## Systematical errors

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### Systematical errors

From reddit.
It is in a respond to the NASA EM drive paper, but one can apply it to many other science reports.

There's basically two types of error: statistical and systematic.

Statistical errors are caused by random fluctuations. You can never make them go away, but you can reduce them by taking more and more measurements. And you can try to manage them to optimizing your experiment. For example, you can use the concept of the Fisher information and the Cramer-Rao bound to figure out the best case scenario for your statistical uncertainty before you even run your experiment. You can figure out how to do your measurements to get the smallest statistical uncertainty on the parameter(s) you're trying to measure.

But then there's the entire other kind of uncertainty which often is not accounted for. Systematic errors. A system and its environment always interacts with your measurement in some way. Systematic errors lead to an offset, or a bias away from the true value.

To counter a systematic error, you have to change parameters of the environment or the system. That way you can establish how much these influence your measurements. Only after that you have correctly modelled them, you can correct your measurements to the correct values.

Systematic errors in astronomy
If we apply this to the modern astronomy, we can see the following systematic errors.

1. There is a systematic error in the relation between redshift and distance.
Especially with Quasars.

2. There is a systematic error in the relation between redshift and speed.
Interstellar cold Plasma can change the redshift of light.

3. There is a systematic error in the relation between gravity and the acceleration of objects in galaxies.
Electric forces can cause acceleration and even star formation.

4. There is a systematic error in the relation between gravity and the bending of space time.
At least a part of this bending can be related to plasma.

5. Pressure is not the only cause for nuclear fusion
Electric currents and EM-forces can help too.

6. Magnetic reconnection
Can not be reproduced in basic EM physics

Etc.

As a scientists from whatever background, I like to eliminate systematic errors,
since they will lead to false conclusions.
This website would not even exist if the scientists would do their job properly.
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Zyxzevn

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