Recovered:Elec Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby StefanR » Fri Mar 28, 2008 11:48 pm

junglelord wrote:The EU history lesson is too narrow in my view {no offence please as it is not a criticism} . The information I provided should be a additional part of the historical perspective and what we think we know about the whole facts at present and help uncover the true knowledge of the great men of the past who have truly explained the universe to us yet for some reason are being forgotten. Especially the Electric Universe.

Maybe it has to do something with the fact that Tesla in a way is considered by uninformed people as being the archetype of the 'nutty professor' (don't have to tell how that came about). And that maybe adding him in the introductory pages of the EU might have the effect of guilt by association??
I hope I can add some quotes out of the Boskovic book in the nearby future, that are related and maybe give some extra info on the whole history. At least in the forum we can (re)construct some additional history.
The illusion from which we are seeking to extricate ourselves is not that constituted by the realm of space and time, but that which comes from failing to know that realm from the standpoint of a higher vision. -L.H.
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:21 am

Posted: Mon Jan 14, 2008 5:46 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

With the EU permission I will quote a rather large piece of Tesla History.

I think its interesting to see that his own revelation for AC came from a vision of Birkeland Currents connecting Sun to Earth. He also as near as I can tell made the first Z Pinch Machine. He observed strange electric phenomenon with his Z Pinch that he could not explain. What he did show was enormous energy without magnetic induction. This is the Impulse Current of the Four Quandrant Field Theory of Electricity.

Tesla's life came into a new focus while walking in a park with some friends, the year 1881. It was late afternoon, and Tesla became entranced with the sight of a glorious sunset. Moved to indescribable emotions, he be­gan quoting a verse from Goethe's "Faust";

"The glow retreats, done is our day of toil; it yonder hastes, new fields of life exploring, ah, can no wing lift me from this soil... upon his track to follow, follow soaring?"

As he reached this last line of verse, Tesla was suddenly seized by an overwhelming vision. In it, he beheld a great vortex, whirling eternally in the sun and driving across the earth with its infinite power. Completely absorbed in this glory, he became catatonic and irresponsive ... to the great fear of his companions. His mind and body buzzing with the power of the vision, he suddenly blurted out, "see my motor here ... watch me reverse it". They shook him, believing he had lost his mind completely.

Rigid and resisting all of their efforts, he would not move until the vision subsided. When he was finally led to a bench, he seemed completely trans­formed. The remainder of the day was spent in a grand and joyous celebra­tion, Tesla's remaining funds supplying the feast. Throughout the long hours of that night he shared with his friends the great sight he had beheld. They spoke of the sure implications portended for the world's future, and departed with very great expectations.

Moving to Strassburg, he was employed as an engineer in a telephone subsidiary of the Continental Edison Company. It was in a small machine shop that he constructed the world's first brush less motors. He called them "magnetic vortex motors". Their whirling magnetic fields baffled electrical engineers. Now, Tesla's professors were studying his work. Goethe was ab­solute in his judgment of science and human nature: nature leads humanity to "follow, follow soaring".

Tesla's strange whirling devices worked on their very first trial. There were no connections between the rotors and stators, no sparking, lousy brushes. The motion was smooth and efficient. Numerous alternating current genera­tors, transformers, and "brush less" motors, all were developed by Tesla in quick succession. The vision in material form. Himself a professional drafts­man, he mapped out his entire Polyphase System. Tesla immigrated to America with a full portfolio of plans. America would be the place where his dreams would find fulfillment.

Continually attracted to engineering problems which none could master, his sudden visualization of the solutions became his normal mode of opera­tion. In this respect, as well as others, he remained the wonder of all his technical assistants. He worked for Thomas Edison in New Jersey for a very short time period until securing a laboratory and financial supporters of his own.

In his first independent venture he developed arc lamps and lighting systems. When his financial supporters betrayed his trust, they left him bankrupt overnight. He became a ditch digger, suffering all the indignities, which im­migrants faced in America during the 1880's. He learned the value of public­ity after his incessant mention of polyphase and alternating current managed to attract the attention of certain new financial supporters. They drew him out of the ditch, but not before he demanded his own laboratory, a machine shop, and a sizable personal percentage "up front". The result was our present day electrical distribution system.

Tesla did not invent alternating current. Tesla reinvented alternating current in the form of Polyphase Current. His Polyphase System was a novel means for blending three identical alternating currents together simultaneously, but "out of step". The idea was similar to having three pistons on a crankshaft rather than one. Tesla's method had wonderful advantages, espe­cially when motors were to be operated. Formally, no one could make an alternating current motor turn at all simply because no net motion could be derived from a current which just "shuttled" to and fro.

Polyphase applied a continuous series of separate "pushes" to rotors. Tesla's Polyphase System made brushless motors and brilliant lighting methods pos­sible. Polyphase made it also possible to send electrical power to very great distances with little loss. Alternating electrical currents vibrated in the line. Current did not flow continuously from end to end, as in Edison's flawed system. Edison's direct current system could not supply electricity beyond a few city blocks before current virtually disappeared.

In efforts to discover a more efficient kind of Polyphase, Tesla explored higher frequency alternating currents. During this research, he built and pat­ented several remarkable generators. Higher frequency Polyphase was found by Tesla to perform with far greater efficacy than the common sixty-cycle variety, which we still use. He fully intended on implementing these special generators in the system, which his patron and friend, George Westinghouse, had proliferated. The business arrangement rendered Tesla fabulously wealthy at a young age.

Tesla extended his generator frequencies in multiples of sixty until reaching some thirty thousand cycles per second. These very high frequency alter­nating current generators became the marvel of all the academic and engi­neering world. They were copied and modified by several other subsequent inventors including Alexanderson. Remarkably driven at excessive speeds, they constituted Tesla's first belief that high frequency alternating current generators would supply the world's power.

High frequency current phenomena were new and exceedingly curious. A line of experimental research was conducted in order to evaluate new safe and possibly more efficient ways for transmitting power along long elevated lines. Tesla stated that the transmission of such safe currents across very long power line distances in the future would be a certainty, seeing their wonderful new qualities.

Tesla found that high frequency currents were harmless when contacted by the human body. Discharges from these generators traversed the outer surface of materials, never penetrating matter with depth. There was no dan­ger when working with high frequency currents. He also observed their very curious and beautiful spark effects. They hissed and fizzled all over wire conductors, could stimulate luminescence in low pressure gas bulbs, seemed to traverse insulative barriers with ease, and made little pinwheels spin like delicate little fireworks displays.

Though curious, the effects were weak and furtive. They seemed to inti­mate some future technology which he was yet unable to penetrate. Tesla learned that his intuitions and visions were infallible. What he guessed usu­ally proved true. This very personal revelation, he later claimed, was his great­est discovery.

As the safety of all personnel was his main concern, he was consumed with the idea of making his High Frequency Polyphase System completely safe for human operators and consumers alike. An extensive examination of each System component was undertaken with this aim in mind. Tesla was thorough and relentless in his quest for safety and efficiency.

But, his involvement with alternating currents would come to an abrupt and unexpected end. During a series of experiments which followed these high frequency tests, an amazing seldom-mentioned accident occurred in which Tesla observed a phenomenon which forever altered his view of electricity and technology.


SHOCKING DISCOVERY

Tesla was an avid and professional experimenter throughout his life. His curiosity was of such an intense nature that he was able to plumb the myster­ies of an electrical peculiarity with no regard for his own comfort. Whereas Edison would work and sleep for a few hours on the floor, Tesla would never sleep until he had achieved success in an experimental venture. This mara­thon could last for days. He was once observed to work through a seventy-two hour period without fatigue. His technicians were in awe of him.

The Victorian Era was flooding over with new electrical discoveries by the day. Keeping up with the sheer volume of strange electrical discoveries and curiosities was a task, which Tesla thoroughly enjoyed ... and preferred. His Polyphase System in perfect working order, the pleasurable occupation of studying new gazettes and scientific journals often fascinated his mind to the exclusion of all other responsibilities. A millionaire and world-heralded genius before the age of thirty, Tesla sought the pure kind of research he had so long craved.

Whenever he observed any intriguing electrical effect he immediately launched into experimental study with a hundred variations. Each study brought him such a wealth of new knowledge that, based on phenomena which he observed, he was immediately able to formulate new inventions and acquire new patents.

Tesla's New York laboratories had several sections. This complex was arranged as a multi-level gallery, providing a complete research and produc­tion facility. Tesla fabricated several of his large transformers and generators in the lower floors, where the machine shops of this building were housed. The upper floors contained his private research laboratories. He had attracted a loyal staff of technicians. Of all these, Kolman Czito was a trusted friend who would stand by Tesla for the remainder of his life. Czito was the ma­chine shop foreman in each of Tesla's New York laboratories.

Tesla observed that instantaneous applications of either direct or alternat­ing current to lines often caused explosive effects. While these had obvious practical applications in improvement and safety, Tesla was seized by certain peculiar aspects of the phenomenon. He had observed these powerful blasts when knife-switches were quickly closed and opened in his Polyphase Sys­tem. Switch terminals were often blasted to pieces when the speed of the switchman matched the current phase.

Tesla assessed the situation very accurately. Suddenly applied currents will stress conductors both electrically and mechanically. When the speed of the switch-action is brief enough, and the power reaches a sufficiently high crescendo, the effects are not unlike a miniature lightning stroke. Electricity initially heats the wire, bringing it to vapor point. The continual application of current then blasts the wire apart by electrostatic repulsion. But was this mechanistic explanation responsible for every part of the phenomenon?

The most refractory metals were said to be vaporized by such electrical blasts. Others had used this phenomenon to generate tiny granular diamonds. Yes, there were other aspects about this violent impulse phenomenon, which tantalized him. Sufficiently intrigued, he developed a small lightning "gen­erator" consisting of a high voltage dynamo and small capacitor storage bank. His idea was to blast sections of wire with lightning-like currents. He wanted to observe the mechanically explosive effects, which wires sustain under sud­den high-powered electrifications.

Instantaneous applications of high current and high voltage could literally convert thin wires into vapor. Charged to high direct current potentials, his capacitors were allowed to discharge across a section of thin wire
. Tesla con­figured his test apparatus to eliminate all possible current alternations. The application of a single switch contact would here produce a single, explosive electrical surge: a direct current impulse resembling lightning. At first Tesla hand-operated the system, manually snapping a heavy knife switch on and off. This became less favorable as the dynamo voltages were deliberately increased.

He quickly closed the large knife switch held in his gloved hand. Bang! The wire exploded. But as it did so, Tesla was stung by a pressure blast of needle-like penetrations. Closing the dynamo down, he rubbed his face, neck, arms, chest, and hands. The irritation was distinct. He thought while the dy­namo whirred down to a slow spin. The blast was powerful. He must have been sprayed by hot metal droplets as small as smoke particles. Though he examined his person, he fortunately found no wounds. No evidence of the stinging blast, which he so powerful felt.

Placing a large glass plate between himself and the exploding wire, he performed the test again. Bang! The wire again turned to vapor...but the pres­sured stinging effect was still felt. But, what was this? How were these sting­ing effects able to penetrate the glass plate? Now he was not sure whether he was experiencing a pressure effect or an electrical one. The glass would have screened any mechanical shrapnel, but would not appreciably shield any elec­trical effects.

Through careful isolation of each experimental component, Tesla gradu­ally realized that he was observing a very rare electrical phenomenon. Each "bang" produced the same unexpected shock response in Tesla, while exploding small wire sections into vapor. The instantaneous burst produced strange effects never observed with alternating currents. The painful shock­ing sensation appeared each time he closed or opened the switch. These sud­den shock currents were IMPULSES, not alternations. What surprised him was the fact that these needle-like shocks were able to reach him from a distance: he was standing almost ten feet from the discharge site!

These electrical irritations expanded out of the wire in all directions and filled the room in a mystifying manner. He had never before observed such an effect. He thought that the hot metal vapor might be acting as a "carrier" for the electrical charges. This would explain the strong pressure wave ac­companied by the sensation of electrical shock. He utilized longer wires. When the discharge wire was resistive enough, no explosion could occur.

Wire in place, the dynamo whirred at a slower speed. He threw the switch for a brief instant, and was again caught off guard by the stinging pressure wave! The effect persisted despite the absence of an explosive conductor. Here was a genuine mystery. Hot vapor was not available to "carry" high voltage charges throughout the room. No charge carriers could be cited in this instance to explain the stinging nature of the pressure wave. So what was happening here?

The pressure wave was sharp and strong, like a miniature thunderclap. It felt strangely "electrical" when the dynamo voltage was sufficiently high. In fact, it was uncomfortably penetrating when the dynamo voltage was raised beyond certain thresholds. It became clear that these pressure waves might be electrified. Electrified sound waves. Such a phenomenon would not be unexpected when high voltages were used. Perhaps he was fortunate enough to observe the rare phenomenon for the first time.

He asked questions. How and why did the charge jump out of the line in this strange manner? Here was a phenomenon, which was not described in any of the texts with which he was familiar. And he knew every written thing on electricity. Thinking that he was the victim of some subtle, and possibly deadly short circuit, he rigorously examined the circuit design. Though he searched, he could find no electrical leakages. There were simply no paths for any possible corona effects to find their way back into the switching ter­minal, which he held.

Deciding to better insulate the arrangement in order that all possible line leakages could be eradicated, he again attempted the experiment. The knife switch rapidly closed and opened, he again felt the unpleasant shock just as painfully as before. Right through the glass shield! Now he was perplexed. Desiring total distance from the apparatus, he modified the system once more by making it "automatic".

He could freely walk around the room during the test. He could hold the shield or simply walk without it. A small rotary spark switch was arranged in place of the hand-held knife switch. The rotary switch was arranged to inter­rupt the dynamo current in slow, successive intervals. The system was actu­ated, the motor switch cranked it contacts slowly. Snap ... snap ... snap ... each contact produced the very same room-filling irritation.

This time it was most intense. Tesla could not get away from the shocks, regardless of his distance from the apparatus across his considerably large gallery hall. He scarcely could get near enough to deactivate the rotating switch. From what he was able to painfully observe, thin sparks of a bright blue-white color stood straight out of the line with each electrical contact.

The shock effects were felt far beyond the visible spark terminations. This seemed to indicate that their potential was far greater than the voltage ap­plied to the line. A paradox! The dynamo charge was supplied at a tension of fifteen thousand volts, yet the stinging sparks were characteristics of electro­static discharges exceeding some two hundred fifty thousand volts. Some­how this input current was being transformed into a much higher voltage by an unknown process. No natural explanation could be found. No scientific explanation sufficed. There was simply not enough data on the phenomenon for an answer. And Tesla knew that this was no ordinary phenomenon. Somewhere in the heart of this activity was a deep natural secret. Secrets of this kind always opened humanity into new revolutions.

