SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

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StefanR
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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by StefanR » Tue May 06, 2008 12:33 pm

Vortex Matter Image

In a superconductor the electrical resistance becomes zero below a certain temperature. When a magnetic field passes through a superconducting material it induces elementary quantized vortices of circulating electrical current. The motion of these vortices limits the material's superconductivity and is therefore of substantial practical interest.

In a clean and sufficiently large superconductor these vortices "crystallize" in a hexagonal vortex lattice called an Abrikosov lattice (after the Russian scientist Alexei Abrikosov). When the size of the superconductor becomes of the order of the coherence length (=size of a Cooper pair) the vortex state is strongly modified. For example in certain cases the single vortices can merge into a giant vortex state reminiscent of a superconducting domain structure.
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Giant vortex to multi-vortex transitions in a superconducting disk.

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Entrance and exit of a vortex through the saddle point. For more information: V.A. Schweigert and F.M. Peeters: Flux penetration and expulsion in thin superconducting disks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2409-2412 (1999).

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The vortex configuration depends on the shape of the superconductor.
http://www.cmt.ua.ac.be/vortex.html


Some Cymatics come to mind ;) http://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpB ... ?f=10&t=38
The illusion from which we are seeking to extricate ourselves is not that constituted by the realm of space and time, but that which comes from failing to know that realm from the standpoint of a higher vision. -L.H.

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junglelord
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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by junglelord » Tue May 06, 2008 2:03 pm

I was struck by the fractal branching network of it all. I was down by the water and the thing that caught my eye today was not the waves but the trees. The fractal branching network. Then I thought about the layered branching networks of the human subsystems, such as cardiovascual, nervous, respirtory, etc. I was struck that the symbiotic relationship between our fractal branching network systems and that of Nature (trees) and the simple O2 molecule and CO2 dual opposite symmetry of our symbiotic world...WOW...Holy Human Liquid Crystal Quantum Fractal Branching Network Non Linear Coherent System Biophysics Synethesia Batman. I think I can now finish my theoretical work on Biophysics.

Classical Mechanics are dead. We are alive. Classical Mechanics does not represent our System. Biophyics is now clear from reading Carver Mead Collective Electrodynamics and this thread. The ability to bring some sensibility to physics is to understand that Classical Mechanics will not cut it. Second is that Vector and Quantum Wave analysis is able to wipe QM stastics clean and actually dispense with Maxwells work because it is based on Classical Mechanics. WOW!

I wondered with Dave Smith yesterday about the words Field, Force, and how the atom which is 99% space can be so solid. Also from what constructs do we bridge the gap from Wave to Matter...and how do we get from Non Solid to Solid?
I also mused about not really understanding Electronics and maybe Dave Smith could enlighten me on these subjects as he was a Senior Operator of a Large Electric Generating Station. I also am seeking StevenO's help in understanding these concepts in a visual way. I have to wonder about the Sea of Neutrinos and how that replaces the Aether and gives us a Fabric, Field, Force that is the source of all transitions from Wave to Matter.
:?:

Seems Solar is thinking the same question. And coming to the same conclusions.
Solar wrote
And why does this 'pinned vortex' concept remind me of the Atherometry concepts of "mass-bound" v/s "mass-free" energy? Are we looking at "mass bound" charge here?


I then could concieve the mental picture of Einstein Constructs as shown on Science Shows as a Cartesian Co Ordinate System. That would be the Neutrinos. This liquid crystal field force is the underlying construct from which springs Non Mass into Mass. That is the Structure of the Aether. To give medium for the Waves of EM, medium for Fields and Forces to be not just action at a distance but action through a structure. I would suspect at some fundamental level the springwell from Non Mass to Mass (Mass Free to Mass Bound) is maybe in this relationship. I know Meyl works on Neutrino theory, I know Wal Thornhill is interested in The Sea of Neutrinos. Some time to research the Neutrino issue in a thread seperate from here.

Thanks so much Stefan R and Solar, I am now very much indebt to both of you. StevenO thanks so much for Carver Mead.
StevenO makes a good point in the Relativity thread that dimensional constructs are not necessary in the old framework to the same limitations when one considers Fractal Dimensions.
8-)
If you only knew the magnificence of the 3, 6 and 9, then you would have a key to the universe.
— Nikola Tesla
Casting Out the Nines from PHI into Indigs reveals the Cosmic Harmonic Code.
— Junglelord.
Knowledge is Structured in Consciouness. Structure and Function Cannot Be Seperated.
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StefanR
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Meissner Effect

Unread post by StefanR » Wed May 07, 2008 11:42 am

The Meissner Effect
Superconductors are actually perfect diamagnets and not perfect conductors. Perfect diamagnetism implies zero resistance that we have measured plus and added effect called "Flux Expulsion". The difference is quite subtle but can be readily seen by cooling the superconducting sample down while the magnet is sitting on its surface.

