## GRAVITATION AS COMPENSATION INTERACTION

Beyond the boundaries of established science an avalanche of exotic ideas compete for our attention. Experts tell us that these ideas should not be permitted to take up the time of working scientists, and for the most part they are surely correct. But what about the gems in the rubble pile? By what ground-rules might we bring extraordinary new possibilities to light?

Moderators: MGmirkin, bboyer

### GRAVITATION AS COMPENSATION INTERACTION

A simple and logical hypothesis about the nature of gravity is proposed. Its provisions are confirmed by data from a wide variety of areas of physics. These ideas, in the opinion of the author, can be used right now in gravimetric geodesy, seismology and space navigation.
According to this hypothesis, two fundamental properties of the mass: gravity and inertia, should be considered as a manifestation of a global mechanism for compensating for changes occurring in space and time. Gravity is seen as a compensation for changes in space, directed against the predominance of expansion or contraction processes, that is, as a phenomenon that has a potential basis. Inertia is seen as a compensation for changes in time, directed against the predominance of expansion or contraction of the time frame of what is happening, in other words, acts against the appearance of positive or negative accelerations. Accordingly, inertia has a kinetic basis. Equivalence of inert (on a kinetic basis) and gravitational (on a potential basis) masses, thus, directly follows from Newton's second law: m = F / a.
Regarding the forces of inertia, such a statement of the question looks quite obvious. Gravitational forces, in turn, seek to restore the balance between positive and negative potential energies, that is, between the forces of attraction and repulsion created by different fields. Thus, if there are repulsive forces between objects, the force of gravity will tend to bring them closer. If there are forces of attraction — on the contrary, it will seek to distance them from each other.
Gravitational attraction is a global phenomenon. Therefore, it must counteract repulsive forces on a potential basis that are present in any aggregate state of substance. Such forces exist, they are generated by the Pauli prohibition, according to which two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integral spin) can not simultaneously be in the same quantum state.
From the school physics course we know that it is the mass that generates gravitational forces, not the prohibition of quantum mechanics, and the magnitude of these forces depends directly on the magnitude of the mass. How do these phenomena correlate? Repulsive forces of the Pauli prohibition act on all fermions, and it is logical to assume that the more the mass of the object, that is, the more particles it unites, the more these repulsive forces.
Can we talk about the direct dependence of these phenomena? Repulsive forces, generated by the Pauli prohibition, create the pressure of a degenerate gas. This pressure depends only on the gas density, that is, on the volume concentration of the particles (or on the average distance between them). I want to recall that degeneracy occurs when the distances between particles of the gas become commensurate with the de Broglie wavelength. Further, as is known, the length of a material wave is inversely proportional to the particle momentum, and the latter, in turn, is directly proportional to its rest mass. Thus, the repulsive forces of the Pauli prohibition are directly proportional to the rest mass, and there is no contradiction in the assertion that they can generate counteracting gravitational forces.
If the distance between the atoms in the molecule increases, the potential energy of repelling the external electrons, respectively, should be reduced. As a consequence, this should cause a decrease in the gravitational mass of the molecule. In a solid, the distances between atoms depend on temperature as the causes of thermal expansion. Professor of the Department of Light Technologies and Optoelectronics ITMO Saint Petersburg University A. L. Dmitriev experimentally found a decrease in the weight of the sample when heated [1].
Based on the same premise, the weight of a single crystal, in which the distances between atoms along its different crystallographic axes are different, should differ in its different positions relative to the vector of gravity. Professor A. L. Dmitriev experimentally discovered the mass difference of the rutile crystal sample measured at two mutually perpendicular positions of the optical axis of the crystal relative to the vertical [2].
Based on the proposed hypothesis, with a quasi-elastic impact of a falling body on a solid surface, its weight at the time of impact should increase as a result of gravity's reaction to the appearance of additional repulsion forces. Professor A.L. Dmitriev compared the recovery factors for a horizontal and vertical impact of a steel test ball 4.7 mm in diameter on a massive polished steel plate.

The recovery coefficient characterizes the magnitude of the acceleration of the ball during impact under the action of elastic forces. With a vertical impact, the recovery factor in the experiment turned out to be noticeably lower than when it was horizontal, as shown in the graph below.