Tesla considered this strange voltage multiplying effect from several viewpoints. The problem centered around the fact that there was no magnetic induction taking place. Transformers raise or lower voltage when current is changing. Here were impulses. Change was happening during the impulse. But there was no transformer in the circuit. No wires were close enough for magnetic inductions to take place. Without magnetic induction, there could theoretically be no transformation effect. No conversion from low to high voltage at all. Yet, each switch snap brought both the radiating blue-white sparks and their painful sting.

http://www.hbci.com/~wenonah/new/tesla.htm


_________________
Peace, Live Long and Prosper.

Man lives in the sunlit world of what he believes to be reality. But there is, unseen by most, an underworld, a place that is just as real, but not as brightly lit... a Darkside."

Last edited by junglelord on Tue Jan 15, 2008 12:28 pm; edited 5 times in total
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:23 am

Posted: Mon Jan 14, 2008 5:50 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

Another large piece of Tesla History which bears reading and further contemplation. Impulse Current is missing from modern electric theory and from Maxwells Quaternions. It is also a result of his Z PINCH Experiments. He even discharged into oil like the modern Z Pinch. Impulse Current is Radiant Energy from extremely fast and powerful Direct Current Discharge. This Radiant Energy transmitts Direct Current through space has a pressure field. The Radiant Energy also had a Ray Discharge. Tesla Analysis of this situation proved that electrical energy or electrically pro­ductive energies were being projected from the impulse device as rays, not waves. Tesla was amazed to find these rays absolutely longitudinal in their action through space, describing them in a patent as "light-like rays". These observations conformed with theoretical expectations described in 1854 by Kelvin.

In another article Tesla calls them "dark-rays", and "rays which are more light-like in character". The rays neither diminished with the inverse square of the distance nor the inverse of the distance from their source. They seemed to stretch out in a progressive shock-shell to great distances without any ap­parent loss.
IMPULSES
Tesla noted that the strange sparks were more like electrostatic discharges. If the sparks had been direct current arcs reaching from the test line, he would surely have been killed with the very first close of the switch. The physical pressure and stinging pain of these sparks across such distances could not be explained. This phenomenon had never been reported by those who should have seen and felt its activities.

Tesla gradually came to the conclusion that the shock effect was some­thing new, something never before observed. He further concluded that the effect was never seen before because no one had ever constructed such a powerful impulse generator. No one had ever reported the phenomenon be­ cause no one had ever generated the phenomenon. Tesla once envisioned a vortex of pure energy while looking into a sunset. The result of this great Providential vision was Polyphase current. A true revelation. But this, this was an original discovery found through an accident. It was an empirical discovery of enormous significance. Here was a new electrical force, an utterly new species of electrical force, which should have been incorporated into the electrical equations of James Clerk Max­well. Surprisingly, it was not.

Tesla now questioned his own knowledge. He questioned the foundations on which he had placed so much confidence in the last several years. Max­well was the "rule and measure" by which all of Tesla's Polyphase genera­tors had been constructed. Tesla penetrated the validity of Maxwell's math­ematical method. It was well known that Maxwell had derived his math­ematical descriptions of electromagnetic induction from a great collection of available electrical phenomena. Perhaps he had not studied enough of the phenomena while doing so.

Perhaps newer phenomena had not been discovered, and were therefore unavailable to Maxwell for consideration. How was Maxwell justified in stat­ing his equations as "final"? In deriving the laws of electromagnetic induc­tion, Maxwell had imposed his own "selection process" when deciding which electrical effects were the "basic ones". There were innumerable electrical phenomena, which had been observed since the eighteenth century. Maxwell had difficulty selecting what he considered to be "the most fundamental" induction effects from the start. The selection process was purely arbitrary. After having "decided" which induction effects were "the most fundamen­tal", Maxwell then reduced these selected cases and described them math­ematically. His hope was to simplify matters for engineers who were design­ing new electrical machines. The results were producing "prejudicial" re­sponses in engineers who could not bear the thought of any variations from the "standard". Tesla had experienced this kind of thematic propaganda be­fore, when he was a student. The quantitative wave of blindness was catching up with him.

Tesla and others knew very well that there were strange and anomalous forms of electromagnetic induction, which were constantly, and accidentally being observed. These seemed to vary as the experimental apparatus varied. New electrical force discoveries were a regular feature of every Nature Magazine issue. Adamant in the confidence that all electrical phenomena had been both observed and mathematically described, academicians would be very slow to accept Tesla's claims.

But this academic sloth is not what bothered Tesla. He had already found adequate compensation for his superior knowledge in the world of industry. Tesla, now in possession of an effect, which was not predicted by Maxwell, began to question his own knowledge. Had he become a "mechanist", the very thing which he reviled when a student? Empirical fact contradicted what that upon he based his whole life's work. Goethe taught that nature leads humanity.

The choice was clear: accept the empirical evidence and reject the conventional theory. For a time he struggled with a way to "derive" the shock effect phenomenon by mathematically wrestling "validity" from Maxwell's equations ... but could not. A new electrical principle had been revealed. Tesla would take this, as he did the magnetic vortex, and from it weave a new world.

What had historically taken place was indeed unfortunate. Had Maxwell lived after Tesla's accidental discovery, then the effect might have been included in the laws. Of course, we have to assume that Maxwell would have "chosen" the phenomenon among those, which he considered "fundamen­tal".

There was no other way to see his new discovery now. Empirical fact contradicted theoretical base. Tesla was compelled to follow. The result was an epiphany, which changed Tesla's inventive course. For the remainder of his life he would make scientific assertions, which few could believe, and fewer yet would reproduce. There yet exist several reproducible electrical phenomena, which cannot be predicted by Maxwell. They continually appear whenever adventuresome experimenters make accidental observations.


FOCUS
High voltage impulse currents produced a hitherto unknown radiant ef­fect. In fact, here was an electrical "broadcast" effect whose implementation in a myriad of bizarre designs would set Tesla apart from all other inventors. This new electrical force effect was a preeminent discovery of great histori­cal significance. Despite this fact, few academicians grasped its significance as such. Focused now on dogmatizing Maxwell's work, they could not ac­cept Tesla's excited announcements. Academes argued that Tesla's effect could not exist. They insisted that Tesla revise his statements.

Tesla's mysterious effect could not have been predicted by Maxwell be­cause Maxwell did not incorporate it when formulating his equations. How could he have done so, when the phenomenon was just discovered? Tesla now pondered the academic ramifications of this new effect. What then of his own and possibly other electrical phenomena, which were not incorpo­rated into Maxwell's force laws? Would academes now ignore their exist­ence? Would they now even dare to reject the possibility of such phenomena on the basis of an incomplete mathematical description?

Seeing that the effect could grant humanity enormous possibilities when once tamed, Tesla wished to study and implement the radiant electrical action under much safer conditions. The very first step, which he took before proceeding with this experimental line, was the construction of special grounded copper barriers: shields to block the electrical emanations from reaching him.

They were large, body-sized mantles of relatively thick copper. He grounded these to insure his own complete safety. In electrical terms, they formed a "Faraday Cage" around him. This assembly would block out all static discharges from ever reaching Tesla during the tests. Now he could both observe and write what he saw with confidence.

Positioned behind his copper mantle, Tesla initiated the action. ZZZZZZ ... the motorized switch whirring, dynamo voltage interrupted sev­eral hundred times per second, the shock action was now continuous. He felt a steady rhythm of electrostatic irritations right through the barrier accompa­nied by a pressure wave, which kept expanding. An impossibility. No electri­cal influence should have passed through the amount of copper, which com­posed the shield. Yet this energetic effect was penetrating, electrically shocking, and pressured. He had no words to describe this aspect of the new phenomenon. The shocks really stung.

Tesla was sure that this new discovery would produce a completely new breed of inventions, once tamed and regulated. Its effects differed completely from those observed in high frequency alternating current. These special ra­diant sparks were the result of non-reversing impulses. In fact, this effect relied on the non-reversing nature of each applied burst for its appearance. A quick contact charge by a powerful high voltage dynamo was performing a feat of which no alternating generator was capable. Here was a demonstra­tion of "broadcast electricity".

Most researchers and engineers are fixed in their view of Nikola Tesla and his discoveries. They seem curiously rigidified in the thought that his only realm of experimental developments laid in alternating current electricity. This is an erroneous conception which careful patent study reveals. Few recog­nize the documented facts that, after his work with alternating currents was completed, Tesla switched over completely to the study of impulse currents. His patents from this period to the end of his career are filled with the termi­nology equated with electrical impulses alone.

The secret lay principally in the direct current application in a small time interval. Tesla studied this time increment, believing that it might be possible to eliminate the pain field by shortening the length of time during which the switch contact is made. In a daring series of experiments, he developed rapid mechanical rotary switches, which handled very high direct voltage poten­tials. Each contact lasted an average of one ten-thousandth second.

Exposing himself to such impulses of very low power, he discovered to his joy and amazement that the pain field was nearly absent. In its place was a strange pressure effect, which could be felt right through the copper barri­ers. Increasing the power levels of this device produced no pain increase, but did produce an intriguing increased pressure field. The result of simple inter­rupted high voltage DC, the phenomenon was never before reported except by witnesses of close lightning strokes. This was erroneously attributed how­ever to pressure effects in air.

Not able to properly comprehend their nature at first, Tesla also conservatively approached the pressure phenomenon as due to air pressure. He had first stated that the pressure field effect was due to sharp sound waves, which proceeded outward from the suddenly charged line. In fact, he reported this in a little-known publication where he first announced the discovery. Calling the pressure effects "electrified sound waves", he described their penetrating nature in acoustic terms.

Further experimentation however, gradually brought the new awareness that both the observed pressure effect and electrical shock fields were not taking place in air at all. He demonstrated that these actions could take place in oil immersions. Impulse charged lines were placed in mineral oil and care­fully watched. Strong pressure projections emerged from sharp wire ends in the oil, as if air were streaming out under high pressure.

Tesla first believed that this stream was wire-absorbed air driven off by electrical pressure. Continual operation of the phenomenon convinced him that the projected stream was not air at all. Furthermore, he was not at a loss to explain the effect, but was reluctant to mention his own theory of what had been generated by high voltage direct current impulses.

Tesla made electrical measurements of this projective stream. One lead of a galvanometer was connected to a copper plate, the other grounded. When impulses were applied to wire line, the unattached and distant meter registered a continual direct current. Current through space without wires! Now here was something which impulses achieved, never observed with alternat­ing currents of any frequency.

Analysis of this situation proved that electrical energy or electrically pro­ductive energies were being projected from the impulse device as rays, not waves. Tesla was amazed to find these rays absolutely longitudinal in their action through space, describing them in a patent as "light-like rays". These observations conformed with theoretical expectations described in 1854 by Kelvin.

In another article Tesla calls them "dark-rays", and "rays which are more light-like in character". The rays neither diminished with the inverse square of the distance nor the inverse of the distance from their source. They seemed to stretch out in a progressive shock-shell to great distances without any ap­parent loss.


_________________
Peace, Live Long and Prosper.

Man lives in the sunlit world of what he believes to be reality. But there is, unseen by most, an underworld, a place that is just as real, but not as brightly lit... a Darkside."

Last edited by junglelord on Mon Jan 14, 2008 8:22 pm; edited 3 times in total
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:25 am

Posted: Mon Jan 14, 2008 5:57 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

The history and his own journey is outright amazing and critical to our understanding of Electricity. We must see that he delt with old school analoge components. We are blinded in this digital world.

Short recap. Tesla built a Z Pinch Machine. He discovered Impulse Radiant Longitudinal Electric Energy in the process. This Radiant Electric Longitudinal wave could transmitt DC over space. It generated a pressure wave and more represented star light. It did not need magnetic induction and it was not restricited to the inverse sqaure of the distance law. The rays neither diminished with the inverse square of the distance nor the inverse of the distance from their source. They seemed to stretch out in a progressive shock-shell to great distances without any ap­parent loss. Under further test as seen below he described it as a Corona or Whitefire. In effect, Tesla had managed to interrupt a high voltage direct current several thousand times per second. In doing so, he had discovered a way to completely separate electrostatic energy from current impulses. Tesla found it possible to produce millions of electrostatic volts by this method without any current. He discovered that the shape of the conical secondary capacitors to be important so geometry played its role. He discovered electrostatic resonace with his test and experiments.

He found that the transformative abilities of these smooth copper coils were maximum when the coil mass equaled the mass of the impulser's conductive copper strap. It did not matter how thin the coil windings were. The equality of copper masses brought maximum trans­formative effects. When this equal mass condition was fulfilled, Tesla said that the coil-capacitors were "in resonance". Electrostatic resonance. White discharges from each of these free ends had very different char­acteristics, indicating the unidirectional flow. Electropositive terminals al­ways appeared brush-like and broad. Electronegative terminals always ap­peared constricted and dart-like. He began placing these "secondary" coils within his "primary" impulser circuit. The strap, which connected his magnetic arc to the capacitors, formed the "primary". He made necessary distinctions among his Transformer com­ponents. Few engineers actually appreciate these distinctions. The "primary" and "secondary" of Tesla Transformers are not magnetic inductors. They are resistive capacitors. Coil-shaped capacitors! Tesla Transformer action is elec­trostatic induction.



TRANSFORMERS
Tesla operated the magnetic arc system at higher power levels, experimenting with various impulse lengths and repetition rates. He measured the mysterious electrical current, which apparently flowed through space from this system. These radiant fields operated at far greater power than before. Strange effects were suddenly appearing at certain distances from the mag­netic impulser.

For one thing, Tesla noticed that metallic surfaces near the impulser became covered with white brush-like corona discharges. While the sparks played in trails across the metal surfaces, Tesla observed physical movement among the metal objects. Tensions and rocking motions. Both phenomena occurring simultaneously, he was utterly fascinated. The sparks themselves seemed alive. The moving metal objects seemed to suggest new motor ef­fects. What was this strange coalition, this synchronicity of phenomena?

Brilliant white coronas came forth with a gaseous "hissing" sound from metal points and edges. Metal plates were soon poised all around the device for observation. Tesla recognized at once that these effects were not identical with those obtained earlier while using high frequency alternating currents. These new discharges were white, energetic, and strong.

The electrical behavior of copper plates, rods, cylinders, and spheres near his primary impulser brought forth a great variety of white fluidic discharges. Strong discharge brushes appeared from the ends of copper plates. These came in prodigious volumes, hissing and arcing wildly in all directions, es­pecially from sharp points. Tesla tried copper discs. These seemed to pro­duce more stable discharges. He observed the curious manner in which these white discharges seemed to "race" around the disc edge at times, blending and separating with all the other sparks. Here was a greatly magnified ex­ample of Reichenbach's Od force perhaps!

