma isn't in arc mode, it's probably not going to emit enough light to be seen from Earth, particularly if it's in a distant galaxy. If you checkout those two plasma/gas halos they found recently around our own galaxy, they were virtually impossible to detect based on the light they emitted. Only their absorption patterns were observable.

I do think Dr. Scott is correct that galaxy rotation patterns are influenced and controlled by Birkeland currents however, but in terms of luminosity based mass estimates, it's clear that the mainstream baryonic mass estimation techniques are utterly and completely unreliable.

I am sure mainstream theorists have already considered that possibility as it would make their jobs much easier. They need Dark Matter because the correct amount of baryonic matter is not found where it needs to be in order to explain galactic rotation.


Actually those two recent halos they've found since 2012 are located exactly where the mainstream models predict that dark matter needs to be located. They can't change their percentages of exotic matter In the LCDM model however without breaking their model in terms of CMB relationships and nucleosynthesis predictions, so they've basically chosen to simply bury their collective heads in the sand with respect to their luminosity based mass estimation problems.

The problem is solved by discarding the assumption that galactic form, rotation, and motion is solely governed by gravity. There are electrical forces at play. The Electric Universe explanation for galaxies does not require hidden baryonic matter or Dark matter.


That's true to some extent, and I agree with you that EM fields are also responsible for the mass layout and rotation patterns of galaxies, but lensing studies like that now infamous bullet cluster study do suggest that there is actually more mass present in most distant galaxies than mainstream luminosity based estimates account for. The reason for that however is quite obvious now. The luminosity based mass estimation techniques used by the mainstream are completely unreliable. Even dust throws a big monkey wrench into those estimates, and there are at least a half dozen *major* problems in the assumptions that are used in that luminosity based estimation technique that have been discovered since the bullet cluster study came out.

I absolutely agree with you that EM fields are responsible for the rotation patterns of galaxies, but lensing studies show more mass than luminosity based estimates, but only because the mainstream luminosity based estimates are horribly flawed as many recent (last 11 years) studies have demonstrated.
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Re: Astronomers find their missing baryons....again...and ag

Unread postby neilwilkes » Mon Feb 18, 2019 12:16 pm

nick c wrote:Michael,

The problem is solved by discarding the assumption that galactic form, rotation, and motion is solely governed by gravity. There are electrical forces at play. The Electric Universe explanation for galaxies does not require hidden baryonic matter or Dark matter.


Fact is that there is a hell of a lot of "hidden" baryonic matter - everywhere. Interstellar & intergalactic dust is mainly invisible, and the very same dust obscures our vision to an enormous degree - it's not exactly hidden, just very very difficult to see - in Optical wavelengths the Galactic Centre looks empty (which is probabluy where the nonsensical claims of "supermassive" black holes (whatever they are supposed to be) comes from.
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Re: Astronomers find their missing baryons....again...and ag

Unread postby nick c » Mon Feb 18, 2019 1:38 pm

Again, there is plenty of baryonic matter that cannot be seen. But the reason it is invisible is because there is not enough to make it visible. Baryonic matter forms stars and molecular clouds which form into more stars. That is the way baryonic matter behaves. If there were enough to account for the galactic rotation anomaly we would see it, just like we can see the spiral arms and core of the particular galaxy in question.
Mainstream needs an enormous and unrealistic amount of DM, to the point where they are now declaring that a typical galaxy is composed of 85% DM. You are simply not going to account for galactic motion, form, and rotation with unobserved baryonic matter. That is why mainstream invented DM, the problem is the a priori assumption that gravity is the only force worth considering in the cosmos..
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Re: Astronomers find their missing baryons....again...and ag

Unread postby Michael Mozina » Mon Feb 18, 2019 5:17 pm

nick c wrote:Again, there is plenty of baryonic matter that cannot be seen. But the reason it is invisible is because there is not enough to make it visible. Baryonic matter forms stars and molecular clouds which form into more stars. That is the way baryonic matter behaves. If there were enough to account for the galactic rotation anomaly we would see it, just like we can see the spiral arms and core of the particular galaxy in question.
Mainstream needs an enormous and unrealistic amount of DM, to the point where they are now declaring that a typical galaxy is composed of 85% DM. You are simply not going to account for galactic motion, form, and rotation with unobserved baryonic matter. That is why mainstream invented DM, the problem is the a priori assumption that gravity is the only force worth considering in the cosmos..
Its Electric!


I wholeheartedly agree with you Nick. The whole exotic matter concept is directly related to their irrational overconfidence in their luminosity based mass calculations and their complete *phobia* when it comes to recognizing and accepting the roles of electrical currents in space.

As Dr. Scott's Birkeland current model demonstrates, EM effects can logically and fully explain galaxy rotation patterns without evoking exotic new forms of matter.

The main reason I'm keeping a record of the various errors that have been found to date in their luminosity based calculations relates back to the lensing data and that now infamous bullet cluster study. They've never been able to properly estimate mass based on luminosity. Space isn't homogeneously dusty in every direction, so even the basic concept of estimating mass based on luminosity is flawed and grossly oversimplistic from the start. Plasma can be in dark mode, glow mode and arc mode, each with different luminosity properties too. The luminosity of the plasma then will depend entirely on the local conditions of that plasma.

If the mainstream wasn't so electrophobic and/or wasn't using such oversimplied bayronic mass estimation models, they'd have no problem at all explaining observations in space based on ordinary physics. Instead of embracing the role of electricity in space, they have to make up all kinds of ridiculous stories about how each galaxy has it's own amount of exotic matter, and they have to flat out ignore the fact that galaxy rotation patterns can be precisely predicted by the amount of ordinary mass that we can see without even knowing anything about the mass that we can't see.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2 ... 085052.htm

"Galaxy rotation curves have traditionally been explained via an ad hoc hypothesis: that galaxies are surrounded by dark matter," said David Merritt, professor of physics and astronomy at the Rochester Institute of Technology, who was not involved in the research. "The relation discovered by McGaugh et al. is a serious, and possibly fatal, challenge to this hypothesis, since it shows that rotation curves are precisely determined by the distribution of the normal matter alone. Nothing in the standard cosmological model predicts this, and it is almost impossible to imagine how that model could be modified to explain it, without discarding the dark matter hypothesis completely."


They know it's a ad-hoc explanation to start with. They can't explain that data. It doesn't match their models, it's a potentially fatal blow to their model, and it's almost impossible to imagine how the model could be modified to explain it, but they continue to simply ignore the facts, they bury their collective heads in the sand, and they just pretend it doesn't matter.

The LCDM model is an *epic fail* when it comes to making any useful or accurate predictions about events and observations in space. It's been a postdicted piece of junk since day one. The LCDM model is utterly useless for actually "explaining" anything since it's based almost entirely upon placeholder terms for human ignorance with a tiny smattering of pseudoscience. It's even more useless at accurately 'predicting' anything new, and none of it, not one single important aspect of the LCDM model shows up or works in a lab. Nothing. What a disaster.


I'm sure the list of billion and million dollar lab failures of exotic matter theory will continue to pile up, and I'm sure that the revelations of baryonic miscounts will also continue to grow over time.
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