http://wbabin.net/science/anderton14.pdfBoscovich’s Principle: foundation of relativity
The scientific community that ignores Boscovich’s theory ignores the foundation upon which relativity theory is built. If the foundation of a theory is ignored, little wonder the theory is not properly understood by its followers; in this case the relativists- who are unaware of the deeper levels of the theoretical tradition from which they work.
http://www.wbabin.net/science/anderton12.pdfThe attempt to revive interest in Boscovich’s theory
“The 1922 translation appeared at the time when physical theory had absorbed many of Boscovich’s basic ideas and atomic physics was becoming a specialized science firmly based on experiment. Few physicists imagined that anything further could be learnt from a speculative theory dating from the eighteenth century. As already mentioned most histories of atomism written between 1920 and 1950 failed to make adequate reference to his special contribution and influence, perhaps because they were mainly written by chemists more concerned with experiments than with fundamental physical ideas.”
http://wbabin.net/science/anderton13.pdfBoscovich’s theory: strict Newtonian physics
I will now look at Boscovich’s theory according to Bertrand Russell. Bertrand Russell was one of the pro-Einstein supporters in the early days of Einstein becoming a celebrity, so this article highlights the relationship of the pro-relativity camp with respect to Boscovich in the early 20th Century.
http://wbabin.net/science/anderton3.pdfBoscovich’s Theory and Newton’s Third Law
The Acceptance of Newton’s Third Law is interconnected with the Acceptance of Boscovich’s theory; which gives a proper understanding of that Law namely in terms of Field interactions.
The article I am referring to below is by David Papineau,  and is dealing with Newton and Boscovich. Objective is to explain Boscovich’s theory and why we have the Third Law of Newton in Physics
David Papineau points out that in the period 1687-1745: “The only natural philosophers in the period who didn't analyse impact in terms of forces of motion were those who, like d'Alembert, adopted a strictly positivist attitude to forces of any kind, and argued that natural philosophy ought to restrict itself entirely to charting the effects observed in different situations, without worrying about the forces responsible for those effects. This kind of positivism became increasingly popular in the early 1740s.”
Different philosophic points-of-view have sought to impose themselves on Physics
and has made it a mess. The Positivist philosophic interpretation has sought to delete
certain ideas that are outside experiment and observation; this has often been a
hindrance because for instance an idea such as atoms pre-20th Century were not
observable of how Physics, and trying to not talk about atoms pre-20th Century
stunted theoretical progress.
As David Papineau points out Newton’s Third Law was ignored for sixty years
because it ran counter to intuition, then Boscovich in 1745 revived it. He thinks that it
might have been the Positivistic philosophy (of such people as D’Alembert) of
discarding ideas that did not have experimental confirmation that might have made
room for Newton’s Third Law as a need for explanation.
http://www.hiddenmysteries.org/mysterie ... ROBLEM.pdfTHE ATOMIC PROBLEM
A CHALLENGE TO PHYSICISTS AND MATHEMATICIANS
Lancelot Law Whyte
The decisive advances of this century in theoretical physics have been made in a period of a few years within a single mind. A new idea led to new algebra and so to new predictions in the thought processes of one person, from Planck and Einstein to Dirac and Pauli. It is unusual to suggest novel physical principles without simultaneously clothing them in mathematical expressions permitting quantitative predictions in particular experiments. Yet there have been times in the past, and the present moment may also be one, when, owing to a special need for reorientation, the presentation of a speculative theoretical programme, emphasizing new or neglected physical ideas, has proved fertile. One example of special relevance is R. J. Boscovich’s Theoria Philosophiae Naturalis, redacta ad unicam legem virium in natura existentium (Vienna, 1758. * The mathematics in this work was trivial relatively to the novelty of the ideas, and no new measurements were predicted. Yet its influence on the history of physical ideas was profound. Boscovich’s ‘Theory’ was the formulation of a programme for atomic physics which is still being carried out, though some are unaware of this. ). [* On the relation of Boscovich’s atomism to the present essay, and for references on Boscovich, see W 21, W 24, W 26.]
This Challenge is also the announcement of a programme, and one based partly, like
contemporary physics, on Boscovichian atomism. But in several respects it parts company with Boscovich and with the Newtonian residuals in relativity and quantum theory and points towards a new post quantum realm of inquiry appropriate to the late twentieth century. It is a challenge in the sense of an invitation to attempt the solution of a challenging problem by using a particular method.