He noted the manner in which white brush discharges appeared from cop­per conductors of different shapes. Each form, poised near his impulser, gave a characteristic corona distribution. This coronal correspondence with specific geometric form greatly impressed him. With certain metal forms the discharges were very fluidic in appearance. Smooth, fluidic sheaths covered copper cylinders of specific size. This absolutely fascinated Tesla. There was an aerodynamic nature inherent in radiant electricity.

Copper cylinders produced remarkable volumes of white discharges. The discharges from certain sized cylinders were actually larger than those being applied. This inferred that an energy transformation effect was taking place within the cylinder. This reminded him of his initial observation with the shock-excited wires. Those which did not explode gave forth far greater volt­ages than were initially used. He had never understood why this was occur­ring. Here was another instance in which applied energy was seemingly mag­nified by a conductor. Why was this happening?

The key to understanding this bizarre phenomenon might be found here, he thought. He observed the discharges from copper cylinders of various diameters. Each became edged with white brush discharges when held near or actually placed within the conductive copper strap of the impulser. The discharge effect was most pronounced when cylinders were placed within the periphery of the copper strap.

Tesla noticed that white corona sheaths were actually covering the outer cylinder wall at times. These would appear, build in strength, and disappear on sudden discharge with a surprising length. The sheathing action was re­petitive when the cylinder had a critically small volume. Very small cylinders behaved like rods, where discharges only appeared at their edges. The stabil­ity of these strange sheath discharges varied with cylinder diameter and length. Tesla noticed that not every cylinder performed well near the impulser. Only cylinders of specific volume produced stable and continuous white elec­trical sheaths. If the cylinders were too small, then the sheaths were intermit­tent and unstable. There was an obvious connection between the supplied impulse train and the cylinder volume. But what was it?

Tesla surveyed the entire range of his recent discoveries. Impulses produced a radiant electrical effect. Radiant electricity was mysteriously flow­ing through space. As it flowed, it focused over metal conductors as a white fluidic corona. When the shape and volume of the metal conductors were just right, the energy appeared as a stable white corona of far greater voltage than the impulse generator supplied. More questions. More discoveries.

Rods produced sparks from their edges, but not as long as copper cylin­ders did. Tesla selected a cylinder, which worked very well, and placed sev­eral horizontal "cuts" all around its surface. He was totally surprised when, on testing, the spark discharge from the cut cylinder was notably larger than before. Increased spark length means increased voltage. But why did this diminished conductivity force the voltage up?

The cuts diminished conductivity in the cylinder by forcing the energy into a tighter "squeeze". He had noted that electrical impulses displayed a tendency to traverse the outer surface of metal conductors. Certain cylinders were often ensheathed in a fluidic white discharge, which smoothly traveled between coil ends in a tightly constricted layer. Here was something truly notable. His input voltage was far less than that produced from the upper coil terminal. But why from end to end?

The essential reason why current preferred outer surface conduction was precisely because they were impulsing. The sudden shock, which any conductor experienced, produced an expansive effect, where the electrical charge was rejected by the conductive interior. This "skin effect" was a function of impulse time and conductor resistance. Highly resistant objects forced all of the impulse energy to the surface.

Now he was getting somewhere. Frustrated radiant electricity constricted into a tighter surface volume when encountering metal surfaces. This intense surface focusing effect brought the voltage up to tremendous values. Here was a new transformer effect! He believed it was an electrostatic transforma­tion. Impulse currents each possessed an electrostatic nature. The bunching of charge in the impulser brings this electrostatic field to a peak in a small instant of time.

Constricting this field volume produces a greatly magnified voltage. Placement of any conductor in the field space alters the field by constricting its shape. When symmetrical conductors of special shape, volume, and resis­tance are placed in this space, the field is greatly constricted. Because the impulsing electrostatic field is very abrupt, it "snaps" over the conductor from end to end.

Tesla knew that here is where the secret lies. If resistance in the conductor is great enough, the snapping electrostatic force cannot move any charges. It is forced to "grow" over the conductor surface until it discharges at the end point, where greatly magnified voltages are obtained. When the wire diam­eter is small enough, the wire explodes under electrostatic pressures, which exceed those seen in dynamite.

In effect, Tesla had managed to interrupt a high voltage direct current several thousand times per second. In doing so, he had discovered a way to completely separate electrostatic energy from current impulses. Tesla pondered these facts, wondering if it was possible to force the magnification effect beyond the limits of standard electromagnetic transformers. In other words, how high could voltage be raised? Was there a limit to the process?

In order to achieve such enormous voltage levels, he needed a conductive shape, which offered so much resistance to charge movement, that all the applied energy would become electrostatic. In effect, Tesla wanted to convert a quantity of supply power into a pure electrostatic voltage. This phenomenon suggested that his goal was not impossible.

Tesla extended his idea of the cut copper cylinder to coils. From the viewpoint of electrostatic impulses, flat copper coils appear to be "continuously cut" cylinders. The electrostatic field focuses over the coil as it did with the cylinders, from end to end. A simple magnet coil of specific volume would offer so much resistance that it would be difficult to predict the actual result­ant voltage, which results without an empirical test.



WHITEFIRE
Constructing several of these, he was ready for the test. When each copper magnet coil was impulsed, Tesla saw tremendous white brushes leaping from their free ends: discharges approaching one million volts! But his supply power was nowhere near these voltages, and the coil was not wrapped in thousands of windings. These previously unexpected voltage magnifications were the result of an energy transformation, one that took electrical power and converted it completely into pressure. Watts into Volts, an unheard thing. It was the key to a new and explosive technology.

Tesla also found that such coils required very thin coil forms. He ceased using cellulose and cardboard forms, preferring "squirrel cage" type forms made of thin end-braced wooden rods. Wire was wound about these cylindrically disposed rods, producing the very best effects. Spacings were also tried between successive coil windings with excellent results. Spaced windings reduced sparking to a minimum.

Tesla remarked that the electrostatic potentials along the coil surface (from end to end) could be as much as ten thousand volts per inch of winding! A ten-inch coil of proper volume could produce one hundred thousand volt dis­charges. In addition, and in confirmation of his suspicions, no current was ever measured at the free terminals of these coils. A "zero coil current" con­dition! It was simply another paradox, which would occupy the academicians for several more argumentative decades. Tesla suddenly realized that coils represented a truly special and valuable component in his quest. The instantaneous resistance which any coil offered to an applied impulse was so immense that current could not flow through the wire length. As a phenomenal consequence, no current flowed through the coil windings at all! But sparking was observed, traveling from coil end to end. Here was yet another anomaly!

He began placing these "secondary" coils within his "primary" impulser circuit. The strap, which connected his magnetic arc to the capacitors, formed the "primary". He made necessary distinctions among his Transformer com­ponents. Few engineers actually appreciate these distinctions. The "primary" and "secondary" of Tesla Transformers are not magnetic inductors. They are resistive capacitors. Coil-shaped capacitors! Tesla Transformer action is elec­trostatic induction.

There were conditions for the most efficient manifestation of the effect. Maxwell could not predict these values. Tesla empirically discovered most of the rules for impulse behavior. He found that the transformative abilities of these smooth copper coils were maximum when the coil mass equaled the mass of the impulser's conductive copper strap. It did not matter how thin the coil windings were. The equality of copper masses brought maximum trans­formative effects. When this equal mass condition was fulfilled, Tesla said that the coil-capacitors were "in resonance". Electrostatic resonance.

Tesla found it possible to produce millions of electrostatic volts by this method. His first Transformers were horizontal in orientation, both free ends of the secondary coil-capacitor producing unidirectional impulses of great power. White discharges from each of these free ends had very different char­acteristics, indicating the unidirectional flow. Electropositive terminals al­ways appeared brush-like and broad. Electronegative terminals always ap­peared constricted and dart-like.

His next Transformer series employed vertical cylinders with the base connected directly to ground. Free terminals stood quite a distance above the primary capacitor strap, spouting a brilliant white crown. These marked a turning point in his theories concerning electricity, since it was possible for him to develop well over one million volts impulse power in a device scarcely taller than a child.

These discharges were of an intense white coloration. White-fire. Very sudden impulses color discharge channels with the brilliant white-fire because Tesla Transformers separate the effusive Aether from electrons. Tesla Trans­former conduct Aether, not electrons. The white-fire brilliance is the distinc­tive Aetheric trademark of Tesla Transformers.

During this time, Tesla discovered the peculiar necessity for streamlining his Transformers. Cylindrical secondary capacitors suddenly became coni­cal forms. These presented the most bizarre appearance of all. Tesla used cone-shaped secondaries to focus the impulses. White-fire discharges from these forms evidenced real focusing effects, the discharges themselves as­suming inverted conical shapes. Their greatly intensified nature is seen in photographs, which were taken under his own intrigued supervision. The magnified voltages were reaching those thresholds in which his laboratory enclosures were far too small to continue making industrial scale progress on radi­ant energy systems.

The fact that white-fire discharges pass through all matter, notably insula­tors, revealed the Aetheric nature. Tesla saw that white-fire discharges could permeate all materials in a strangely gaseous manner. This penetration scarcely heated matter. In fact, the white-fire brushes often had a cooling effect. The sparks themselves, though violent in appearance, were "soft" when com­pared to all other forms of electricity. He had successfully removed the haz­ard from electricity. In blocking the slow and dense charges, he had freed the mysterious effusive Aether streams inherent in electricity. Because of this, new and intensified radiant effects were constantly making their appearance across his laboratory space.

Tesla found that as these new "Impulse Transformers" greatly magnified power supplied to them, so also their radiant electric effects were equally magnified. He found it possible to wirelessly project electrostatic power to very great distances, lighting special lamps to full candlepower at hundreds of feet. In these experiments, he also conceived of signaling systems. It would be possible to switch radiant effects in telegraphic fashion. Distant vacuum tube receivers would then light or dim in corresponding manner. Tesla ex­perimented with a special breed of telegraphic wireless in 1890.

He also found it possible to wirelessly operate specially constructed motors by properly intercepting this space-flowing energy stream. He had made his own Polyphase system obsolete! The new vision was vastly more enthral­ling. The world would be transformed. He discovered ways to beam the energy out to any focus, even to the zenith. His plan to illuminate the night sky with a radiant energy beacon captured the minds of all who listened.

Tesla now possessed the means by which the radiant electricity could be greatly magnified and transmitted. He could now transform the very nature of the radiance so that it could carry increasingly greater power. Now he could begin developing a new technology, which would completely revitalize the world order. Power could be broadcast to any location without wire connections. Radiant electricity could be utilized in completely new appliances. A new world was about to be released!



_________________
Peace, Live Long and Prosper.

Man lives in the sunlit world of what he believes to be reality. But there is, unseen by most, an underworld, a place that is just as real, but not as brightly lit... a Darkside."

Last edited by junglelord on Tue Jan 15, 2008 12:45 pm; edited 8 times in total
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:27 am

Posted: Mon Jan 14, 2008 6:00 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

The last portion of a very large quote, beginning with Space Flowing Currents. My sincere thanks to the moderators for being so kind to allow such a large extended quote.

Tesla's classic demonstrations proved that rapid electrical impulses actually exceed the ability of fixed charges to transmit the applied forces. Charges lag where electrostatic forces continue propagating. One is compelled to see that electrostatic forces precede the movement of charges.

Tesla saw that electrostatic impulses could flow without line charges. His "zero current coils" operated simply because the charges themselves were immobilized. Electricity was shown to be more in the nature of a flowing force rather than a stream of massive particles. But what then was this "flow­ing current"?

In Tesla's view, radiant electricity is a space flowing current, which is NOT made of electrons. Tesla and others believed that both electrical and magnetic forces were actually streams of Aether gas, which had been fixated in matter. This Aether gas power manifested as the electromagnetic forces themselves, adequate reason to pursue the development of an Aether gas engine. Such an engine could run forever on the eternal kinetic energies of the Aether itself, it being both generated and driven by the stars.

Tesla believed that radiant electricity is composed of Aether gas. He based this belief on the fact that his zero current coils were not conducting the "slow and dense" charges usually observed in ordinary electrical circuits. Abrupt impulses produced distinctive and different effects ... fluidic effects. The qualities ascribed by Tesla to "electricity" or things "electrical" in his numerous patent texts and press interviews are those, which refer to the Aether gas. Tesla did not refer to electron currents as "electricity". He did not equate "electricity" with electron flow. Whenever Tesla spoke of "electrical" effects he always described their effusive, gaseous quality. Tesla Trans­former conduct Aether, not electrons. The white-fire brilliance is the distinc­tive Aetheric trademark of Tesla Transformers.

Discharges approaching one million volts! But his supply power was nowhere near these voltages, and the coil was not wrapped in thousands of windings. These previously unexpected voltage magnifications were the result of an energy transformation, one that took electrical power and converted it completely into pressure. Watts into Volts, an unheard thing. It was the key to a new and explosive technology. Tesla knew that here is where the secret lies. If resistance in the conductor is great enough, the snapping electrostatic force cannot move any charges. It is forced to "grow" over the conductor surface until it discharges at the end point, where greatly magnified voltages are obtained. When the wire diam­eter is small enough, the wire explodes under electrostatic pressures, which exceed those seen in dynamite. Tesla Z Pinch Machine was a Impulse Generator of the Aether.




SPACE FLOWING CURRENT
Understanding the analogue between these electrical impulse effects and the behavior of high-pressure gases was of paramount importance. This gas­eous aspect of impulse electrical radiance was perhaps the most mystifying aspect of these newfound energies. Those who sought out Tesla's every lecture were very aware that a new electrical species had been discovered.

While yet a student, Tesla had became aware of certain scientific imperatives enunciated by Johann von Goethe. One of these was the preservation and extension of all activities-natural. Goethe implied that when natural con­ditions were preserved during experimentation, then nature itself was in the best configuration to reveal more unified phenomenal exhibitions to qualita­tive observers.

Tesla recognized that his new discovery of impulse, the result of an accident, was a total departure from Polyphase alternating current. While his original vision of the vortex was applied by him to the designing of motors and generators, Tesla now realized that this was not its primary message. In fact, taken from the viewpoint, which Goethe expressed, Polyphase was a most unnatural form of energy.

Natural activity is suffused with impulses, not alternations. Natural activ­ity is initiated as a primary impulse. Nature is flooded with impulses of all kinds. From lightning to nervous activities, all natural energy movements occur as impulses. Impulses were now seen by Tesla to fill the natural world. But, more fundamentally, Tesla saw that impulses flood the metaphysical world.

The mysterious flow of meanings during conversation occurs as a sequence of directed impulses in space. Though inert air vibrates in alternations with sounds uttered, the flow of meaning remains unidirectional. Intentions are also impulses. The unidirectional flow of intentions appear as impulses. Mo­tivations proceed from the manifestation of sudden desires. Overtly expressed as actions, the initiating impulses are then fulfilled.