Given that the magnitude of the electromagnetic forces of elasticity in both experiments is the same, the conclusion remains that with a vertical impact the ball became heavier [3].
In the author's view, in terms of understanding the subject matter of this article, the variety of gravitational anomalies provides much more useful information than the laws of celestial mechanics.
There is such a way of geological exploration as microgravimetry, based on the measurement of small deviations of gravity. Detailed methods of analysis of measurement results are developed, which are based on the point of view that gravitational deviations are determined by the density of the underlying rocks. To argue against such views, it is necessary to have comprehensive information on rock density and internal stresses at the depth of the earth's crust in the area under discussion. Obviously, this is not possible, so I would like to suggest analyzing the results of gravimetric studies of artificial structures.
In 1986, French researchers conducted a gravimetric survey of the great pyramid of Cheops. Scientists have found on perimeter of a pyramid wide strips with smaller, approximately, on 15% density. French researchers could not explain why sparse stripes formed along the walls of the pyramid. Given that this isoanomaly map, in essence, is a projection from above, such a distribution of densities in the structure can not fail to surprise[4].

Thus, in the section along this line, the density distribution in the structure should look something like this:

It is difficult to imagine that an object with such a structure has remained unchanged for many thousands of years. Take another look at the results of the research. In the image, you can see a spiral, which clearly indicates the order of the pyramid construction – a sequential completion of the side faces with a clockwise transition. This is not surprising - the method of successive completion of layers in the construction of such an object is the most optimal. And since by the time build up the new layer has already occurred drawdown of the old, the new one, in turn, slips over the surface of the previous layer as a separate stratum, and this creates uneven pressure of the pyramid on the ground.
From a generally accepted point of view, these gravity deviations could be caused by compaction of the soil under pressure of inclined layers. In this case, it is impossible, as the pyramid stands on a rocky base, which could not be compacted by 15% even for thousands of years. If we adhere to the view that the anomalies are the result of internal stresses caused by the pressure of individual lateral strata on the rocky soil, then a completely logical explanation of the spiral structure is obtained.

Below are the results of the microgravity survey the ruins of St. Catherine's monastery, Slovakia. These anomalies can not be caused by an increase in soil density under the foundation as a result of subsidence, since the building is located on a rocky hill. They can be caused only by the presence of internal stresses under the weight of the walls of the monastery[5].

The late Romanesque Church of Virgin St. Mary's Birth, Slovakia, also located on a rocky hill. The results of her microgravimetric study are similar to the previous example[6].

According to the proposed hypothesis, gravity anomalies are not related to the density of rocks, but are a consequence of the presence of internal stresses in the earth's crust. The cause of internal stresses can be tectonic forces, forces of volumetric compression due to thermal expansion of rocks, changes in volume during hydration-dehydration reactions, polymorphic transformations of matter. The forces of volumetric stretching arise because of a reduction in the volume of rocks, for example, when cooling of intrusions penetrated into the rock. The rocks that make up the earth's crust and the substance of the deep interior of the planet have different elastic properties, due to their different petrographic composition and thermodynamic conditions of occurrence.
I assume that the traditional explanation of the cause of gravitational anomalies serves as a significant disorienting factor in the interpretation of gravimetric data in the interests of geological exploration. A number of signs indicate a direct connection between gravitational anomalies and the presence of internal stresses in rocks.
Compressive stresses should accumulate in solid rocks such as basalt, and indeed - basalt volcanic islands and ranges of oceanic islands are characterized by significant positive the Bouguer anomalies [4]. Rocks of small hardness - sedimentary, ash, tuff, etc., are usually characterized by negative the Bouguer anomalies [7]. Tensile stresses predominate in the regions of young rises, and negative anomalies of gravity are observed there. Stretching of the earth's crust takes place in the region of abyssal troughs, which have sharply pronounced belts of negative gravity anomalies.
Tensile stresses predominate in the areas of lifting in the crest, and at the foot are dominated by compressive stresses. Accordingly, and the Bouguer anomalies, as a rule, have a minimum above the crest of the lift and highs on its sides[7].
The popular geodynamic hypothesis proposed by Vending Meinesz explains the nature of the belts of sharp negative anomalies by the deep deflection of the earth's crust and the accumulation of light masses in the deflection region. It should be noted that with a deep deflection there are also tensile stresses in the earth's crust.
Deep water gutters, where tensile stresses are present, correspond to negative anomalies of gravity, reaching 200 mGal. Above the island arcs, in most cases, positive anomalies are observed with an amplitude of up to 100-150 mGal. The origin of these conjugated gravitational anomalies the Netherlands geophysicist Vening Meinesz correlated with the dynamic effect of compression and subduction of the ocean floor under island arcs [8].
Tensile stresses in the earth's crust cause the appearance of discontinuities and, as a consequence, internal cavities, so the coordinates of negative anomalies and cavities may coincide.
The above leads to the conclusion that microgravimetric studies can be useful for remote monitoring of the load distribution on the ground, which is created by the supports of large bridges, as well as dams. For similar reasons, this property of gravity gives the principle possibility of detecting submarines at great depth by methods of microgravimetry. The water pressure creates internal stresses in the submarine body, which should cause a positive gravitational anomaly. Thus, the deeper the submarine is submerged, the easier it is to detect it.
Gravimetric surveying is the cheapest method of geological exploration. The refinement of the methodology for evaluating the results of gravimetric data will increase the efficiency of more expensive methods - seismic exploration, drilling of wells, and therefore will make the entire process of mineral exploration less costly. Verification of this statement also does not require large expenditures: for this it is sufficient to carry out comparative microgravimetric measurements over a vertical industrial press of high power. One measurement should be carried out before the compression process, and the second - during compression. In the second measurement, an increase in the force of gravity must be recorded.
In his article [9] famous scientists-geologists KHAIN V.E., KHALILOV E.N., it is pointed out that variations of gravity before strong earthquakes, the epicenters of which are located at a distance of 4-7 thousand kilometers from the recording station, have been repeatedly recorded. It is characteristic that in most cases, before the distant strong earthquakes there is first a decrease, and then an increase in gravity. In the vast majority of cases, there is a "vibration recording" - a relatively high-frequency oscillation of the gravimeter, with a frequency of 0.1-0.4 Hz, which stops immediately after the earthquake(!).