This is not a personal programme, but that, I hope, of an invisible college of tomorrow. These ideas may be neither new, nor perfect, nor complete. Yet this essay will serve a purpose if it leads to new explorations. It is as a pointer that I ask this statement to be judged. For I have no doubt that these or similar ideas, or other ideas provoked by their inadequacy, will in someone’s mind during this century prove fertile. They may help, as James Clerk Maxwell * put it, ‘to drive us out of the hypotheses in which we have hitherto taken refuge into that state of thoroughly conscious ignorance which is the prelude to every real advance in science’.
[*James Clerk Maxwell, Nature, March 3, 1875.]
Back to James Maxell’s and Nikola Tesla vision about space
Today, the academicians of Modern Physics try to imply that James Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory is not based upon the Ether. From his original publications, however, it is clear that Maxell has been a strong supporter of the Ether concept and rigorous attacker of those who ignores this objectivity  (see article four, section: Maxwell supports Ether). In A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism vol. II  James Maxwell concludes on the last page in favor of the Ether:
".....whenever energy is transmitted from one body to another in time, there must be a medium or substance in which the energy exists after it leaves one body and before it reaches the other”
Attacking the opponents of his concept Maxwell say: My further researches lead me to find that these 'eminent men’ who take upon themselves the task of ignoring anything that contradicts their cherished beliefs, follow what is called Scientism. And Scientism is well known by some people as a corruption of Science that is really a ‘pseudo religion.’ With so many ‘eminent men’ following their religion of Scientism and pretending it to be Science, it is little wonder that the world is in a very ‘sorry state’ of affairs.
The price for tailoring the Maxwell’s equations to the known today vector form could be the exclusion of the transient state properties of the vacuum. That’s why some physical phenomena may look like paradoxes and some experiments seam to contradict to the “laws of physics”. In other words the transient state of the vacuum is outside of the filed of view of the Modern physics today. It stands to reason that the dark matter whose signature is now observable in all galaxies [11,12] is in fact an underlying superfine structure of the space we live.
In the most of the standard physics textbooks it is written that Einstein disproved the Ether (aether), when it talks about the Michelson Morley experiment. However, if you look at the book: Sidelights on Relativity - Einstein says he did not disprove the ether, just showed that one version of it was wrong . Really the "ether" concept evolved in General relativity and becaming a "space-time." But that interpretation gets lost in confusion as people try to think from the formulated postulates in Quantum Mechanics. As a result the General relativity gets interpretation different than the original concept. In fact Einstein did not agree with the 1925 theory of Quantum Mechanics [1,5,6]. Today physicists are taught that the ‘ether’ concept is part of history. In fact, in the Modern physics the natural media or “ether” is replaced by some of its attributes, such as: quantum fluctuations of the physical vacuum, zero-point energy, space-time metrics and other names . Now the Modern physics is deprived to solve the paradox: studying the properties of the physical vacuum while ignoring the existence of the carrier of these properties. Such approach led to development of abstractive theories where the human logic fails. While this has been opposed by some open minded scientists in the beginning of the 20th century, now the replacement of the human logic by mathematical one is silently acceptable.
http://www.helical-structures.org/new_e ... vision.pdf
http://members.iimetro.com.au/~hubbca/e ... piracy.htmThe Einstein Conspiracy
4. Newton- Boscovich Research programme
Newton set in place a research programme that led to Boscovich’s theory (a theory that unified Relativity and Quantum Ideas in its own version of physics). It is another part of History that the Science Community chooses to ignore, because it does not want to believe in a Unified Theory any more.
In the A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, John Losee tells us: 
"...In Query 31 of Opticks, he [Newton] set forth a research programme to uncover the forces that govern the interactions of the minute parts of bodies. Newton expressed the hope that the study of short-range forces would achieve an integration of physico - chemical phenomena such as changes of state, solution, and the formation of compounds, in much the same way as the principle of universal gravitation had achieved the integration of terrestrial and celestial dynamics. Subsequently, Newton’s research programme received theoretical development from Boscovich and Mossotti, and practical implementation in the electromagnetic researches of Faraday and the various attempts to measure the elective affinities of the chemical elements."