Tesla wished to comprehend where this "motivating force" came from, and where it went during the expressed actions. In all of this, he was very much the wonderful stereotype of the Victorian natural philosopher. His sci­entific pursuits followed these considerations until the last. Those who study his announcements recognize his metaphysical foundations, the basis of all his subsequent scientific quests.

Tesla observed the amazing "coordination" of new phenomena which daily seemed to bring new technological potentials before him. This wonderful synchronicity, this vortex, revealed his new and fortunate position in nature. Having somehow "broken" his fixation with the unnatural ... with Polyphase ... he reentered the natural once again. Impulses. Could it be that the induction of electrical impulses summoned the other impulse character­istics of nature? Was he producing a metaphysical vortex, into which all the impulse phenomena of nature would now flow? Was this the real sunset mes­sage, which seized him in Budapest, so many years ago? Was electricity the fundamental natural energy ... the motivator?

Victorian Science was not exactly sure what electricity was, there being so very many attributes associated with the term. Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century natural philosophers conjectured on the nature of both electric and magnetic forces. Gilbert and Descartes shared the belief that these forces were a special kind of "flowing charge", a space radiant stream which took place in tightly constricted lines. Some equated the electromagnetic forces with a "dark light", which Karl von Reichenbach later proved in part.

Faraday adopted and modified the view that electromagnetic forces acted through space because they were a special flow of charge. This effusive charge movement changed when traveling through conductors, becoming more den­sified and retarded in velocity. Faraday's "lines of force" were not conceived by him to be mere static tensions as modernists view them. Faraday envi­sioned these force lines as radiant, streaming lines. They were mobile, mov­ing longitudinally into space.

Others would change the names, referring to electric force lines as "diaelectric" or dielectric flux, but the view remained essentially as conceived by Faraday. Young James Clerk Maxwell also believed that force lines were dynamic, longitudinal lines of flow. But flow-lines of what substance? Here lay the principle problem, which occupied physicists throughout the Victo­rian Era.

Victorian researchers and natural philosophers wished to discover the ex­act nature of the "flowing charge" of which force lines were composed. Most agreed that the mysterious flowing "substance" had to be an effusive, ultra-­gaseous flux. This flux was composed of infinitesimal energy particles, which affected the various pressures and inductions, observed.

Henry and Faraday struggled with the idea of deriving usable electric power from static charges. The notions was that, since force-lines were made of a "flowing charge substance", then fixed contacts placed on charged masses would supply electrical power forever. No one was able, however, to derive this flowing charge. Lossy discharges preceded every contact. Most research­ers, whose attempts with highly charged Leyden Jars failed, sought a more benign source of concentrated charge. The quest shifted to magnets, but the attempt remained as futile as ever. There remained no available way to derive power from the individual flowing charges of a force-line.

J.J. Thomson discovered electrons in vacuum discharges; assuming that these "electric particles" operated in all instances where electrical activity was observed. Victorian researchers did not accept this view completely. Thomson's "electrons" were viewed as the result of violent collisions across a vacuum acceleration space. It was not possible to ascertain whether these same "Thomson currents" were active within electrical conductors operating at small voltages.

Very reputable experimenters besides Tesla continued claiming that "space flowing electricity" is the real electricity. Tesla's classic demonstrations proved that rapid electrical impulses actually exceed the ability of fixed charges to transmit the applied forces. Charges lag where electrostatic forces continue propagating. One is compelled to see that electrostatic forces precede the movement of charges.

Tesla saw that electrostatic impulses could flow without line charges. His "zero current coils" operated simply because the charges themselves were immobilized. Electricity was shown to be more in the nature of a flowing force rather than a stream of massive particles. But what then was this "flow­ing current"?

In Tesla's view, radiant electricity is a space flowing current, which is NOT made of electrons. Later Victorians believed that there was a substance, which both filled all space and permeated all matter. Several serious researchers claimed to have identified this gas. Notables, such as Mendeleev predicted the existence of several ultra-rare gases, which preceded hydrogen. These, he claimed, were inert gases. This is why they were rarely detected. The inert gases, which Mendeleev predicted, formed an atmosphere, which flooded all of space. These gaseous mixtures composed the Aether.

Tesla and others believed that both electrical and magnetic forces were actually streams of Aether gas, which had been fixated in matter. Materials were somehow "polarized" by various "frictive" treatments by which an Aether gas flow was induced in them. Most materials could maintain the flow in­definitely, since no work was required on their part. Matter had only to re­main polarized, transducing the Aether flow. The Aether gas contained all the power. Unlimited power.

This Aether gas power manifested as the electromagnetic forces themselves, adequate reason to pursue the development of an Aether gas engine. Such an engine could run forever on the eternal kinetic energies of the Aether itself, it being both generated and driven by the stars.

Tesla believed that radiant electricity is composed of Aether gas. He based this belief on the fact that his zero current coils were not conducting the "slow and dense" charges usually observed in ordinary electrical circuits. Abrupt impulses produced distinctive and different effects ... fluidic effects. The qualities ascribed by Tesla to "electricity" or things "electrical" in his numerous patent texts and press interviews are those, which refer to the Aether gas. Tesla did not refer to electron currents as "electricity". He did not equate "electricity" with electron flow. Whenever Tesla spoke of "electrical" effects he always described their effusive, gaseous quality.

Tesla referred to space as the "ambient or natural medium". Space, he claimed, was that which "conducts electricity". He had found a means by which this gaseous electrical flow could be greatly concentrated, magnified, and directed. He saw that this radiant electricity was, in reality, a gaseous emanation. An Aetheric emanation. This is why he made constant reference to fluidic terminology throughout his lectures.

Resistance, volume, capacity, reservoir, surface area, tension, pressure, pressure release: these were the terms upon which Tesla relied throughout his presentations. The terminology of hydraulics. Tesla also recognized that because Aether was a gas, it had aerodynamic requirements.

Aether, in Tesla's lexicon, was space flowing electricity: a gas of superla­tive and transcendent qualities. Aether was the electricity, which filled all of space, a vast reservoir of unsurpassable power. Motive, dynamic, and free for the taking. Aether gas technology would revolutionize the world. Aether gas engines would provide an eternal power source for the world. Science, industry, corporations, financial alignments, social orders, nations ... everything would change.




INTRIGUES
Completing a tour of the major scientific institutes in America, Tesla expected to retire for a season of rest in New York once again. News of his advancements however, flooded every technical trade journal. The name Tesla was everywhere once again. First polyphase and now radiant electricity. He was the "darling" of the press. Tesla captured the public eye once again. People everywhere were thrilled with the projected future visions, which Tesla freely provided. He was a model European immigrant, suave and debonair. These are probably the qualities which first attracted Anne Morgan. Irresist­ible, wealthy, unattached, and warm. Tesla was her obsession.

Despite his great personal charm and magnetic personality, he maintained his serious tone and poise wherever he went. The vision of the future was far more important than the attentions of a young and flirtatious lady. In antici­pation of these forthcoming events, Tesla often invited other socially esteemed guests to his laboratory for special demonstrations. In this manner, it was noised abroad that what he claimed was in fact real. Anne often attended these gatherings, breathing silently in the shadows of his large loft labora­tory.

There were others who, although not attending these demonstrations, were equally watchful of Tesla's newest radiant energy developments. Several of these persons, shall we say, were interested in his new discovery and its implications...because their fortunes were threatened. Tesla had swept the world once with polyphase. He wiped out Edison's Direct Current System overnight.

J.P. Morgan, Edison's recent "patron", had lost a considerable sum during that fiasco. It was certain that Tesla would soon sweep the world again with broadcast electricity. This destabilizing influence would not be tolerated. Anne complicated the affair considerably. She was in love with Tesla. Obsessed in fact. Too obsessed and desperate to let go.





ROYAL SOCIETY LECTURES
In the very midst of all these national attentions, Tesla received an invita­tion from Lord Kelvin. He was formally requested to address the Royal Soci­ety; his latest findings were earnestly desired. The English, usually extremely conservative, were sure that Tesla would change the course of world history. Tesla, adjourning from his daily researches now prepared himself for the lectures, which would start the world-change. He packed nearly every piece of delicate equipment one can imagine. Vacuum tubes, Transformers, strange motors, and equally strange wireless apparatus. All were carefully crated and personally brought to Europe by Tesla himself. His beloved elder and per­sonal mentor, Sir William Crookes, greeted him.

In the opening portions of his Royal Society lectures Tesla first described his preliminary work with high voltage high frequency alternating currents in some length. He explained that these devices embodied the very last inves­tigations and improvements of his Polyphase System. He demonstrated sev­eral of the first small high frequency alternators and iron-core induction coils in order to prepare his audience for a final announcement.

In this very last dramatic demonstration Tesla revealed to British Academia the disruptive electric discharge and the properties of electric rays. Tesla made a rare and complete "full disclosure" of the electric ray effect at the very end of his lecture. It was the very last time he would ever do so again in academic circles.

Tesla showed that the new radiant electricity was distinctive, having been openly proclaimed during the London Royal Society lectures. Tesla deliberately compared and contrasted the potent impulse radiance to his previous weak effects produced by alternating currents (February 1892). Fluorescent lamps and other luminous wonders held his audience spellbound. All the while his voice, tenor-like by excitement, rang throughout the silent awe­struck hall.

He demonstrated wireless lamps, lit to full brilliance by radiant electricity. He ran small motors at sizable distances for his audiences to see. This last lecture represents the only recorded instance in which Tesla openly announced his discovery of the electro-radiant impulse. He tells the personally revolu­tionizing aspect of his discovery and how it virtually eradicates his previous work. He went to great detail verbally describing and disclosing the exact means for eliciting the phenomenon.

In his closing time Tesla quickly demonstrates special "electrostatic" motors and lamps made to utilize the radiant effect. Examination of these first lamp and vane-motor devices reveals their primitive and initial state. Tesla modeled the motor after the Crookes radiometer, stating this fact publicly for the benefit of his revered mentor. Tesla finally stated the vast implications of the discovery. He pointed their minds toward the establishment of true power transmission.

He prophetically announced the new civilization, which would emerge from these first devices and systems. The world would be completely revolutionized by this new principle. Tesla described beam-transmission of electrical energy, and the possibility of harnessing the radiant energies of space itself. Those who had witnessed Tesla's entire demonstration were completely enthralled at his results, but misunderstood his new announcement completely. This became apparent to Tesla a short while after he, highly decorated and honored, departed for his Parisian tour. British Science was yet delving into Teslian high frequency alternations. Tesla had already disposed of these dis­coveries as mere preparatory introductions to impulses.

Tesla showed by way of comparison that disruptive field impulse transcendently exceeds all other electro-inductive effects by several orders. He expressed difficulty in discerning whether the effects were electrostatic or electrodynamic in nature, preferring to associate them more with electro­static effects. We deduce that he had only recently begun developing the electric impulse effect because of his hesitance in identifying the phenomena properly.

Tesla was stringently exact in all his statements. This seems uncharacteristic of his scientific nature. But he did this in true scientific openness. Tesla did not know exactly what was occurring in the electric impulse at that time, desiring only to share the discovery openly and candidly. Academic disap­proval of his personal semantics came swiftly in journal after journal.

It is clear that Sir William Crookes completely grasped the significance of Tesla's entire demonstration and realized the closing formal announcement of the new electric force. Crookes could not contain the thrilling implications. He was also sure that the new force would completely revolutionize the scientific world.

Crookes upheld Tesla thereafter as the true discoverer of an unrecognized electrical force. Tesla continued correspondence with his mentor after his departure from England. He had hoped that his dramatic announcement and demonstration would produce a new regime of electrical engineering, and that others would now reproduce the radiant electric effects as described. His hopes would be strangely dashed to pieces in the coming years when the derisive academic attacks began.

To European academes, the lecture series was astounding. It was a glimpse of the future, so clear that few could find time to argue with Tesla at all. Tesla concluded his tour of England and France, everywhere heralded in typical Victorian heroic style. One night, while in Paris, a telegram informed him that his mother was on point of death. Rushing to her bedside, he managed a few hours of final conversation.

He always referred to her as the one who completely understood his strange abilities. Was she not the woman who had encouraged him when he first remarked about his childhood visions? When siblings and friends derided him, she was his support. Early the next morning, in an adjacent house, he was abruptly awaken by a vision. What he beheld changed his life. A seraphic host surrounded his mother. She was ascending into bright clouds. Several minutes after that, the announcement came. His mother had quietly passed away. He spent a torturous week in his native land for her funeral, and fled back again to New York.


REVERSALS
When English engineers wrote, asking the means for generating his im­pulse effects, Tesla gave them very strict descriptive parameters. He never failed to openly disclose the secret by which his spectacular effects were obtained. He had learned to freely share what he knew with all. He was surprised to discover that the academic societies who so warmly addressed him in Europe, were gradually losing interest in his discovery. Being utterly inca­pable of duplicating his specified parameters, most believed the effects to be "dubious".

The impulse effect had very stringent requirements before its manifestation. Care in constructing impulse generators was the basic requirement. En­gineers wanted equations. Tesla gave them descriptions. A few experiment­ers succeeded in later duplicating Tesla's broadcast electricity effects. But these systems were direct descendants of Tesla's earliest and less efficient designs.

It is often in the nature of academes to forgo empirically evident facts and argue personal differences, especially when foreign personalities are given excessive adulation. Fixated on issues having to do with words and personal poise, Tesla's audiences found several acrid voices whose equally vile publi­cations dared tamper with Tesla's character.

New critics were everywhere, even at home. Dolbear, Thomson, and even Pupin found time to criticize and deride Tesla. Because most younger aca­demes relied entirely on schooling and less on empirical method, they were easily swayed by academic opinion. Tesla underestimated the power of me­dia and of opinions in underrating his abilities. He quickly found that public opinion could actually sway scientific opinion. He failed to see who was behind the media campaign.

Tesla disregarded his antagonistic colleagues. Crookes always deferred to Tesla, whom he admired and loved as a younger protégé. Tesla revered the aged Crookes, upon whose confidence he came to rely during more difficult years. Crookes had been given a true Tesla Transformer when Tesla had given his lectures. The small device was potent, giving the uncharacteristic effects, which Tesla had always claimed. This single piece of evidence was left in England for all to see. Remarkably, this evidence did not silence the critics.

Tesla could see no reason in all of this. Something did not quite "add up". Even Tesla could see that there was a missing part of the "equation". Discov­ering this part would explain his own reversals. As if these personally devas­tating events were not enough for him, the insolent young Anne continued haunting him at his every turn. He continued being "polite" to her, but never more than this.

Crookes wrote many times to the Royal Society and to Tesla concerning this fact. Sure that Tesla was a modern Faraday, Crookes continued espous­ing the belief that Tesla had discovered the next historically important elec­trical advancement. He was encouraged to continue research despite his protagonists. Few academes trusted Tesla's methods now. Fewer yet listened any longer to his statements.