When the sample is warm and the electrons are not "paired up", it is easy to place the magnet on the surface. Doing so causes the magnetic field from the magnet to penetrate into the sample. Then the sample is cooled and the electrons undergo the phase change.
Image
If the sample was a perfect conductor, nothing at all should happen. This is due to the fact that conductors do not like any form of change in magnetic fields. So where the magnet sits it should sit forever.

But the superconductor will actually manage to remove the now present magnetic field from its interior. It accomplishes this by spontaneously running electric currents on the surface where no currents existed a moment before. The direction of the currents will be such as to create an opposing magnetic field to cancel the one present. As a result, the magnetic field coming from the sample will interact with that of the permanent magnet creating enough repulsion force to levitate the magnet again. The effect is shown in the frame below. If you look closely you can see Liquid Oxygen creeping up over the sample as its temperature drops. The oxygen is condensing out of the air as the sample temperature drops below about 85 K.
http://www.physics.ubc.ca/~outreach/phy ... ssner.html

INTRODUCTION
The Meissner effect (also known as the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect) is the expulsion of a magnetic field from a superconductor. Walther Meissner and Robert Ochsenfeld discovered the phenomenon in 1933 by measuring the flux distribution outside of tin and lead specimens as they were cooled below their transition temperature in the presence of a magnetic field. They found that below the superconducting transition temperature the specimens became perfectly diamagnetic, cancelling all flux inside. The experiment demonstrated for the first time that superconductors were more than just perfect conductors and provided a uniquely defining property of the superconducting state.

In a weak applied field a superconductor expels all magnetic flux. Although the magnetic field is completely expelled from the interior of the superconductor, there is not a sharp transition at the edges of a sample, but rather a rapid decay of field into the sample over a distance, the penetration depth. Each superconducting material has its own characteristic penetration depth. When the temperature of a superconductor in a weak magnetic field is cooled below the transition temperature, surface currents arise that generate a magnetic field which yields zero net magnetic field within the superconductor. These currents do not decay in time, thus establishing that perfect diamagnetism implies zero electrical resistance. Called persistent currents, they only flow within a depth equal to the penetration depth, whose theory was given in the London equations by the brothers Fritz and Heinz London.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meissner_effect
The Meissner Effect

When a material makes the transition from the normal to superconducting state, it actively excludes magnetic fields from its interior; this is called the Meissner effect.

This constraint to zero magnetic field inside a superconductor is distinct from the perfect diamagnetism which would arise from its zero electrical resistance. Zero resistance would imply that if you tried to magnetize a superconductor, current loops would be generated to exactly cancel the imposed field (Lenz's law). But if the material already had a steady magnetic field through it when it was cooled trough the superconducting transition, the magnetic field would be expected to remain. If there were no change in the applied magnetic field, there would be no generated voltage (Faraday's law) to drive currents, even in a perfect conductor. Hence the active exclusion of magnetic field must be considered to be an effect distinct from just zero resistance. A mixed state Meissner effect occurs with Type II materials.

One of the theoretical explanations of the Meissner effect comes from the London equation. It shows that the magnetic field decays exponentially inside the superconductor over a distance of 20-40 nm. It is described in terms of a parameter called the London penetration depth.
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hb ... /meis.html
Perfect diamagnetism

Superconductors in the Meissner state exhibit perfect diamagnetism, or superdiamagnetism, such that their magnetic susceptibility, \ \chi_{v} = −1. Diamagnetism is defined as the generation of a spontaneous magnetization of a material which directly opposes the direction of an applied field. Because the spontaneous generation of magnetic energy violates the conservation of energy law, perfect diamagnetism is a function of the efficiency of acquisition of a magnetic energy by material moving toward a magnetic field. For perfect diamagnetism, the velocity toward the magnetic field and the rate of change of magnetic field intensity has no influence on the amount of magnetic energy the material acquires. However, the fundamental origins of the diamagnetism in superconductors and normal materials are very different. In superconductors the diamagnetism arises from the persistent screening currents which flow to oppose the applied field; in normal materials diamagnetism arises as a direct result of an orbital rotation of electrons about the nuclei of an atom induced electromagnetically by the application of an applied field.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meissner_effect
The Meissner Effect
Perfect Diamagnet
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If a conductor already had a steady magnetic field through it and was then cooled through the transition to a zero resistance state, becoming a perfect diamagnet, the magnetic field would be expected to stay the same.
Superconductor
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Remarkably, the magnetic behavior of a superconductor is distinct from perfect diamagnetism. It will actively exclude any magnetic field present when it makes the phase change to the superconducting state.
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hb ... /meis.html
Perfect Diamagnetism
Image
A conductor will oppose any change in externally applied magnetic field. Circulating currents will be induced to oppose the buildup of magnetic field in the conductor (Lenz's law). In a solid material, this is called diamagnetism, and a perfect conductor would be a perfect diamagnet. That is, induced currents in it would meet no resistance, so they would persist in whatever magnitude necessary to perfectly cancel the external field change. A superconductor is a perfect diamagnet, but there is more than this involved in the Meissner effect.
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hb ... /meis.html
Mixed-State Meissner Effect
Image
In Type II superconductors the magnetic field is not excluded completely, but is constrained in filaments within the material. These filaments are in the normal state, surrounded by supercurrents in what is called a vortex state. Such materials can be subjected to much higher external magnetic fields and remain superconducting.
[/url]http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hb ... /meis.html[/url]
Spin Alignment vs Electron Pairs
The makers of superconducting magnets face a basic difficulty which Lindenfeld has put succinctly "magnetism and superconductivity are natural enemies". Macroscopic magnetization depends upon aligning the electron spins parallel to one another, while superconductivity depends upon pairs of electrons with their spins antiparallel. The Cooper pairs of electrons in the BCS theory have a very small binding energy, and external magnetic fields exert torques on the electron spins which tend to break up these pairs.
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hb ... /meis.html
Paradigm for the Higgs mechanism