This hypothesis suggests that gravity does not counteract each individual force, but the resultant force, so that the gravitational forces themselves can not counteract each other in principle. In other words, from two oppositely accessible gravitational forces, the smaller simply ceases to exist, while weakening its "rival". Critics of the law of gravity, not understanding the simple essence of the phenomenon, found such examples quite a lot. I suggest only the most obvious of them:
- according to calculations, the force of attraction between the Sun and the Moon, at the time of the passage of the Moon between the Earth and the Sun, is more than 2 times higher than that between Earth and the Moon. Therefore, further the Moon must continue its path in orbit around the Sun.
- the Earth-Moon system does not rotate around the center of mass, but around the center of the Earth.
- there is no own gravitation of the satellites of the giant planets: the latter does not exert its influence on the speed of the passage of the probes.
If the smaller of the opposite gravitational forces ceases to exist, then the question is: how do tides appear? The vector of gravity would always be directed to the center of the planet, if there was no influence of the moon and the Sun. Since gravity is always directed against the resultant force, the repulsive forces of the Pauli prohibition, caused by the lunar matter, deflect the direction of the vector of gravity toward our natural satellite. Thus, tidal forces do not attract earth masses to the Moon, but tend to concentrate them closer to the Earth-Moon axis.
The proof of this explanation of tides literally lies on the surface: gravity does not depend on the position of the moon in the sky, the value of the force of gravity to the center of the planet does not change, and tidal phenomena, however, exist. Moreover, the gravitational force does not change at all during the eclipses of the Sun, nor during the eclipse of the Moon, when the moduli of gravitational forces, according to generally accepted concepts, should be added up and, on the contrary, subtracted.

This property explains how gravity, as the weakest of known interactions, ultimately turns out to be stronger than electromagnetic interaction. If the density of repelling objects is large enough, then the forces acting between them begin to counteract each other, and with gravitational forces this does not happen. And the higher the density of such objects, the greater the advantage of gravity. This is illustrated by the following examples.
It is known that like charges repel, and, based on the proposed hypothesis, under the influence of gravity, they should, on the contrary, be attracted to each other. With a sufficient density of free low-energy electrons in the air, they really begin to attract until it is prevented by Pauli's prohibition. So, high-speed shooting showed that lightning is preceded by the following phenomenon: all free electrons from the whole cloud gather in one point and already in the form of a ball, together, rush to the ground, while clearly ignoring Coulomb's law!
There are convincing experimental data on the presence of attraction forces between the same-charged macroparticles in the dust plasma, in which various structures, in particular, dust clusters, are formed.
A similar phenomenon is found in colloidal plasma, which is a natural (biological fluid) or artificially prepared suspension of particulates in a solvent, usually in water. Mutually attracted are charged particles of the same name, also called macroions, the charge of which is due to the corresponding electrochemical reactions. It is important that, unlike dusty plasma, colloidal suspensions are thermodynamically in equilibrium [10]. Next, I propose to consider the examples where gravity acts as a repulsive force.
I cannot but emphasize that the proposed hypothesis is based almost entirely on the results of long-term and large-scale experimental work done by Professor A. Dmitriev. There is no doubt that in the history of science, no one has conducted such a multifaceted and detailed study of the properties of gravity. And in particular, the Russian scientist drew attention to a long-known effect. The electric arc has a characteristic form-bending upwards, which is traditionally explained by the effects of buoyancy, convection, air currents or the influence of external electric and magnetic fields. Calculations A. L. Dmitriev and his colleagues E. M. Nikishenko prove that its form can not be due to any of the specified reasons [11].
Photo of a glow discharge at an air pressure of 0.1 atm, current strength in the range of 30-70 mA, voltage at the electrodes 0.6-1.0 kV, current frequency 50 Hz.