Losing credibility as quickly as he had found it, financiers were slow to trust investing in his new systems. His inventions continued their steady march into electrical history. Each new device chronicles a new step in the technol­ogy, which should have changed the world. He plunged himself headlong into work. Only work would vindicate him. Opinion would fade when others gradually saw the astounding developments, which he would produce. In these actions, Tesla revealed his noble and naive nature. The world had changed, but changed toward a more brutish rule.





BROADCAST POWER
He set to work developing more powerful embodiments of his initial Transformers. In order to make a Broadcast Electrical System possible it would be necessary to devise more efficient transformers. He set to work on this very task, examining and dissecting every fundamental part of his existing Trans­formers.

Tesla discovered that excessive sparking, though impressive to observers, were actually "lossy instabilities". The distant radiant effects he desired were interrupted and distorted whenever sparking occurred. Both sparking and brush discharges actually ruined the distant broadcast effects of radiant elec­tricity, a situation that had to be remedied. Tesla sought elimination of the discharges now. Tesla had already found that metals could focus radiant elec­trical effects. Additional stability in his Transformers could be achieved with the addition of large copper spheres to the active terminals. Tesla considered copper spheres to be "Aether gas reservoirs", providing his transmitters with an additional Aether gas supply.

Copper spheres attached to Transformer terminals reduced the required electrical levels for an efficient electric radiance. Copper spheres significantly reduced the injurious instabilities of visually spectacular brush discharges, but did not eliminate them entirely. What Tesla required was a new means for transmitting the radiant electricity without loss.

Tests with elevated copper spheres facilitated efficient transfer of radiant power between the Transformer and surrounding space. Now, Tesla Trans­formers became true Tesla Transmitters. Tesla found it possible to broadcast harmless radiant electricity with great power to very great distances. Numer­ous subsequent patents recorded his progressive conquest of the broadcast power principle.

He succeeded in making radiant electricity safe for human use. It would simply travel around conductors if made to impulse quickly enough. Only specially entuned receivers could properly intercept the radiant power for utility. Not three years before he had accidentally discovered the radiant elec­trical effect. He dreamt of safely sending electrical power without wires in 1892. Now, in 1895, he had realized his dream. Would the system work across the vast distances, which he envisioned?

He took his more portable Transmitters outdoors, away from the confines of his South Fifth Street laboratory. Both in northern Manhattan and Long Island, Tesla tested his radiant broadcast systems without restriction. He mea­sured the distant radiant electric effects of these designs in electrostatic volts. Broadcast power could be converted back into current electricity if so de­sired, the harmless high voltage becoming current in appropriate low resis­tance transformer coils.

He found to his very great surprise that very distantly positioned vacuum tubes could be lit to great white brilliance when the primary system was operating. The requirement for this action was twofold. First both the system and the receivers had to be grounded. Second, specific volumes of copper had to be connected to the receivers. When these two requirements were satisfied, lamps maximized their brilliance, and motors operated with power. Copper in the receiver had to "match" the copper mass of the transmitter in a very special equivalence, otherwise radiant transfer would not be effi­cient. The requirements differed very much from those of ordinary radio antennas. He also found that elevated copper spheres more powerfully en­hanced the broadcast radiant power from his transmitters. This was Tesla's means by which his transmitters and receivers could be better "connected" despite their distance.

Tesla believed that these electrical beams invisibly linked both his transmitter and receivers together. He considered each as "disconnected termi­nals" to ground. Electrical radiance spread out in all directions from the el­evated copper sphere of his transmitter. The secret in receiving a maximum signal was to match the transmitter's copper mass with the receiver mass. Then, the Aether streams would actually focus into the matched receiver. This affinity would take time, the transmitter energy "searching" for better ground sites. Radiant electricity evidenced curiously vegetative "growth characteris­tics".

Receivers now were outfitted with small copper spheres. These provided a more efficient affinity and absorption for the radiated power. The additional copper spheres, which surmounted Tesla transmitters effectively, low­ered the input electrical power for the production of focused Aether discharges.

Tesla took the gas dynamic analogy to another level when he found that both low pressure gaseous and vacuum tubes could replace copper. Electro-­radiant effects from gas-filled globes were projected with less electrical loss and even greater power. Large low-pressure argon gas filled globes were empirically found to broadcast tremendous radiance when used atop his trans­mitters. Additionally, he found that argon gas at low pressures could serve as an equivalent receiver as pure copper spheres.

The gas filled globes would be less costly than copper spheres to disseminate in public use. He was approaching a totally efficient system. Numerous personages were invited to observe these historic tests. J.H. Hammond Jr. was one such individual. Enthralled with Tesla's developments, he and his wife invited Tesla repeatedly to their home in later years. Tesla was their honored guest for months at a time. Later in years, after World War I, both Tesla and Hammond worked on robotics and remote control.

Tesla envisioned small power units for both home and industrial use. The installation and maintenance of these units would require a small monthly fee. Through these wireless units one could draw sufficient power to operate factories and homes alike. Electrical usage could be metered. The superiority of this new broadcast power system was obvious to all who observed it in operation.

Tesla also described the use of these power units for transportation. Trans­atlantic ships could simply draw their motive power from continental power broadcast stations. Trains and automobiles could be operated by drawing their power. The potential fortunes would soon stimulate financiers to invest heavily in the "coming activity".

In keeping with his publicity-mindedness, several investors were always invited to Tesla's private demonstrations. Tesla knew that their urge to sup­port his new world-shaking venture would become irresistible when once each had beheld his small broadcast power system. The demonstrations were deemed by these individuals as "entertaining", in their typical dry tone. But, he rarely heard from these people again.

Here was a new change. Shy moneymen. A true contradiction. Their reti­cence left Tesla in a state of bewilderment. Once, in a ditch, his conversation alone was sufficient perfume to attract the bees. Now? None would dare leap into the new world sea. Why? What sharks were there besides themselves? Tesla could simply not understand this new "dearth", this incredulous conservatism and lack of imagination on the part of New York investors.

Eager to begin, Tesla patiently waited for the messengers to call. Had he known more of the world around him, however, he would have stopped wait­ing. Shortly after Tesla's private demonstrations were concluded, Morgan's agent approached Tesla with a "business proposition". The bribe being siz­able, contracts would have placed Morgan in control of Tesla's new system. Tesla laughed at the pale little Mr. Brown in his pinching-tight tails, inform­ing him that he himself was already a millionaire. Why should he need such an affiliation at all? He was escorted very graciously by the amused Tesla.

While dining in the Waldorf several hours later, a rude interruption informed him that his laboratories were ablaze. The connection between his refusal to bow and the flames, which now reached skyward, was not made until all was consumed. That night, the world changed completely for Nikola Tesla. He lost everything of his past. Everything. The totality of his techno­logical achievements were burned into vapor. Books, priceless souvenirs, delicate equipment, patents, models, drawings, new pieces of apparatus. Ev­erything was burned. He read the message well.

There was a two-week period where he simply vanished. No one could find him. Kolman Czito, his trusted technical foreman and machinist feared for Tesla's life. Katherine Underwood Johnson was beside herself with an­guish. She was the wife of a close friend, the only real love of Tesla's life. The fire was meant to kill. It was a message as clear as anyone would need. The assassination attempt failed to kill the intended victim. It certainly did not kill his dreams.

Wherever he was for those two weeks, the dreams were with him. But a part of Nikola Tesla died in the fire. It was the part, which was tied to the past. His eyes on the future, Tesla developed his discovery into a major technol­ogy, which the world seems to have forgotten. Of all those who prayed and wept over Tesla's disappearance, one person was no longer concerned. Never again would Anne need to be troubled by the thought of Nikola Tesla. His love was already sealed. Tesla recovered from the flames.

His subsequent discoveries and inventions surpassed his former works for forty more years; special radiation projectors, self-acting heat engines, power transmitters, remote control and robotics, the "World Broadcast System", Beam Broadcast transmitters, "Aetheric reactors and Aetheric engines", cos­mic ray motors, psychotronic television ... the list of astounding inventions is truly awe-inspiring. Tesla demonstrated each of these systems for a select group of witnesses.

Furthermore, despite rumors of his public and scientific demise, Tesla maintained two penthouse suites atop the Hotel New Yorker in a time when such extravagance was otherwise unobtainable. One of these suites was converted into a complete radio laboratory, several accoutrements of which hav­ing been retrieved by antique radio enthusiasts. Tesla was an indefatigable researcher. The biography of Nikola Tesla is replete with truly mysterious designs and developments. But these are parts of his biography, which must be told in other volumes.
http://www.hbci.com/~wenonah/new/tesla.htm


_________________
Peace, Live Long and Prosper.

Man lives in the sunlit world of what he believes to be reality. But there is, unseen by most, an underworld, a place that is just as real, but not as brightly lit... a Darkside."
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:28 am

Posted: Tue Jan 15, 2008 12:23 am Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

Well that was quite the eye opener. Tesla built and tested the first Z Pinch. Right down to implosion of wire with electric pressure and experiments in oil. He was amazed with the experimentation of the Z Pinch and Electric Phenomenon he could not explain. Longitudinal Magneto Dielectric Radient Energy which transformed Watts in Volts with a Zero Current Coil. Yet it transmitted DC current wireless! Impulses produced a radiant electrical effect. Radiant electricity was mysteriously flow­ing through space. As it flowed, it focused over metal conductors as a white fluidic corona. When the shape and volume of the metal conductors were just right, the energy appeared as a stable white corona of far greater voltage than the impulse generator supplied. The corona whitelight and pressure field of the Impulse Current was unlike other forms of Electricity. The Vortex Model and the Four Fields of Electricity are coming together. Lets take a further look at the Meyl Scalar Book to further understand the Vortex Model of Electricity.



Proof
A new theory only has chances on acknowledgment if it is provable. For that physical phenomena in the sense of the new theory are calculated and independently of this experiments are being carried out. If the calculations are confirmed by reproducible measurement results, then with that the correctness of the approach is proven.
In the here presented case we have chosen the field-theoretical approach instead of the usual quantum physical approach. As a consequence of this we had found as a new phenomenon the vortex of the electric field. With regard to the normally used Maxwell theory this resulted in changed field equations in a dual formulation. If both equations, each of which describes a source-free vortex field, are inserted into each other the result is an only in time and space formulated, generally valid and hence fundamental field
equation (5.7).

This equation has many special cases; one of them, the Schrodinger equation, could be derived by using an approach which was harmonic in time. The eigenvalues of the equation describe for instance the shell-shaped structure of the atoms with the by Niels Bohr given radii.
Now this already proven equation was derived from the new field-theoretical approach. Thus for the special case, the area where the Schrodinger equation is valid, the new theory can be said to be proven. We still are not content with that and put another stone on top: we will calculate the quantum properties of the elementary particles for ourselves.

The conditions in an elementary particle are completely different. Here it concerns the vortex itself, whereas the model of the atom merely describes vortex properties, so-called actions at a distance. The differences in size and distances for an atom lie more than five powers of ten over those of a particle!

Here a new problem of causality comes to light, at which we now must have a critical look: the question of the by Einstein postulated constancy and universality of the speed of light. Seen from a relativistic and subjective point of view of an observer, Einstein by all means may be right. But may such a theory be generalized? How are the measurements
concerning the speed of light and the relativity of space and time to be judged when looking at them objectively? The current measurements of speeds faster than light speak a clear language and represent a challenge.

The electron as a spherical capacitor

field theoretical approach (vortex particles):
The amount of energy bound in the inside of the particle is identical
with the free and measurable amount of energy on the outside of the particle.

Let the starting-point for our considerations be the electromagnetic wave in a particle-free vacuum. Here no vortices appear, so that the plane wave can propagate undamped with the speed of light, and in this way a transport of energy takes place. Electric and magnetic energy each are the same magnitude.

Let's now imagine the symmetry is disturbed as the wave is "slowed down" on one side. As a possible result the wave rolls up to a spherical vortex. As we will see such a process is possible, for instance at impact on a strong field. Thus part of the energy is bound in the inside. This part from now on withdraws itself from every possibility to measure it. We can only measure the second part of the field energy, with which the particle interacts with its neighbourhood.

We c an assume that: The amount of energy bound in the inside of the particle is identical with the free and measurable amount of energy on the outside of the particle.

The same energy We = 0,51 MeV, we attribute to the electron for reason of its mass with the help of the Einstein relation (6.1), is also bound in its inside. This conclusion is also applicable to other elementary particles and with that to all matter.

We here again recognize the principle of the duality between the to the outside striving eddy current in the inside of the elementary vortex and the concentrating potential vortex on the outside. Thus also seen energetically both are of the same magnitude. Whereas in the case of the electromagnetic wave it concerns a symmetrical oscillation around "zero", by the process of quantization, by the rolling up to a spherical vortex, there forms an energetic state of space different from zero. The order of magnitude is determined by the number of elementary vortices, of which the particles and all matter consist.

Anti-matter forms the opposite energetic state and this again is for the particles of matter available in their inside in a bound form. As long as we do not artificially produce new elementary vortices and thus keep the number of available vortices constant, the energetic state will not change, or as it is formulated in text books:

In an isolated system the sum of the energy is constant.
The law of conservation of energy is not an axiom, but follows without compulsion from the vortex theory. It is not elementary, but a consistently derivable consequence of the field-theoretical approach, according to which solely the field acts as cause for all other physical phenomena, also for the conservation of energy! Because the cause of it is the electromagnetic field, the following has to hold:

Energy is a state description of electromagnetism.

Now we finally can explain why energy can be converted. Different forms of energy only are different forms of formation of the same phenomenon!

Of course this statement of the field-theoretical approach does not yet explain what, for instance, the temperature has to do with electromagnetism. I ask for some patience; no question will be left unanswered.
_____________________________________________________

http://www.meyl.eu/go/index.php?dir=30_ ... sublevel=0



PS you don't think they are running a Z Pinch right under our nose and not telling us about the effects do you?>

Nah they would not do that....would they?
Wink

In their defense the configurations are not the same and Tesla experiments need to be reengineered with his original work. So who knows what they may be missing in a design that does not assist nature?

I feel a commendation coming for the second edition printing of the Electric Universe revised and updated with a whole new chapter on Tesla Electric History including the worlds first Z Pinch. A Second Chapter on the Archetype of Electricity and the Four Field Theory. A Third on Longitudinal Electric Impulse Energy with Watts to Volts and Starlight with Radient Pressure....