Nonetheless the Meissner effect of superconductivity serves as an important paradigm for the generation mechanism of a mass M (i.e. a reciprocal range, \lambda_M\,:=\,h/(M c)\,, where h is Planck constant and c is speed of light) for a gauge field. In fact, this analogy is an abelian example for the Higgs mechanism, through which in high-energy physics the masses of the electroweak gauge particles, W± and Z are generated. The length \lambda_M\, is identical with "London's penetration depth" in the theory of superconductivity.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meissner_effect

THE MEISSNER EFFECT

One of the properties of superconductors most easy to demonstrate, and also the most dazzling, is the Meissner Effect. Superconductors are strongly diamagnetic. That is to say that they will repel a magnet. Imagine a 'perfect' conductor of electricity that simply has no resistance to the flow of an electric current. If a conductor of electricity is moved into a magnetic field, Faraday's Law of Induction would lead us to expect an induced electrical current in the conductor and its associated magnetic field which would oppose the applied field. The induced electrical current would not dissipate in a `perfect' conductor, and thus the associated magnetic field would also continue to oppose the applied field. Conversely, if the `perfect' conductor was already in a magnetic field, and then that applied field was removed, the same physical law would indicate that an electrical current and its associated magnetic field would appear in the conductor which would attempt to oppose the removal of the applied field. If we were to do an experiment in which we placed a magnet on top of a material that by some process then became a `perfect' conductor, we would see no physical effect on the magnet. However, were we to attempt to remove the magnet, only then would we feel an opposing force.
Image
A superconductor is fundamentally different from our imaginary 'perfect' conductor. Contrary to popular belief, Faraday's Law of induction alone does not explain magnetic repulsion by a superconductor. At a temperature below its Critical Temperature, Tc, a superconductor will not allow any magnetic field to freely enter it. This is because microscopic magnetic dipoles are induced in the superconductor that oppose the applied field. This induced field then repels the source of the applied field, and will consequently repel the magnet associated with that field. This implies that if a magnet was placed on top of the superconductor when the superconductor was above its Critical Temperature, and then it was cooled down to below Tc, the superconductor would then exclude the magnetic field of the magnet. This can be seen quite clearly since magnet itself is repelled, and thus is levitated above the superconductor. For this experiment to be successful, the force of repulsion must exceed the magnet's weight. This is indeed the case for the powerful rare earth magnets supplied with our kits. One must keep in mind that this phenomena will occur only if the strength of the applied magnetic field does not exceed the value of the Critical Magnetic Field, Hc for that superconductor material. This magnetic repulsion phenomena is called the Meissner Effect and is named after the person who first discovered it in 1933. It remains today as the most unique and dramatic demonstration of the phenomena of superconductivity.

On account of the polycrystalline nature of a typical ceramic superconductor, the Meissner Effect appears to be a bulk phenomena. This can be demonstrated by stacking two or more superconductor disks. With the addition of each disk, the magnet will be levitated higher. This result is particularly advantageous if the Meissner Effect is being demonstrated to an audience with the help of an overhead projector.

Another interesting observation is that the levitated magnet does not slide off the superconductor. This seemingly stable equilibrium is actually a manifestation of Flux Pinning, a phenomena uniquely associated with Type II superconductors, of which our high temperature ceramic superconductors are examples. Here lines of magnetic flux associated with a magnet can penetrate the bulk of the superconductor in the form of magnetic flux tubes. These flux tubes are then pinned to imperfections or impurities in the crystalline matrix of the superconductor thereby pinning the magnet.

In other words, what is happening is that you are initially forcing the magnetic field to exist in these non superconducting regions, by "squeezing" it though the cracks between the superconducting crystals. These regions of the material are surrounded by superconducting material. Think of a gallon jug, filled with water, that has a small pin hole in the bottom. The jug is the superconductor, the water is the magnetic field. This superconducting material will not allow a magnetic field to pass though it, in much the same way the jug will not allow the water to pass though it. However, the tiny non superconducting regions will allow the magnetic field to pass though, in the same way the pin hole in the jug allows the water to pass though. When you lift the magnet up, the force of gravity acting on the pellet (F=ma first semester physics stuff), is not great enough to force the trapped magnetic field to pass though the superconducting material, hence, like a weight on a string, you can lift the pellet. The string in this case is the magnetic field, and the weight is the superconductor.
http://www.users.qwest.net/~csconductor ... Effect.htm
The illusion from which we are seeking to extricate ourselves is not that constituted by the realm of space and time, but that which comes from failing to know that realm from the standpoint of a higher vision. -L.H.