The electric arc is a plasma. The magnetic pressure of the plasma has a negative sign and is based on the potential energy. The sum of the magnitudes of the magnetic and gas-dynamic pressures is a constant, they balance each other, and therefore the plasma does not expand in space. In turn, the magnitude of the negative potential energy is directly proportional to the distance between the charged particles, and in a rarefied plasma these distances can be large enough to generate, according to the proposed hypothesis, gravitational repulsive forces exceeding the earth's attraction. In turn, the maximum potential negative energy can reach only in a fully ionized plasma, and this can only be high-temperature plasma. The electric arc is just such a kind of plasma.
If the phenomenon described above-the gravitational repulsion of a rarefied high-temperature plasma does indeed exist, then it must manifest itself on a much larger scale. In this sense, the processes occurring in the solar corona are of interest. Despite the enormous gravity on the surface of the Star, the solar atmosphere is extraordinarily vast. The reasons for this, as well as the temperatures in the millions of Kelvin in the solar corona, have not been found by physicists until now.
The atmosphere of the gas giant Jupiter, whose mass approximates the mass of some stars, contrasts brightly with the solar corona and has clear boundaries.

Above the solar chromosphere is a transitional layer above which gravity ceases to dominate, hence, there are certain forces that act against the attraction of the Star. Electrons and atoms in the solar corona are accelerated by these forces to enormous speeds. It is noteworthy that charged particles continue to accelerate further, as they move away from the Sun.
Solar wind is a more or less continuous plasma flow, so it is natural to conclude that charged particles are emitted not only through coronal holes. Attempts to explain the ejection of a plasma by the action of magnetic fields are untenable, since below the transition layer the same magnetic fields act as above it. Despite the fact that the solar corona is a radiant structure, the Sun evaporates plasma from its entire surface. This can be seen even on the proposed picture; it is obvious that the solar wind is a further continuation of the crown.
At the level of the above transition layer, only one parameter of high-temperature plasma changes-its density decreases. As a consequence, gravity begins to push out the plasma and accelerate the charged particles to enormous speeds.
A significant part of the red giants consists precisely of a rarefied high-temperature plasma. A team of astronomers led by Keiichi Ohnaka of the Institute of Astronomy of the University of Catholicola del Norte in Chile, using the observatory VLT, explored the atmosphere of the red giant Antares. Studying the density and velocity of plasma flows from the behavior of the spectrum of CO, astronomers have found that its density is higher than is possible according to existing concepts. Models calculating the intensity of convection do not allow uplift in the atmosphere of Antares of such a quantity of gas, and therefore in the bowels of the star has a powerful and as yet unknown repulsive force [12].
High-temperature rarefied plasma is formed on the Earth as a result of atmospheric discharges, and, consequently, atmospheric phenomena should be detected, under which the plasma is pushed out by gravity. Such examples exist, and in this case we are talking about a fairly rare atmospheric phenomenon - sprites.
I want to draw attention to the top of the sprites in this picture. They have an external property with corona discharges, but for this they are too large, and most importantly – for the formation of the latter, it is necessary to have electrodes at an altitude of tens of kilometers.

Sprites are similar to jets from the nozzles of the missiles flying parallel down. And this similarity is not accidental. There are convincing signs that these jets are the result of gravitational ejection of the plasma formed after discharge. All up to one jet oriented strictly vertically, without deviations, which is more than strange for atmospheric discharges. This ejection cannot be explained by the phenomenon of plasma buoyancy in the atmosphere – all the jets are too smooth for this. This very short-term process is possible only because the air is ionized and heats up very quickly, and when cooled by the ambient air, the plasma jet disappears quickly.
If a lot of sprites are formed at the same time, at the height of the end of their jets the energy transferred to the atmosphere in a very short period of time (of the order of 300 microseconds) excites a shock wave propagating to a distance of 300-400 km; these phenomena are called elves:

Found that sprites appear at an altitude of more than 55 kilometers. Similarly, as well as over the solar chromosphere, in the Earth's atmosphere there is a certain boundary, from which the gravitational expulsion of a rarefied high-temperature plasma begins to actively manifest itself.
If the gravitational forces can be both attracting and repulsive, then the conclusion is quite logical that these forces of different signs should not counteract each other: object can be affected either by an attractive gravitational field or repulsive. The case when gravitational forces of opposite signs coincide in a direction is of interest. I suppose that in this case they should be mutually compensated. Such a situation can be achieved if in the immediate vicinity there are two areas, in one of which there are large forces of mutual attraction, and in the other - large forces of mutual repulsion. In this case, two forces of gravity will be "internal", and the other two, opposite in direction - "external". "Internal" gravitational forces will be more mutually compensated than "external" forces, and such asymmetry allows a principled possibility of creating an unsupported gravitational propulsion device.