Maybe its time to revisit the only english Meyl lecture

This is Prof. Dr.-Ing. Konstantin Meyl's mindblowing video lecture Power Engineering Scalar Field Theory - Faraday vs. Maxwell and Demonstration of Longitudinal Wave Transmission (2003) which explains how one can modify the basic equations of electromagnetic field to include longitudinal waves which results in a true revolution in electromagnetics. This short but highly informative presentation is probably the only one in existence for english-speaking audience to correctly expand the classical electromagnetic field theory to include longitudinal/Tesla waves. The impact of such an expansion is immense and requires a complete change in thinking and a revision of the very foundations of physics in general. Do scalar waves exist or not? In Meyl's extended field theory they come about naturally eliminating the need for any "exotic" theories such as as superstrings, dark matter, revising even the theory of relativity. Meyl explains how Faraday's experiments were actually describing a much broader electromagnetics than was later derived by Maxwell and curtailed to an even more primitive state by others so that today's engineers are literally handicapped when using it. The missing experimental pieces eventually came from the work of Tesla and a small version of his wireless transmission of energy is demonstrated here, carrying electrical energy without losses to the other side of the table with an "impossible" 1.5-times the speed of light. During this amazing lecture Meyl takes you through the forgotten ideas of Nikola Tesla and explains how they are the missing pieces which prevented scientists to reach the goal of a comprehensible unified field theory. Along the course he also discusses many new applications which can now be not only better understood but also built and used in our every day life. Presented at the First Nikola Tesla Energy Science Conference & Exposition 2003 in Washington DC before astonished audience who just couldn't believe what they were seeing. 110 min. long. A must see for everyone.
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid ... 6714&hl=de


Dollard Longitudinal Electric Radient Energy Tesla Technology
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid ... 0757457294
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid ... 0445596549

Tom Bearden on Longitudinal Radient Electricity
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wypYFe3JXdE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mLVzTkRn ... re=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P4FGkU84 ... re=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hc2r7Jyl ... re=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nzxown3s ... re=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kJ3yXqDwM8c
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mSw5rkz0 ... re=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=USNDoy_v ... re=related
http://www.meyl.eu/go/index.php?dir=45_ ... sublevel=0
http://www.cheniere.org/
http://www.rumormillnews.com/cgi-bin/ar ... read=38963
_________________
Peace, Live Long and Prosper.

Man lives in the sunlit world of what he believes to be reality. But there is, unseen by most, an underworld, a place that is just as real, but not as brightly lit... a Darkside."

Last edited by junglelord on Fri Jan 18, 2008 9:44 pm; edited 1 time in total
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:30 am

Posted: Tue Jan 15, 2008 3:13 am Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

The electromagnetic interaction of a particle is a result of the influence of the open field lines arising from it on the dimensions of the space, in which it is. The effect of the magnetic field thus is limited to a geometrical manipulation of the environment, namely the curvature of space, with which we have founded the phenomenon of the attraction of masses and of the gravitation. Gravitation is a result of the influence of the field lines with a closed course running parallel to the surface of the particles on the dimensions of the space, in which they are. If the speed of light in the presence of matter decreases, then we now also know why. It is the field, which surrounds matter, that slows down the speed of light. Therefore a
gravitational field is able to divert a ray of light in the same manner as matter which flies past.

Potential Vortex Electric Lines Torsion Space just as Gravity Curves it.

Important experiments like the one of Doppler concerning the redshift or the one of Bradley concerning the aberration of the stars show only to clear, where the influence of the speed of light subjectively still is perceptible, or for laboratory experiments like the one of Michelson and Morley, where the influence isn't perceptible anymore, because the
length of the interferometers always changes proportionally to the speed of light.

The look in the stars at the same time is a look in cosmic areas, where completely other field conditions prevail and as a consequence completely other values for the speed of light and for the dimensions of space are present. The mentioned observations suggest that we together with our measuring station are moving through the cosmos and therefore a
relative velocity has to be present with regard to an aether which determines the respective speed of light.

If we however constrict our range of vision and retire in a laboratory, then we no longer are capable to observe the influence of the field on the speed of light. The experiments of Michelson which Maxwell had prompted to and which Morley with a higher precision had repeated with the goal, to detect the aether, inevitably had to turn out negatively.

The laboratory experiments resulted in the misleading picture, as if the earth was resting in the aether.

The not understood measurements will suggest any observer, he forms the centre of the universe and everything rotates around him, entirely in the sense of the Ptolemean view of life, which, although long ago abolished, here belated has experienced support.

With a Swabia caper Albert Einstein has prevented a relapse into the dark Middle Ages and removed the open contradiction in the question of the aether, which once is measured as moving and another time as resting, by without further ado abolishing the aether. With that he undoubtedly has solved a central problem of physics and at the same time created a
new one. As is known does the speed of light have a certain value, and therefore the question is raised, what determines is size. Exactly for this purpose a luminiferous aether had been introduced, however it is constituted.

Scientifically it does make little sense, to make an assumption, if at the end of the derivation the prerequisite is deleted without substitute. In such a case either in the approach or in the derivation is a principal error.

Nikola Tesla comments on the working method of Einstein with the applicable comparison, as if Einstein had, while he was writing a business letter, forgotten completely the subject he wanted to write about.

The answer, which removes all contradictions and is entirely in accord with all observations and measurements, is obvious. Naturally a luminiferous aether exists, which determines the velocity of propagation and of course it by no means is bound to the observer.


As has been derived for a relative velocity v arise a field, which according to proportionality determines the speed of light. With that we have derived completely.

The field takes over the function of the aether.


Key questions of quantum physics
IV. Why do the particles have the form of spheres?
(with increasing E-field decreases c)

VIII. Where is the elementary quantum localized?
(in the vortex centre: c = 0, see figures 4.3 and 6.2)

IX. Why do the elementary particles have a spin?
(spherical form demands field compensation)

X. Why is the magnitude of the spin quantized?
(cosmic basic field determines the need of Ez)

XI. Why can speeds faster than light occur in a
tunnel?
(a reduction of the cosmic basic field can only be realized
locally in a tunnel)

Strong support our approach has experienced by current experiments, in which matter was transformed in electromagnetic waves - practically the reversal of the rolling up of waves to vortices. To do so at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (David Pritchard and others) sodium atoms were dematerialized in waves by lattice scattering. According to Einstein one surely could have blown the whole M.I.T. in the air with the occurring mass defect; but don't worry, no emission of energy whatsoever has been observed, entirely as predicted by the vortex theory.

Elementary vortices
We had derived the electron and the positron as elementary vortices. Before we can go in the calculation, we must gain a clear picture of the possible configurations of vortices, which for reason of the derived properties are possible. For that we start with the elementary vortex and afterwards we predict the behaviour of interaction which can be expected.

Actually only one single particle is really elementary. According to the realizations of the new theory it is an elementary vortex in the form of a sphere. Its size is determined by the speed of light and this again by the local field strength; its stability is founded in the concentration effect of the potential vortex. The whirling takes place everywhere with the speed of light, even in the vortex centre, where all field lines run together, where the field increases infinitely and the speed of light goes to zero.

This last circumstance owes the elementary vortex its localization.
We can attribute a charge to this vortex for reason of the field lines which on the outside run towards infinity and which we can measure. This is the smallest indivisible unit, the elementary charge e. Structure and course of the field lines suggest to understand and to calculate the elementary vortex as a spherical capacitor.

we'll have to assume that all elementary particles consist of an integer multiple of elementary vortices. For that the amassing, like closely packed tennis balls, or the overlapping of individual vortices in the form of shells, like in the case of an onion (phenomenon of transport) can be considered. The among each other occurring forces of attraction can be traced back to the fact that every elementary vortex is compressed by the field of its neighbour as a consequence of the field dependent speed of light. This field as a rule is for the small distances considerably larger than the field on the outside.

Therefore do compound elementary particles not have the twofold or triple mass, but at once the 207-fold (myon) or the 1836-fold (proton) mass. After all there is no other explanation for the fact that there don't exist lighter particles (with a mass less than 207 electron masses)!

From Meyl Scalar Energy Book.
http://www.meyl.eu/go/index.php?dir=30_ ... sublevel=0
_________________
Peace, Live Long and Prosper.

Man lives in the sunlit world of what he believes to be reality. But there is, unseen by most, an underworld, a place that is just as real, but not as brightly lit... a Darkside."

Last edited by junglelord on Fri Jan 18, 2008 9:45 pm; edited 5 times in total
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:33 am

Posted: Tue Jan 15, 2008 12:02 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

It seems that the University of Cologne has demonstrated faster then light microwave energy through a tunnel. Or was it? to be fair I give a question of the validity here.
http://www.npl.washington.edu/AV/altvw105.html

This is explained with the Field Theory Model and is quite interesting as the Longitudinal Energy is faster then c in a tunnel.

The tunnel and the vortex create faster then c speeds.

Spin and tunnel effect

Only with the field dependency of the speed of light we can understand, why the elementary quanta can form as spheres. In the centre the field lines run together, i.e. the field increases and the speed of light decreases. Only in this way it will be possible for the vortex oscillation to everywhere occur with the speed of light, even in the inside of the particle! In the centre of the vortex particle the field in theory will become infinitely large and the speed of light zero.

This circumstance again is the foundation why the elementary particles are localized and it answers key question VIII of quantum physics. The absence of a speed after all is the characteristic of an immobile thing.
The field dependency of the speed of light answers also further basic and up to today unanswered key questions of quantum physics, like why the elementary particles have a spin (IX) and why the magnitude of the spin is quantized (X).

A vortex particle after all does not exist alone in the world, but it is in the field of other particles. We can call this the cosmic basic field (E resp. H). This basic field overlaps the self-field and takes effect the strongest in the area of the spherical shell, where the selffield is correspondingly small. In order to keep the form of a sphere, this influence of the basic field has to be compensated. The additional field (Ez resp. Hz according to eq. 6.12)
necessary for the compensation is produced by the particle, by rotating in a spiral around itself with a speed v which increases towards the outside of the spherical shell.

Therefore does the elementary particles have a spin. The electron spin is therefore determined by the cosmic basic field.


Another effect of the field dependent speed of light is the tunnel effect. As an example we consider the two differently charged particles shown in fig. 6.8 A. The open, outside of the particles running, field lines of the electric field are predominantly bent towards the each time oppositely charged particle. If another particle wants to pass between the two, then it
gets into an area of increased field strength. As a consequence it will be slowed down, because here a smaller speed of light is present.

Water molecules show with their polar nature exactly this property. Water has a remarkably high dielectricity e and slows down the speed of light correspondingly according to equation 5.6 ( = 1/c2). The refraction of light at the water surface is an observable result of the reduced speed of light in the presence of matter.

If we now examine the case in which the two particles have the same charge. The field lines repel each other, so that exactly in between the two particles a field free area forms, in which the speed of light goes to infinity! This area acts like a tunnel. If we send through a particle exactly here, then purely theoretically seen it won't need any time to run through the tunnel, and for a short time the signal becomes infinitely fast.

If a particle hits only slightly besides the tunnel, then it will one-sidedly be slowed down and diverted by the respective field. We call this process reflection or scattering. Only the few particles, which exactly hit the tunnel, arrive behind the hurdle and in the ideal case even almost without loss of time!

The current measurements of speeds faster than light demonstrate in a convincing manner the superiority of the field-theoretical approach with regard to the nowadays normally used quantum physical approach.

Interpretation of the measured speed faster than light

Now the attempt can be undertaken, to interpret the spectacular experiments, in which a speed faster than light has been measured. It is reported that in experiments with photons at the University of California in Berkeley on an average a speed of 1.7 times the speed of light has been measured by Prof. Raymond Chiao and his co-workers.

At the Technical University of Vienna Prof. Dr. Ferenc Krausz already has obtained 2.4 times the, according to Einstein at maximum obtainable, speed of light with tunnelling laser light.

The first measurements of speeds faster than light have been carried out with microwaves at the University of Cologne by Prof. Dr. Gunter Nimtz and co-workers. They at first had published the measurement of a speed 2.5 times the speed of light.


The answer of the here presented potential vortex theory reads as follows: the waves picked up by the wave guide run up to the entry of the tunnel, in order to find out that they don't fit through. They are reflected or absorbed. A small part however rolls up to potential vortices and these fit through the tunnel. They however have to be compressed additionally. In the derivation of the photon we had seen that the inner vortex always is faster than the bigger one, through which it slips through.

The compression therefore causes an increase in speed. In flow dynamics is known an analogy: the Venturi-tube. The flow-technical potential vortices also confirm exactly this property. One can as well start with the Lorentz contraction. This states that a particle moving with a higher speed actually becomes smaller and not only appears to be smaller as an optical deception of the observer. Because only smaller particles fit through the tunnel, the particles, measurable at the other end, must be correspondingly faster: quoderat demonstrandum.

In the same manner also the experiments of Berkeley can be explained physically, because here is worked with photons from the start. With that the process of rolling up the wave can be left out. The tunnel lets pass only compressed and therefore faster light particles.

http://www.meyl.eu/go/index.php?dir=30_ ... sublevel=0


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Last edited by junglelord on Fri Jan 18, 2008 9:46 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:37 am

Posted: Tue Jan 15, 2008 2:16 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

Well it only stands to reason that a new Electric Theory with Four Fields would require a new model. The vortex electric field model is presented as a fundamental state of matter/antimatter and energy. Meyl on the Vortex Electric Field Model.


Matter and anti-matter
For the amassing or overlapping of elementary vortices several cases must be distinguished, because two inverse forms of formation are possible for the elementary vortex: the negatively charged electron and the positively charged positron. Whereas in the case of the electron the vortex produces a component of the electric field which points from the
inside to the outside, has the field in the case of the positron the opposite direction for reason of a reversed swirl direction.

This statement can be generalized: if we consider the elementary particles from the outside, then we assign the particles with a swirl direction identical to that of the electron to the world of matter and call the particles with the opposite swirl direction anti-matter. It now is strongly recommended, to take colours to hand, in order to optically clarify the properties of vortices. The electron will be marked as a green sphere and the antiparticle, the positron, as a red sphere.

If we now look into the world of matter, then appears our world of matter to us "green", the world of anti-matter however "red". The uniform green colour of all the in our world existing elementary particles however doesn't exclude that red anti-vortices can exist hidden in the inside of the green vortices, where we can't discover them. But they must be completely covered, otherwise a disastrous reaction occurs, the pair annihilation, as a consequence of the oppositely directed property of the vortices which cancel out.

By means of the pair annihilation a dematerialization can occur, because every elementary vortex keeps in its inside the same amount of energy with opposite sign and the fusion of two inverse particles can result in a zero sum of the energy. The best known example is the annihilation of an electron-positron pair under emission of radiation discovered by Klemperer in 1934.

In the upper representation (fig. 7.2a) the elementary vortices still are symmetrical, but the outside field lines already are "bent" and linked together in such a way that, with the exception of the ones in the direction of the axis, no interaction takes place which can be measured.

The two particles for reason of the different charge approach each other quickly, and the closer they are, the larger the mutual force of attraction becomes; a vicious circle, which leads to the asymmetry shown in the lower sketch (fig. 7.2b) and only comes to rest, if both particles have destroyed themselves mutually.