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StefanR
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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by StefanR » Wed May 07, 2008 11:44 am

The illusion from which we are seeking to extricate ourselves is not that constituted by the realm of space and time, but that which comes from failing to know that realm from the standpoint of a higher vision. -L.H.

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Solar
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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by Solar » Wed May 07, 2008 1:59 pm

More thoughts:

In relation to Atherometry's 'crystal lattice', "mass-free" and "mass-bound" charge and H. Aspden's 'fluid crystal lattice' it is interesting that for the "Type-II Superconductors and Vortices: Star-shaped Local Density of States" - these "stars" appear to be formed from the geometry of the crystal lattice (hexogonal would produce a six pointed star for example) referred to as "Vortex Bound States" or "Quasiparticle Bound States". Relavant paper from June 26 1989:

"Density of States in a Vortex Core and the Zero-Bias Tunneling Peak" - J. D. Shore et al.

Note the "wave" pattern - and what causes it.
"However, at the center of the vortes a rather pronounced peak appears at a small bias. The height of this peak is quite sensitive to the position of the tip relative to the center of the vortex. It is this enhanced conductance near zero bias which is the puzzling feature of these data."
So called "zero bias" would seem to equate with the "phase -lock" of the aether. No wonder there's a "tunneling peak" that registers as an anomolus "puzzling feature" of "enhanced conductance". It sounds analgolus to or comensurate with, the anomlous power output of so called "energy from the vaccum". As if one is causing the 'phase-shift' or 'transition' of substance longitudinally (direction of propogation) through the thickness ("flux penetrations") of the superconducting substance.
The more we reflect on this equation, the more remarkable the results appear. The quantities involved are the voltage and the magnetic flux. These quantities are intergrals of the quantities E and B that appear in Maxwell's equations and are therefore usually associated with the electromagnetic field. Experimentally, we know that they can take on a continuum of values-except under special conditions when the arrangement of matter in the vicinity causes the flux to take on precisely quantized values. In Maxwell's theory, E and B represent the state of strain in a mechanical medium (the ether) induced by electric charge. - Carver Mead
Theory: And it's those "special conditions when the arrangement of matter in the vicinity causes the flux to take on precisely quantized values" that are 'non-zero' dipole distortions of the sensitive vortex tip in relation to that "matter in the vacinity" that give us the "bound states" (mass bound energy). Whereas the "zero-bias" of that "sensitive tip" begets "enchaced conduction" with a "tunneling peak" because it 'phase-transits' to the aether (mass free energy) which has no "bias" but it's own 'phase-lock'. It seems that is why they have to say "quasiparticle". Sometimes 'particle-like' activity occurs (the detection of "mass" and sometimes not (mass free energy)??

'Quasiparticles with certain energy levels will form bound state in the radial direction in this well, with a certain energy spacing. Some "quasiparticles with certain energy values will be scattered from the vortex. "It is the bound states wihich yield a nonzero total density of states..." for certain energies. But the local density of states, on the other hand reflects the spatial behavior of the quasiparticle wave functions...' Much of which was modeled via BCS Theory.

It sounds as if "matter" 'looks' like a "wave" only with electron energies in "bound states", which sounds like it's actually to say the same thing as - the "bound state" is that which produces the "wave" pattern that one perceives as "matter". All of which is 'non zero' energetic electron 'oscillations' composing vortexes, then vortex chains- composing long range "vortex chains" seperated by "Bloch Walls", Cross-tie walls, and Neel walls which gradually induce 180 degree rotations of polarity and or stablize same polarity domains.

I ended up at Hyperphysics last night. The most interesting thing I found at Hyperphysics in relation to superconductivity and BCS Theory was:

Cooper pairs:
"Froehlich was first to suggest that the electrons act as pairs coupled by lattice vibrations in the material. This coupling is viewed as an exchange of phonons, phonons being the quanta of lattice vibration energy." - Hyperphysics
Sound familiar? Is this where the aether has been hiding in traditional science; under the umbrella of superconductivity?