This assumption is indirectly confirmed by the experiment carried out jointly with Evgeny Podkletnov, Giovanni Modanese. As is well known, electric discharges are not propagated in a straight line. The researchers managed to achieve this result, and at the moment of a powerful electric discharge, a short repulsive impulse of a non-electromagnetic nature appeared along the continuation of the axis connecting the center of the emitter and the center of the target electrode in the direction of the discharge. The indicators were the monuments located exactly along the specified axis, the "beam of force" had clearly delineated boundaries. The force acting on the pendulums did not depend on the material and was proportional only to the mass of the sample, and the use of magnetic shielding had no effect on the result.
The discharge chamber was filled with helium vapors, and a powerful permanent magnet (NdFeB) with a diameter corresponding to the diameter of the emitter placed around the discharge chamber was used to concentrate the discharge. Half a second before the discharge, a short DC pulse was sent to a large solenoid. In this way the concentration of the discharge and its exact orientation were achieved [13].

At the time of the electric discharge, powerful electrostatic repulsion forces arise between the electron beam and the emitter, and powerful electrostatic attraction forces between the electrons and the target electrode. Thus, at the moment of discharge two closely located regions appear, in which, respectively, powerful attraction forces and powerful repulsive forces act.
I also want to draw your attention to the fact that in the scheme of this experiment the direction of the repulsive gravitational pulse is indicated, and in the previous scheme of the propulsor - the direction of thrust.
I assume that the effect of Yutkin in near-critical mercury (high purification) will be accompanied by a much more powerful gravitational momentum. The appearance of the effect is possible because the electrical resistance of mercury near the critical point increases sharply. This and other options for creating gravitational thrust are currently being examined in the patent office of the Russian Federation.

1. Dmitriev A. L. Experimental Study of Gravity Force Temperature Dependence. // 18th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GRG18). 2007. Abstract Book, P. 77-76.
2. Dmitriev, A.L. & Chesnokov, N.N. The effect of the orientation of an anisotropic crystal on its weight // Meas Tech (2004) 47: 899. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11018-005-0042-z
3. Dmitriev A. L., "Inequality of the Coefficients of Restitution for Vertical and Horizontal Quasielastic Impacts of a Ball Against a Massive Plate," International Applied Mechanics, 38(6), 747 – 749, (2002).
4. Bob Brier "How to Build a Pyramid" The Archaeological Institute of America, Volume 60 Number 3, May/June 2007
5. Microgravity and Ground-penetrating Radar Investigations of Subsurface Features at the St Catherine's Monastery, Slovakia DOI: 10.1002/arp.1450
6. METHOD FOR CALCULATION OF THE BUILDING EFFECT CORRECTION IN MICROGRAVITY TECHNIQUE DOI: 10.3997/1873-0604.2012034
7. Pembroke J. Hart "The Earth's Crust and Upper Mantle"
8. O.G.SorokhtinG.V.ChilingarN.O.Sorokhtin "Chapter 8 - Lithospheric Plate Tectonics in Early Proterozoic and Phanerozoic" https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53757-7.00008-8
9. Khain V.Y., Khalilov E.N. "TIDELESS VARIATIONS OF GRAVITY BEFORE STRONG DISTANT EARTHQUAKES". SCIENCE WITHOUT BORDERS. Transactions of the International Academy of Science.H&E. Vol.2. 2005/2006, pp. 319-339. ISSN 2070-0334 ISBN 978-9952-451-04-7
10. Ignatov A M "Quasigravitation in dusty plasma" Phys. Usp. 44 199–202 (2001)
11. A. L. Dmitriev1 & E. M. Nikushchenko Expulsion of Plasma in A Gravitational Field URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v8n2p38
12. K. Ohnaka et al. 2017. Vigorous atmospheric motion in the red supergiant star Antares. Nature 548: 310-312; doi: 10.1038/nature23445
13. Evgeny Podkletnov, Giovanni Modanese Impulse Gravity Generator Based on Charged YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-y} Superconductor with Composite Crystal Structure http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/physics/0108005
Yurikov Yuri

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