The electron and the positron had the same amount of, but oppositely directed swirl activity, so that purely arithmetically seen a zero sum of the rest energy results. But it should be paid attention to both particles having some kinetic energy on the occasion of the relative motion to each other and if they rotate around their own axis also rotational energy. An emission of annihilation radiation occurs, is the explanation of particlephysics.

With the knowledge of the photon (fig. 4.6) we can interpret the annihilation radiation as a consequence of the phenomenon of transport. The faster and consequently smaller vortex, for instance the green one, slips into the red one and sees the green inside, which is compatible for it. Unfortunately it only can remain there, as long as it is smaller, thus is
faster, and therefore it shoots out on the other side again. Now the electromagnetic force of attraction fully takes effect. It is slowed down and the red vortex correspondingly accelerates.

The process is reversed.

These around each other oscillating vortices, so we had derived, have a characteristic frequency (colour), are polarizable and are moving forward with the speed of light as a consequence of the open vortex centre. It therefore concerns the photon.

Positronium
But before the two elementary vortices, the electron and the positron, are annihilated under emission of radiation, they will for a short time take a shell-shaped, a bound state, in which one vortex overlaps the other.

Its formation we can imagine as follows: an electron, flying past a resting positron, is cached by this for reason of the electromagnetic attraction and spirals on an elliptic path towards the positron. In doing so its angular velocity increases considerably. It will be pulled apart to a flat disc for reason of the high centrifugal forces, to eventually lay itself around the positron as a closed shell.

Now the red positron sees the electron vortex so to speak "from the inside" and doing so it sees as well red; because the green vortex has a red centre and vice versa! The number of field lines, which run from the red border of the positron in the direction of the centre, is identical to the number, which point towards the green border of the electron.

Here already the same state has been reached as in the centre, which corresponds to the state at infinity. That means that no field lines point from the green border to the outside; seen from the outside the particle behaves electrically neutral. It doesn't show any electromagnetic interaction with its surroundings.

If the particle were long-living, then it undoubtedly would be the lightest elementary particle besides the electron; but without stabilizing influence from the outside the positronium can't take the in fig. 7.3 shown state at all. The positron takes up the kinetic energy which is released if the electron becomes a shell around it.

But before the bound state can arise, which would identify the positronium as an elementary particle, the equal rights of both vortices comes to light. With the same right, with which the electron wants to overlap the positron, it itself vice versa could also be overlapped. If the stabilization of the one or the other state from the outside doesn't occur, then the stated annihilation under emission of y-quanta is the unavoidable consequence
http://www.meyl.eu/go/index.php?dir=30_ ... sublevel=0


dvdcoverquantenphysik20hb1.jpg
(click to view larger image)

"This is absurd."(regarding mass-energy interpretation)
Nikola Tesla

"In my experiments I have destroyed billions of atoms, without
having observed any emissions of energy
. "
Nikola Tesla
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Last edited by junglelord on Fri Jan 18, 2008 9:47 pm; edited 2 times in total
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:44 am

Posted: Tue Jan 15, 2008 2:56 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

The Vortex Electric Field Theory can now be used to explain all heavier particles. First the Myon or heavy electron.

Myon

We now have discussed all conceivable possibilities, which two elementary vortices can form: the creation of a pair for like charge and the annihilation under emission of photons via the formation of the positronium as an intermediate result for unequal charge.

Next another elementary vortex shall be added and all different possibilities and configurations will be derived, which can be formed by amassing or overlapping. The positronium can, as said, only take the inbound structure, if it is stabilized from the outside. This task now a further electron shall take over. According to the shell model the innermost elementary vortex an electron (e-), is overlapped by a positron (e+) and that again overlapped by an electron (e-).

With an in the sum single negative charge, a completely symmetric structure as well as a half-integer spin this particle will show a behaviour corresponding to a large extent to that of the electron. Merely the mass will be considerably larger, because every vortex each time compresses the other two. It therefore concerns the myon which also is called "heavy electron".


The myon was discovered 1937 in the cosmic radiation (Anderson and others).

In fig. 7.5 are drawn above each other the shell-shaped structure of the myon and the electric field E(x) of the three elementary vortices.
It is visible that merely in the proximity of the particle the actual course of the field deviates from and is smaller, than the course which theoretically can be expected for a single negatively charged body. The difference is marked by a hatching.

We now can tackle the calculation of the myon. For that the following considerations to begin with are useful:

Mass is an auxiliary term founded in usefulness, which describes the influence of the electromagnetic field on the speed of light and with that on the spatial extension of the "point mass".

Without exception the local cosmic field Eo has an effect on a free and unbound elementary vortex, thus on an individual e- or e+, and determines so its size and its mass.

But as long as we haven't determined this field strength, the calculation of its quantum properties won't succeed. Instead the masses of compound particles will be compared to each other, which are so heavy that the field strength of the neighbouring vortices is predominant over the basic field E0, so that a neglect of Eo seems to be allowed. The course of the calculation is made for all elementary particles in the same manner, which is explained hereafter.

Calculation of the vortex fields
The tension voltage of an elementary vortex, like for a spherical capacitor, is determined by integrating over the electric field strength from the inner radius ri up to the outer radius

For the electron (ri = 0 und ra = re) we already have carried out the integration and determined the tension voltage to be 511 kV.

Doing so we further had discovered that it won't change, if the radius r varies. Even for a shell configuration, in which electrons and positrons alternately overlap, the approach is valid:
U1 = U2 = U3 = U4 = ... = Un

At a certain radius all elementary vortices show the same density of field lines and with that also the identical field strength, so that we can solve the integral for the each time neighbouring vortex shells and can compare the results:
At the radius r1 with E(r1) = E1 the agreement, according to equation 7.1* (fig. 7.6), is valid for the innermost and the overlapped vortex shell.

At the radius r2 with E(r2) = E2 the agreement according to equation 7.1** (fig. 7.6) is valid analogously for the 2nd and 3rd shell.

If still more shells are present, then we can arbitrarily repeat this procedure. For the radius of each shell we always obtain relation 7.3, which, related to the innermost radius, provides the following simple expression for the individual radii:
r 2 = 2 * r 1 ; r3 = 3 • r1; ... ; rn = n * r1 (7.4)

From the comparison of the integration results 7.1* and 7.1** follows further that all elementary vortices produce the same field strength:
E1 = E2 = E3 = ... = En (7.5)

We infer from the transformation table (fig. 6.18, eq. 6.27) that the field strengths E and H decrease with 1/r. In fig. 7.5 the decrease of the fields with 1/r is shown. Up to the radius r, the field of the innermost vortex E1 has worn off to the value E31 = - E1 • (r1/r3).

This field is overlapped by E32 = E2 * (r2/r3) as well as the cosmic basic field Eo:
E(r3) = E31+ E32+ E0 = E1 • (r2 - r1)/r3 + Eo (7.6)

The local basic field Eo is not known, but it is very small with regard to the field of the neighbouring vortex shells, so that a neglect seems to be allowed. From equation (7.6) in this way follows with the radius relation.

For the shell-shaped configuration of the myon (fig. 7.5) relation (7.7) indicates, which field the outside vortex shell is exposed to. From this can already be seen, how much it is compressed thanks to the field dependent speed of light and how much its mass as a consequence is increased.

Meyl Scalar Book
http://www.meyl.eu/go/index.php?dir=30_ ... sublevel=0


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Man lives in the sunlit world of what he believes to be reality. But there is, unseen by most, an underworld, a place that is just as real, but not as brightly lit... a Darkside."

Last edited by junglelord on Fri Jan 18, 2008 9:48 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:48 am

Posted: Tue Jan 15, 2008 3:13 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

Vortex Electric Field Structure of the Proton with the first set of calulations that derive the mass of one elementary particle from another as derived by Meyl. More explanation on why it is a Z Pinch.

I wish I had a way to copy and paste the diagrams in the ebook. I wish I could show you the diagram of the Proton, Electron, Myon and the Field Equations that are only in diagram format.
:evil:



Structure of the proton p+:


Fig. 7.8: The proton and the electric field of the three
elementary vortices in x-, y- and z-direction

Calculation:
structure consisting of two shells, inner vortices with 2 • E1,
field strength at the outer radius r2:
E ( r 2 ) = 2 * E2 1 = 2 * E 1 ( r 1 / r 2 ) = E1 7.8

Comparison of p+ 7.8 with u- (7.7) (ze = number of the elementary
vortices being involved with) in building up the structure, here each time ze = 3):

Comparison of the radii with E ~ l / r

Measurement value, proton mass: mp = 1836 • me
Resp.:
measurement value myon mass mu = 207 * me
myon calculated value: mp = 204 * me. (error = 1,5% )

Since we, by using this calculation method, for the first time succeeded
in deriving the mass of an elementary particle from that of another
particle, the particle mass isn't a constant of nature anymore!

7.7 Calculation of the proton

If we again remember the affinity of two elementary vortices, which rotate with opposite spin. They align their axis of rotation antiparallel and form a very probable, but not particularly tight bound pair (fig. 7.4).

If we this time start with a positron pair, then does this pair have a double positive elementary charge. The two e+ hence exert a particularly big force of attraction on electrons flying past them. If they have cached one and put it round as a shell, like a coat, then they will never again give it back!

To again remove the electron, a triple positive charge would be necessary. But such a particle can't exist at all.

The new particle therefore has an absolute stability and a very big mass, because the positron pair is considerably compressed by its outer shell. The total charge is single positive. With these properties it actually only can concern the proton. Its structure is shown in fig. 7.7. We can start from the assumption that both positrons are very close together in the inside and thus each forms the half of a sphere. For the calculation of the proton mass we then can assume as an approximation a structure of two shells, in which the inner vortex will have the double charge and the double field (2 * E1).

With equation 7.4 the field strength at
the outer radius r2 is:
E(r2) = 2*E21 = 2*E1*(r1/r2) = E1 7.8

If we want to compare the results of the p+ 7.8 and the (7.7), then it should be considered that the field of the innermost elementary vortex E1 only is equal, if the number [ze] of the elementary vortices involved in building up the particle is identical.

Here with each time ze = 3 this is the case. Because of equation 6.27 (E, H ~ 1/r) now also the radii are comparable:

The mass of a particle first is determined by the number of the elementary vortices ze. According to the theory of objectivity fig. 6.18 however also the radius has an influence on the mass: m ~ 1/r2

The calculation provides a nine times bigger mass for the proton with regard to the mass of the myon. Therefore the mass of the proton related to the mass of the electron is: 1863

It would be favourable, to start from the with measuring techniques determined value for the mass of the proton mp/me = 1836 and calculate backwards the related mass of the myon.

Then we obtain 204 as the calculated value instead of the measurement value = 207.

The reason for the deviation of 1.5 percent is caused by the neglect of the cosmic field Eo with regard to the field of the neighbouring elementary vortex. This neglect takes very much less effect for the relatively heavy proton than for the light myon.

The cosmic field therefore will compress the myon more strongly and increase the mass more strongly as is calculated here, in agreement with the measurement results.

Summarizing: since we, by using this calculation method, for the first time succeeded in deriving the mass of an elementary particle from that of another particle, the particle mass isn't a constant of nature anymore!

"Strong interaction"

A central question of nuclear physics concerns the forces which keep the atomic nucleus, which consists of many neutrons and protons, together and give it its very good stability in spite of the like positive charge (key question XIV fig. 7.13).

According to today's textbook opinion (course of the field indicated with a in fig. 7.8 the forces of repulsion between the individual protons increase further as the distance gets smaller, to obtain immense values within the nucleus. They theoretically had to be overcome by new and unknown nuclear forces. Therefore physicists assume the hypothesis of a "strong interaction". But they are mistaken.

The answer to this open question is provided by the course of the field (b) for the proton, sketched in fig. 7.8. We see that the electric field at first indeed still increases if we approach the proton, but in the proximity it contrary to all expectations decreases again until it is zero. With that then also any force of repulsion has vanished! But the course of the field follows without compulsion from the overlap of the three individual elementary vortex fields.

The field direction in the z-direction even is reversed! In this topsy-turvy world, in theory, an electromagnetic force of attraction between two like charged protons can occur.

We conclude:
A strong interaction doesn't exist at all
. The usually given values for "range" and "strength" just represent a misinterpretation. The hatched drawn area marks the difference which is misinterpreted by quantum physics. The model concept over and above that answers another mysterious property of the proton. As an electrically charged particle with
a spin it first of all should form a magnetic moment for reason of the rotating charge. But until now the measurable order of magnitude couldn't be explained.

7.9 Magnetic moment of the proton
If the inner positrons rotate around each other with oppositely pointing spin, then the magnetic field line is already closed within the particle and no effect in x- or y-direction is observable from the outside.


As pair they however still can rotate together around the z-axis and they'll do that. The overlapping electron for reason of its rotation of its own will likewise build up a magnetic dipole moment along its axis of rotation. It also will align its axis in the z-direction, so that now all three elementary vortices have one field axis. Being comparable to individually
"elementary magnets" aligned in the same direction they produce a triple magnetic moment
(key question XII fig. 7.13).

If we namely would start with a single positively charged body according to the theory of quantum mechanics, then we would have expected the value of the nuclear magneton pm as the magnetic moment for the proton pm =h/2m .

Opposite to that provide experiments with protons the approx. threefold value as already predictable by the new vortex theory. In addition does the direction of the vector pmp correspond with the spinaxis, so as if the proton were negatively charged.

The reason for that is that only the outermost elementary vortex determines the spin of the particle, and that is actually a negatively charged electron! Also this excellent agreement in the case of the proton can be judged as proof for the correctness of the vortex model.
http://www.meyl.eu/go/index.php?dir=30_ ... sublevel=0



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Man lives in the sunlit world of what he believes to be reality. But there is, unseen by most, an underworld, a place that is just as real, but not as brightly lit... a Darkside."

Last edited by junglelord on Fri Jan 18, 2008 9:48 pm; edited 1 time in total
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:49 am

Posted: Tue Jan 15, 2008 4:19 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

The Vortex Electric Field Theory of a Neutron.

Structure of the neutron
Until now could not be solved, why despite its missing charge also the neutron n° has a magnetic moment. The experimentally determined value is approx. the double of the nuclear magneton.

Further was with measuring techniques an only 0,14% bigger mass with regard to the proton determined. The difference is approximately two and a half electron masses. And how reads the answer in the view of the potential vortex theory?

It is obvious that a positively charged proton and a negatively charged electron mutually attract and amass together (fig. 7.10a). A pair annihilation can't occur, because the electron, which jackets both positrons, prevents this.

The formation of an outer shell is not permitted by the high stability of the proton. It would have to be a positron shell, which instead of neutrality would produce a double positive charge. Conceivable is however the configuration, in which one of the two e+ of the proton takes up the e- in its inside and overlaps it.