"coupling" = 'superimposition'
"phonons" = lattice
"Our laws of force tend to be applied in the Newtonian sense in that for every action there is an equal reaction, and yet, in the real world, where many-body gravitational effects or electrodynamic actions prevail, we do not have every action paired with an equal reaction." — Harold Aspden

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Solar
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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by Solar » Wed May 07, 2008 2:15 pm

One other thing. Regarding this post:
StefanR wrote:Thin Films: Lean and mean superconductivity
When it comes to superconducting device components, there is no such thing as too thin, but superconductivity has its limits. Now, ultrathin lead films with crystalline perfection have been shown to be able to carry large dissipationless currents down to a thickness of a few monolayers.
Introduction

Superconductors have resisted miniaturization. The drive towards packing more circuits on a chip requires thinner and narrower conductors; however, superconductivity is suppressed when one or more dimensions of the sample is comparable to the 'size' of the electron pairs (about 1–100 nm) that make up the superconducting state. Shrinking a superconductor not only makes it difficult for electrons to pair up, but also it makes it harder for them to keep their act together — that is, to maintain the collective quantum state in which pairs act coherently and flow without resistance. For very thin films, thermal or quantum agitation can muddle up the phase coherence of the pairs and destroy the treasured zero-resistance property of a superconductor. In a magnetic field, in which superconductors find their most important technological applications — as wires for electromagnets, for example — things are even worse. In a thin-film superconductor, it is difficult to pin down the magnetic flux lines (vortices), the motion of which makes superconducting films resistive and dissipates energy. On page 173 of this issue1, Özer, Thompson and Weitering show that crystalline perfection makes a thin film a more robust conventional superconductor. Perhaps more remarkable is their demonstration that the nanoscale engineering of defects can be used to turn these lean films into 'hard' superconductors, in which magnetic flux lines are pinned strongly.
ImageMagnetic field lines (black) can only penetrate a superconductor through a vortex, which has a non-superconducting core surrounded by supercurrent flow (red). The movement of vortices causes energy dissipation (finite resistance), but shallow pits (and mesas) on the lead surface serve as defect centres to pin the vortices in place, ensuring that current can flow without resistance.
A bulk Pb sample expels magnetic field from its interior until the field energy exceeds that of the superconducting condensation energy, at which point pairing is destroyed and a normal metallic state is recovered. In a thin-film sample, it turns out that it is energetically more favourable for a magnetic field to penetrate the films in the form of quantized magnetic flux lines — known as quantized vortices. In this so-called Abrikosov vortex state, the superconductor is broken up into superconducting regions and vortex cores, in which the magnetic field penetrates the sample and there are no superconducting pairs. Surrounding the vortices are circulating currents that add a twist to the phase of the superconducting electrons' wavefunction (Fig. 1). In the vortex state, zero resistance of a superconductor is maintained so as long as the vortices are stationary, as their motion changes the phase of the superconducting wavefunction and causes an associated voltage drop in the sample. It is therefore common to add disorder to a superconductor to provide locally suppressed pairing sites at which the vortex cores prefer to be pinned. The harder the vortices are pinned the larger the dissipationless currents the superconductor can carry in a magnetic field.

Özer et al. find that the voids created by the 'quantum growth' provide ideal pinning sites for vortices, hence making their clean and lean Pb films act like a dirty and 'hard' superconductor. The physical reason behind this behaviour is clear, as the two-layer-deep voids represent very strong local suppressions of the superconducting order in a film that is just a few monolayers thick. Analysis of magnetization measurements in these films shows that the local potential energy trapping the vortices at the voids is equivalent to an energy scale several times that of room temperature. Such deep traps enable quite sizable supercurrent flow through these Pb films in a magnetic field — surprisingly they are a reasonable fraction of the currents that break up the pairs themselves. Özer and co-authors further confirm their interpretations by showing that thin films with mesas are far less effective in pinning vortices and have far worse performance in a magnetic field.

The idea of engineering nanoscale barriers for vortex motion can also be applied to other thin superconductors, provided that, similar to Pb, the defects introduced to pin the vortices are not detrimental to superconductivity in such thin samples. The ultrathin Pb films with their sharp defect structures may prove to be a special case, as it is tough to 'dirty up' a thin superconductor cleanly. Ultimately, Özer et al. demonstrate that finding out what works requires the measurement and control of the nanoscale structure of the samples with high precision.
http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/v2/ ... ys256.html
This reminds me of "Solar Prominences"
"Our laws of force tend to be applied in the Newtonian sense in that for every action there is an equal reaction, and yet, in the real world, where many-body gravitational effects or electrodynamic actions prevail, we do not have every action paired with an equal reaction." — Harold Aspden

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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by webolife » Wed May 07, 2008 2:30 pm

The power of fractals is the enablement to visualize the same geometry at every scale, the geometry of the unified field.
Truth extends beyond the border of self-limiting science. Free discourse among opposing viewpoints draws the open-minded away from the darkness of inevitable bias and nearer to the light of universal reality.

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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by StefanR » Wed May 07, 2008 5:41 pm

Solar wrote:This reminds me of "Solar Prominences"
webolife wrote:The power of fractals is the enablement to visualize the same geometry at every scale, the geometry of the unified field.
Don't know much about fractals but allow me ;) :
Anthony L. Peratt, Fellow, IEEE, published a seminal paper in the IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 31, No. 6, December 2003. It was titled "Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity." In it he explained the unusual characteristics of a high-energy plasma discharge. He discussed mega-ampere particle beams and showed their characteristic 56- and 28-fold symmetry. He wrote: "A solid beam of charged particles tends to form hollow cylinders that may then filament into individual currents. When observed from below, the pattern consists of circles, circular rings of bright spots, and intense electrical discharge streamers connecting the inner structure to the outer structure."

These results verify that individual current filaments were maintained by their azimuthal self-magnetic fields, a property lost by increasing the number of electrical current filaments. The scaling is constant for a given hollow beam thickness, from microampere beams to multi-megaampere beams and beam diameters of millimeters to thousands of kilometers.

This scaling of plasma phenomena has been extended to more than 14 orders of magnitude, so the bright ring of supernova 1987A can be considered as a stellar scale "witness plate" with the equatorial ejecta sheet acting as the "plate" for the otherwise invisible axial Birkeland currents.

Peratt adds, "Because the electrical current-carrying filaments are parallel, they attract via the Biot-Savart force law, in pairs but sometimes three. This reduces the 56 filaments over time to 28 filaments, hence the 56 and 28 fold symmetry patterns. In actuality, during the pairing, any number of filaments less than 56 may be recorded as pairing is not synchronized to occur uniformly. However, there are 'temporarily stable' (longer state durations) at 42, 35, 28, 14, 7, and 4 filaments. Each pair formation is a vortex that becomes increasingly complex."

The images of SN 1987A shows the Birkeland currents around the star have paired to a number close to 28. The bright spots show a tendency toward pairing and groups of three. This witness plate model explains why the glowing ring is so nearly circular and is expanding very slowly - unlike a shock front. It is more like a cloud at night moving through the beams of a ring of searchlights.

If the equatorial ring shows the Birkeland currents in the outer sheath of an axial plasma current column, then the supernova outburst is the result of a cosmic z-pinch in the central column, focused on the central star. It is important to note that the z-pinch naturally takes the ubiquitous hourglass shape of planetary nebulae. No special conditions and mysteriously conjured magnetic fields are required.
http://www.holoscience.com/news.php?article=re6qxnz1
The illusion from which we are seeking to extricate ourselves is not that constituted by the realm of space and time, but that which comes from failing to know that realm from the standpoint of a higher vision. -L.H.

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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by junglelord » Thu Jun 19, 2008 8:36 pm

StefanR wrote:Intermittently Flowing Rivers of Quantized Magnetic Flux
One of the major unsolved puzzles in superconductivity is the nature of the motion of penetrating flux lines. Magnetic flux enters a clean type II superconductor in the form of a regular triangular lattice of quantized magnetic flux lines (also known as vortices, since electrical currents whirl around each flux line). When this lattice is forced to move, by applying either an electric or a varying magnetic field, it maintains its regular periodic structure. The dynamics of this lattice of flux lines become more complicated when it is forced to move inside a disordered sample with pinning sites that can temporarily trap vortices. As the external magnetic field is increased, additional flux lines are forced inside the sample where their motion is impeded by defects. When pinning is weak relative to the driving force, the array of flux lines flows smoothly, with some minor distortions, and behaves as an elastic medium (that is, like a flowing rubber sheet). If the pinning forces are very strong, the flux lattice remains immobilized. In the poorly understood intermediate regime, when pinning and driving forces are comparable, vortex motion is not expected to remain elastic, but to become plastic---where parts of the flux lattice break loose from the rest.
Image
Branched Vortex Channels: computer simulated trajectories (black trails) of eastbound vortices (black dots) moving inside a superconductor with pinning sites (yellow circles). In (a) strong pinning produces a few vortex channels with heavy traffic, while in (b) weak pinning induces a different network of much broader vortex trails. Indeed, in (1) the vortex channels also become wider at higher temperatures, when pinning is weaker. A video clip of this figure is available at http://www.aaas.org/science/beyond/htm.
In this issue of Science, Tonomura and collaborators (1) present direct evidence of plastic flow of flux lines in a superconductor. Their experiments provide a striking motion picture of the onset of vortex motion that vividly illustrates the existence of flowing "rivers" of quantized magnetic flux that intermittently form, freeze, and reappear at different locations in the sample. These rivers flow around "islands" (or domains) of flux lines which are temporarily trapped by the pinning sites. The shape and size of these temporarily frozen islands abruptly change over time with every loading-unloading cycle. Movies of the phenomena (for figs. 5 and 6 on page 1393 of this issue) are available at http://www.aaas.org/science/beyond/htm.