At first appears the amassing of p+ and e- to be the obvious answer to the structure of the neutron also in view of the small increase in mass. Since both elementary particles (p+ and e-) have a spin, will they align their axes of rotation antiparallelly and rotate against one another, exactly like an electron pair. But we now have unequal conditions: the proton brings the triple magnetic moment, the electron however only the single, and its field line will be closed by the proton. The difference which remains is the measurable double nuclear magneton, with which key question XIII (fig. 7.13) would be answered exhaustively.

This structure is shown in fig. 7.10a and has as rest mass the by only one electron mass increased proton mass, but it will deviate from this value, when the unequal partner come closer. Doing so the electron will be more strongly compressed by the heavier proton as vice versa.

Mass, magnetic moment and charge thus correspond to a large extent with the measurement values. Problems are seen concerning the spin and the stability. Set of problems concerning spin: both the e- and the p+ have a half-integer spin, for which reason this configuration should have an integer spin.

Set of problems concerning stability: the neutron decays as is well-known in a p+ and an e- , but this object should be shorter-lived as determined by experiments. If namely the partner come each other very close, then the field strength of the p+, contrary to expectation, doesn't increase but decreases, as is shown in fig. 7.8. The e- therefore can only be bound very, very loosely; in z-direction it even will be repelled!

For these reasons is the open structure, which is shown in fig. 7.10a, not feasible as an isolated elementary particle, but only in a spatially extended network, like it is present in an atomic nucleus. In this case the neutron is, as is well-known, lighter by the mass defect, which is interpreted as binding energy.

Possibly it only concerns an intermediate stage. The heavier final product of the n° then could look like is shown in fig. 7.10b. For this version the line of the magnetic field already is closed partly within the particle, so that also here the approx. double nuclear magneton remains as a rest with a sense of orientation, as if the neutron were negatively charged.
Without charge and with the 1/2 spin it in this configuration fulfils all important quantum properties of the neutron, even that of the stability.

Because in this book for the first time has been shown, how the mass can be calculated, if the particles are understood as potential vortices, we also in this case again want to make use of this possibility.

We have, like for the a structure of three shells with the radii r1, r2 and r3. At the outer radius r3 the fields of the elementary vortices on the inside have an effect on the electron.

On the outside: like is the case for the
the field of the e-: E31(-) = -E1(r1/r3),
the field of the e+: E32 = E2 (r2/r3) = E1 (r2/r3)
and in addition the e+: E31 = E1 (r1/r3).

If we compare the neutron, in which now ze = 4 elementary vortices are involved, with the proton:
(7.13)
then we infer from the arithmetically determined result that the neutron according to the radius is 12,5% bigger than the proton. The mass is calculated to:
(7.14)
The particle therefore has a mass which is 5% larger than for the proton, slightly more as has been measured for the neutron. The difference is acceptable. The particle after all is structured very asymmetrically, in which the reason is to be seen, why the uncharged particle, looked at from close up, nevertheless shows an observable charge distribution.

http://www.meyl.eu/go/index.php?dir=30_ ... sublevel=0


_________________
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Man lives in the sunlit world of what he believes to be reality. But there is, unseen by most, an underworld, a place that is just as real, but not as brightly lit... a Darkside."

Last edited by junglelord on Fri Jan 18, 2008 9:49 pm; edited 1 time in total
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:50 am

Posted: Tue Jan 15, 2008 6:59 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "StefanR"

What I found wonderful is that it made EU even more complete but I found it terrible to translate to the forum. Maybe we could start over, but a little bit more step by step?
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:52 am

Posted: Tue Jan 15, 2008 8:19 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

I have to say thanks again. My mind is spinning...ROFL
I am doing my best to give a meaningful journey of the book...although there is some translation slips.

Well I have been waiting for a explanation of the neutrino and here it is. A spinning matter/anitmatter particle.


The electron-neutrino as a ring-like vortex


Without charge and without mass neutrinos show hardly any interactions with matter and as a consequence they possess the enormous ability of penetration - as is well-known.

They are said to participate in the ,,weak interaction", which should trigger a conversion of the concerned particles, which is their decay. Pauli already has postulated the neutrino 1930 theoretically, because the transition from a half-integer spin to an integer spin for the n0 -decay otherwise wouldn't have been explicable.

If we imagine an elementary vortex is being born, but the local field strength and energy isn't sufficient for obtaining a quantized state. The result is an incomplete potential vortex, which has an open vortex centre and as a consequence shows no localization at all. In the form of a vortex ring it oscillates around itself, while it continually turns its inside to the
outside and then again to the inside.

One moment the vortex ring is green, then it is red again, one moment matter, then antimatter, one moment positively charged and the next moment negatively charged. In contrast to the photon the number of the involved elementary vortices ze for the neutrino is odd. Perpendicular to the direction of propagation the neutrino has a spin for reason of a rotation, which overlaps the pulsating oscillation.

This vortex ring is, as said, not a member of stationary matter, because it doesn't form a "black hole" in its centre, where the speed of light becomes zero. But it has an absolute stability like every elementary vortex, even if it only occurs incomplete and hence not in any quantized form,. This concept of the electron-neutrino as an open oscillating
elementary vortex in the form of a ring-like vortex covers the experimentally determined realizations unexpectedly well.

A strong interaction doesn't exist. The electric field in the proximity of the proton goes to zero within the range which is determined with measuring techniques.

A weak interaction doesn't exist. That interaction only is a special case of the electromagnetic interaction which appears in a weakened form.

"Weak interaction"
Let's now look again at the B-decay of the neutron, in which a neutrino is used. But this by no means will be a process of the weak interaction. Instead will neutrinos, contrary to the textbook opinion, participate in the electromagnetic interaction. They after all are one moment positively charged and the next moment negatively charged.

With slow-acting gauges this it is true can't be proven, because the interaction is zero on the average. But this charged oscillating vortex ring can exert a considerable effect while approaching a neutron, which is based solely on the electromagnetic interaction.

The neutron is stimulated to synchronous oscillations of its own by the high-frequency alternating field of the neutrino, until it in the case of the collision releases the bound electron, which takes up the energy provided by the neutrino and transports it away. The interaction obviously is only very weak due to the oscillation. But a physical independency of it has to be disputed.

The finite range, which is given in this context, indicates the reaction cross-section around the n°-particle, within which the "crash" and as a consequence the B-decay occurs. This range is considerable larger as the particle itself.

The electromagnetic interaction for such small distances after all is so violent, even if it only occurs in pulses, that the neutrino is thrown out of its path and can fly directly towards the neutron.

Perhaps we now understand also the B-decay of the myon. It actually were to be expected that without outside disturbance an absolute stability could exist because of the ideal symmetry of the On our planet we however are in every second bombarded with approx. 66 milliard (billion) neutrinos per cm2. Obviously it takes 2,2 on the average till a neutrino flies past a myon so close that it decays.

In doing so it stimulates the outside elementary vortex to violent oscillations by trying to synchronize it. In this case the electron-neutrino carries away with it the two outer, and therefore weaker bound, elementary vortices of the myon, which meanwhile are oscillating synchronously. The innermost vortex, an electron e-, is left behind. The decay of the myon which takes place with a probability of almost 100 %

Thus a different neutrino is formed which can be distinguished from the ve and is called myon-neutrino since it forms from the Actually it even has a similar structure of three shells, as is shown in fig. 7.5. But the vortex centre is open and the particle isn't stationary anymore. In the picture now only a momentarily state is shown, in which the Vu appears green on the outside and red in its open centre. As already for the Ve oscillates also here the inside to the outside and vice versa, this time merely as a packet of three shells, so that also this particle shows all the typical neutrino properties discussed for the example of the Ve.

The for potential vortices typical and already discussed phenomenon of transport here has an effect. In particular in connexion with vortex rings this property is known from hydrodynamics. It thus can be observed, how vortex rings bind matter and carry away with them. Because the neutrino is not quantized, it neither is restricted with regard to its ability
to transport elementary vortices. Consequently even bigger configurations are conceivable, like configurations of 5 shells, 7 shells etc..

Further key questions of quantum physics

XII: Why does the proton have approximately 3
times the magnetic moment which can be
expected for reason of the only single charge?
(3 elementary vortices)

XIII: Why does the neutron as an uncharged
particle anyway have a magnetic moment?
(Structure of the n°)

XIV: What owes the atomic nucleus, which consists
of like charges, its stability?
(Course of the field of the p+, instead of "strong interaction")

XV: Why does the free neutron decay, although it
is stable as a particle of the nucleus?
(Interaction with neutrinos)

XVI: Why do neutrinos nevertheless participate in
the "weak interaction", although they have no
mass and no charge?
(Oscillating charge)

XVII: How can be given reasons for the finite range of the "weak interaction"?
(Reaction cross-section for particle decay)
http://www.meyl.eu/go/index.php?dir=30_ ... sublevel=0


_________________
Peace, Live Long and Prosper.

Man lives in the sunlit world of what he believes to be reality. But there is, unseen by most, an underworld, a place that is just as real, but not as brightly lit... a Darkside."

Last edited by junglelord on Fri Jan 18, 2008 9:49 pm; edited 1 time in total
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
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Re: Electric Theory, Maxwells Formula, Tesla Scalar Vortex

Unread postby bboyer » Wed Apr 02, 2008 10:54 am

Posted: Tue Jan 15, 2008 8:53 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "junglelord"

Meyl has a wonderful chart of vortex field particles which is just a paradigm but I cannot paste it. But think of dropping a pebble in a pond and the concentric rings it would form are the overlapping vortex's.

Now that we have looked at particle contrust with Vortex Electric Fields we need to understand the field itself. With that we can now explain electrogravity. Meyl calls it the Hydromagnetic Field.


Structuring of the fields and definition of terms
Structure of the field theory

In contrast to Maxwell's theory the new field theory, which we derived from duality, is also able to describe fields, in which no particles and no quanta exist. It probably is justified and useful in the sense of a clearer communication, to give the new field a name of its own.

The author recommends the introduction of the term "hydrotic field". In it should be expressed, which importance water has for both the like named potential vortex and this field.

As we already have worked out, the hydrotic field is favoured particularly by polar materials and by a high dielectricity. Water is a corresponding and in the biosphere of our planet dominating material.

Whereas we had to correct the concept of a vortex free electric field, we had until now, considerable, we can take over the description of the magnetic field unchanged. This then should also be valid for its name. The new field which consists of both correspondingly is called hydromagnetic field.

In fig. 8.1 we recognize the structure. At the top stands the "hydromagnetic field", which is described mathematically by the equations of dual electrodynamics in fig. 3.3. It does not know quanta and as logical consequence neither charge nor mass!

If we insert these equations, Ampere's law and the dual formulated Faraday law of induction, into each other, then there results as a mathematical description of our space-time-continuum the fundamental field equation

As a new physical phenomenon the potential vortex appears, which gives the hydromagnetic field a new and important property: this field can be quantized! Starting-point is the wave, which for corresponding interference effects can spontaneously roll up to a vortex, which as highly concentrated spherical vortex finds a new right to exist and finds to a new physical reality.

The in the described manner formed particles show specific properties of their own. We now are able to attribute them for instance a charge or a mass. And these properties also can be investigated and described individually and isolated from each other. Thus are formed the two special cases, strange by nature, on the one hand the well-known, with the
help of the Maxwell equations describable "electromagnetic field" and on the other hand the new "hydrogravitational field".

If we overlap the results of the two special cases, e.g. by adding the force effects of electric charges and accelerated masses, then we summarized obtain a field, which we accordingly should call "electrogravitational". This case is not at all unknown. Already Niels Bohr in this way has calculated the radii of the electron orbits in the hull of his model of the atom, to mention only one example. We can summarize:

The hydromagnetic field is the all encompassing and with that most important field. Apart from that the electromagnetic field of the currents and the eddy currents and the hydrogravitational field of the potentials and the potential vortices merely describe the two possible and important special cases. For reasons of pure usefulness for every special case a characteristic factor of description is introduced, the charge and the mass!

Unified theory
* electromagnetic interaction (open field lines)
* gravitation (closed field lines)
* strong interaction (does not exist)
* weak interaction (only special aspect)

The interactions are a result of the field dependent speed of light.

The discovery and introduction of the hydromagnetic field makes the desired unification possible, because the electromagnetic resp. Maxwell field, which describes the electromagnetic interaction, and the hydrogravitational field of the gravitation can be derived from this field as a consequence of the formation of quanta.

The kind of the interaction is caused by the course of the field lines of the field quanta which form as spherical vortices: the open field lines make the electromagnetic interaction possible. And the field, lines with a closed course lead to gravitation. Both are a direct result of the field dependent speed of light. A more perfect unification seems hardly possible.

As the next step the unification with the strong and the weak interaction is required, but it could be shown that those don't exist at all. It just concerns misinterpretations with much fantasy, which should help explain the difference between a wrong theory and the physical reality.

Numerous auxiliary terms for the description of the quantum properties exist, like for instance mass, charge or Planck's quantum of action. The prerequisite for their usability naturally is the existence of the quanta. But until these have found to a physical reality, the auxiliary terms are unnecessary. The hydromagnetic field does not know quanta, quantum
properties or auxiliary descriptions. It will be shown that, according to expectation, also the temperature is a typical quantum property, which comes within the group of the auxiliary terms. In this way also the temperature is fitted into the unified theory without compulsion.

Introduced auxiliary terms the fundamental field equation is left with its description of a spatial-temporal principle.

If a world equation should exist, then this field equation 5.7 has the best prerequisites.

For the fundamental field equation the division in four parts is repeated like already for the hydromagnetic field (fig. 8.1). It likewise consists of four individual parts, the wave (b), the two vortex phenomena (c and d) and the time independent term (e) (fig. 8.2). Whereas the duality still is combined in the wave, it comes to light clearly for the vortices to again
be combined in the fourth case. Here arise however potentials and currents, which again can react and oscillate with each other, for instance as L-C-resonant circuit in an electronic circuit, with which the principle is repeated.

This principle is shown clearer for the phenomenon of the temperature as in all other cases. If we start at the top in the picture in fig. 8.2 we have an electromagnetic wave, which is absorbed and thus becomes a vortex. If the vortex falls apart, then eddy losses are formed. We observe that the temperature rises and propagates in the well-known manner.

We have arrived in the bottom box, but this again can be taken as the top box for the now following process, because the equation of heat conduction is a vortex equation of type c or d! We discover a self-similarity:

The spatial-temporal principle formulated mathematically by the fundamental field equation can be carried over into itself time and again.
http://www.meyl.eu/go/index.php?dir=30_ ... sublevel=0


_________________
Peace, Live Long and Prosper.

Man lives in the sunlit world of what he believes to be reality. But there is, unseen by most, an underworld, a place that is just as real, but not as brightly lit... a Darkside."

Last edited by junglelord on Fri Jan 18, 2008 9:52 pm; edited 1 time in total
There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
User avatar
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