Other vortex matching effects have also recently been observed in a variety of different superconducting systems including Josephson junctions, superconducting networks, and the matching of the flux lattice to the crystal structure of YBa_2Cu_3O_7 due to intrinsic pinning. Non-superconducting systems also exhibit magnetic-field-tuned matching effects, notably in relation to electron motion in periodic structureswhere unusual behaviors arise due to the incommensurability of themagnetic length with the lattice spacing. Commensurate effects also play central roles in many other areas of physics, including plasmas, nonlinear dynamics, the growth of crystal surfaces, domain walls in incommensurate solids, quasicrystals, Wigner crystals, as well as spin and charge density waves. The magnetic motion pictures obtained in (1) allows one to easily visualize such commensurate effects which otherwise can rarely be directly resolved both in space and time. The characterization of intermittent plastic transport of an elastic lattice forced on a rigid substrate is not yet fully understood, and its intricacies continue to surprise.
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~nori/science_text.html
That entire quote reminds me of motion through the aether. Is it any wonder? If the universe is holographic, then these quantum devices should exhibit behaviour most like the aether. Take a long slow breath and think long and hard about that.
If you only knew the magnificence of the 3, 6 and 9, then you would have a key to the universe.
— Nikola Tesla
Casting Out the Nines from PHI into Indigs reveals the Cosmic Harmonic Code.
— Junglelord.
Knowledge is Structured in Consciouness. Structure and Function Cannot Be Seperated.
— Junglelord

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Solar
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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by Solar » Fri Jun 20, 2008 3:01 am

junglelord wrote: That entire quote reminds me of motion through the aether. Is it any wonder? If the universe is holographic, then these quantum devices should exhibit behaviour most like the aether. Take a long slow breath and think long and hard about that.
True. Although the "pinning", via defect, is interesting in the aetheric relationship. Also the "break loose" aspect, providing the idea or illusion that the entity has become separated from the lattice *may* be analogous to the perception that the aether doesn't exist. The entity *seems* to become self consistent and independent from the aetheric source.

I also like the following summations seeing no difference between the actuality of the vortices and the "particle" concept:
The density of the constituent particles (vortices) and their interactions can be changed over several orders of magnitude... 1st Post
And
In Atomic Theory, We Have Fields and We Have Particles. The Fields and the Particles Are Not Two Different Things. They Are Two Ways of Describing the Same Thing, Two Different Points of View.
P.A.M. Dirac (squared) - Here
It was perhaps these types of 'independent vortices' interacting with the Geiger counter providing the illusion of distinct "particles". This bring the concept of "Matter" (independent vortices or an amalgamation of phase locked vortices) into a different perspective. "Mass" might well be an attempt at a description of long range and short range vortical order.

I love this thread.
"Our laws of force tend to be applied in the Newtonian sense in that for every action there is an equal reaction, and yet, in the real world, where many-body gravitational effects or electrodynamic actions prevail, we do not have every action paired with an equal reaction." — Harold Aspden

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StefanR
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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by StefanR » Fri Jun 20, 2008 7:22 am

Junglelord wrote:That entire quote reminds me of motion through the aether. Is it any wonder? If the universe is holographic, then these quantum devices should exhibit behaviour most like the aether. Take a long slow breath and think long and hard about that.
Solar wrote:I also like the following summations seeing no difference between the actuality of the vortices and the "particle" concept
The Meissner Effect
Superconductors are actually perfect diamagnets and not perfect conductors. Perfect diamagnetism implies zero resistance that we have measured plus and added effect called "Flux Expulsion". The difference is quite subtle but can be readily seen by cooling the superconducting sample down while the magnet is sitting on its surface.
http://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpB ... 4876#p4876

So could one say that 'a particle free vacuum' is a bad conducter. And that in a opposite way it might have the added effect of
"Flux Impulsion" to put in a rather forced way (but I think you get my drift)?

And how about a dielectric like water or air?
The illusion from which we are seeking to extricate ourselves is not that constituted by the realm of space and time, but that which comes from failing to know that realm from the standpoint of a higher vision. -L.H.

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junglelord
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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by junglelord » Fri Jun 20, 2008 8:44 am

I have had several profound thoughts about water and air recently. I will keep them to myself for now. Your mention of this is interesting. As usual my thoughts are compound levels of relationship. I know how the ancients knew so much, they observed nature. If you allow the "improper" usage of some modern cosmology terms to guide you (wind instead of current), then you can use these elements and natural enviorments as test chambers.

Solar wind and magnetosphere comes to mind, (stones in fast moving water current can create cavitations of air, that look exactly like a magnetosphere).....aether is fluid like, is another profound statement that comes to mind, etc.

We are surronded by test chambers, we just need to learn to read them. Since it is the Summer Solstice today, I have to comment again on the Branching Networks and the passage of the foliage from spring into summer....from bareness to entire new branching networks all beginning with buds....can you decipher what this is telling you? What fundamental relationships can you harmonize with this pattern? What levels of comparative relationship of structure and function can you carry with this formula? (I mean levels of reality) That in and of itself would be a holographic test...your ability to harmonize the basic archetypes, The Vortex, The Branching Network, The Double Layer, Tensegrity, Fractals, over these levels of reality from APM to atomic, to molecular, quantum devices, to compounds, to viral, to cellular, to organ, to systems, to life, to earthlife, to solar system, to spiral arm, to spiral galaxy, to local groups, to galactic superclusters, to galactic web. Able to explain exactly why the neuron looks exactly like the galactic web
http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/pickover ... verse.html

Then grasshopper if you can snatch the pebble from my hand it is time for you to go....
;)
If you only knew the magnificence of the 3, 6 and 9, then you would have a key to the universe.
— Nikola Tesla
Casting Out the Nines from PHI into Indigs reveals the Cosmic Harmonic Code.
— Junglelord.
Knowledge is Structured in Consciouness. Structure and Function Cannot Be Seperated.
— Junglelord

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junglelord
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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by junglelord » Fri Jun 20, 2008 9:49 am

Branching spiral networks of a budding mandelbrot set...an example of how holographic information is conveyed level to level...the pebble is a entire planet, the drop of water an entire ocean....how far down can you see in your minds eye? How comfortable are you with Sacred Geometry and its relationship to each level of reality? Can you explain the relationship between fractal networks and quantum devices propagation of EM waves in both a time forward and time reversed fashion via the spiral vortex dual opposite Copper pairs? Maybe Meyl comes to mind along with other references that have been cited on this forum about Dual Opposites being another archetype. So we have these archetypes to deal with at each level and they guide the way through each level. They are the key to unlocking the relationship between structure and function, because they reoccur at each level. They are therefore fundamental. You cannot seperate structure from function.
Image
Archetypes I have noted of importance when researching structure and function.
1 Dual Opposites
2 Spiral Vortex
3 Double Layers
4 Branching Networks
5 Fractal/Holographic
6 Tensegrity
7 Sacred Geometry
8 Reverse Time Waves
9 Non Linear
10 Quantum based Structure and Function in a 5-D framework with EM that is understood to have four degrees of freedom, forward and reverse time functions, scalar products, longitudinal nonlinear properties.

Using Comparative Methodology, one finds these archetypes expressed at every level of reality. This is the Langauge of Nature. You must learn to speak it and to translate it into english....that is the TOE.
If you only knew the magnificence of the 3, 6 and 9, then you would have a key to the universe.
— Nikola Tesla
Casting Out the Nines from PHI into Indigs reveals the Cosmic Harmonic Code.
— Junglelord.
Knowledge is Structured in Consciouness. Structure and Function Cannot Be Seperated.
— Junglelord

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StefanR
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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by StefanR » Fri Jun 20, 2008 10:18 am

Men do not beat drums before they hunt for tigers. ;)
http://www.kungfu-guide.com/pilot.html
The formation of a macroscopic current-carrying critical state in type II superconductors occurs via penetration of the magnetic flux front of pinned vortices from the surface of the sample. Recent advances in the magneto-optical imaging have revealed puzzling instabilities of the critical state, including magnetic macro-turbulence, kinetic front roughening, magnetic avalanches and dendritic-type instabilities. These phenomena display remarkable similarities with other dendritic structures in crystal growth, nonequilibrium chemical and biological systems, and crack propagation.

Image
Here we study numerically and analytically the system of coupled nonlinear Maxwell and thermal diffusion equations which describes nonisothermal dendritic flux penetration in superconducting films. We show that spontaneous branching of propagating flux filaments occurs due to nonlocal magnetic flux diffusion and positive feedback between flux motion and Joule heat generation. The branching is triggered by thermomagnetic edge instability which causes stratification of the critical state. The resulting distribution of magnetic microavalanches depends on spatial distribution of defects. Our results are in good agreement with experiments performed on Nb films.
At the bottom of this page (for the link to the original link which has a bigger .gif and some movies): http://mti.msd.anl.gov/highlights.html
The illusion from which we are seeking to extricate ourselves is not that constituted by the realm of space and time, but that which comes from failing to know that realm from the standpoint of a higher vision. -L.H.

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junglelord
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Re: SuperConductivity: Research & Findings & Thoughts

Unread post by junglelord » Tue Jun 24, 2008 12:27 pm

Coherent Quantum Dynamics of a Superconducting Flux Qubit
I. Chiorescu,1* Y. Nakamura,12 C. J. P. M. Harmans,1 J. E. Mooij1

We have observed coherent time evolution between two quantum states of a superconducting flux qubit comprising three Josephson junctions in a loop. The superposition of the two states carrying opposite macroscopic persistent currents is manipulated by resonant microwave pulses. Readout by means of switching-event measurement with an attached superconducting quantum interference device revealed quantum-state oscillations with high fidelity. Under strong microwave driving, it was possible to induce hundreds of coherent oscillations. Pulsed operations on this first sample yielded a relaxation time of 900 nanoseconds and a free-induction dephasing time of 20 nanoseconds. These results are promising for future solid-state quantum computing.

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/a ... 869?ck=nck
If you only knew the magnificence of the 3, 6 and 9, then you would have a key to the universe.
— Nikola Tesla
Casting Out the Nines from PHI into Indigs reveals the Cosmic Harmonic Code.
— Junglelord.
Knowledge is Structured in Consciouness. Structure and Function Cannot Be Seperated.
— Junglelord

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