Here the queries left by Newton in his book Opticks is seen as a research programme. This research programme was Newton- Boscovichian and was what many scientists were using up to circa 1920s. After the Physics Revolution, the Boscovich bit was dropped, leaving Newton theory defined with its queries becoming its assumptions and the Modern Physics as taking a different stance to that Newton theory.
The theory Newton- Boscovich disappeared. Parts of Boscovich’s theory were used in Modern Physics and other parts were not used.
In A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism vol. II James Maxwell concludes on the last page in favour of the Ether:
".....whenever energy is transmitted from one body to another in time, there must be a medium or substance in which the energy exists after it leaves one body and before it reaches the other, for energy, as Torricelli remarked, ‘is a quintessence of so subtle a nature that it cannot be contained in any vessel except the inmost substance of material things.’ Hence all these theories lead to the conception of a medium in which the propagation takes place, and if we admit this medium as an hypothesis, I think it ought to occupy a prominent place in our investigations, and that we ought to endeavour to construct a mental representation of all the details of its action, and this has been my constant aim in this treatise."
If you are interested in the lead-up to Maxwell’s conclusion it is as follows:
"There appears to be, in the minds of these eminent men, some prejudice, or a priori objection, against the hypothesis of a medium in which the phenomena of radiation of light and heat and the electric actions at a distance take place. It is true that at one time those who speculated as to the causes of physical phenomena were in the habit of accounting for each kind of action at a distance by means of a special aethereal fluid, whose function and property it was to produce these actions. They filled all space three and four times over with aethers of different kinds, the properties of which were invented merely to ‘ save appearances’, so that more rational enquirers were willing rather to accept not only Newton’s definite law of attraction at a distance, but even the dogma of Cotes, that action at a distance is one of the primary properties of matter, and that no explanation can be more intelligible than this fact. Hence the undulatory theory of light has met with much opposition, directed not against its failure to explain the phenomena, but against the assumption of the existence of a medium in which light is propagated."
"We have seen that the mathematical expressions for electrodynamic action led, in the mind of Gauss, to the conviction that a theory of the propagation of electric action in time would be found to be the very keystone of electrodynamics. Now we are unable to conceive of propagation in time, except either as the flight of a material substance through space, or as the propagation of a condition of motion or stress in a medium already existing in space. In the theory of Neumann, the mathematical conception called Potential, which we are unable to conceive as a material substance, is supposed to be projected from one particle to another, in a manner which is quite independent of a medium, and which, as Neumann has himself pointed out, is extremely different from the propagation of light. In the theories of Riemann and Betti it would appear that the action is supposed to be propagated in a manner somewhat more similar to light."
"But in all of these theories the question naturally occurs:- If something is transmitted from one particle to another at a distance, what is its condition after it has left the one particle and before it has reached the other? If this something is the potential energy of the two particles, as in Neumann’s theory, how are we to conceive this energy as existing in a point of space, coinciding neither with the one particle nor with the other? In fact, whenever energy is transmitted from one body to another in time, there must be a medium or substance in which the energy exists after it leaves one body and before it reaches the other, for energy, as Torricelli remarked, ‘is a quintessence of so subtle a nature that it cannot be contained in any vessel except the inmost substance of material things.’ Hence all these theories lead to the conception of a medium in which the propagation takes place, and if we admit this medium as an hypothesis, I think it ought to occupy a prominent place in our investigations, and that we ought to endeavour to construct a mental representation of all the details of its action, and this has been my constant aim in this treatise."
Maxwell’s statement that "There appears to be, in the minds of these eminent men, some prejudice, or a priori objection, against the hypothesis of a medium...." is most enlightening ‘these eminent men’ with their ‘prejudice’ see it as their duty to ignore any evidence that they are wrong, and hence when they get their greasy little hands on science they corrupt it. They start asking for evidence that Ether exists if they are to believe in it, and ignore that Ether is required to make sense of the physical theories created by the ‘greats’ such as Maxwell.
My further researches lead me to find that these 'eminent men’ who take upon themselves the task of ignoring anything that contradicts their cherished beliefs, follow what is called Scientism. And Scientism is well known by some people as a corruption of Science that is really a ‘pseudo religion.’ With so many ‘eminent men’ following their religion of Scientism and pretending it to be Science, it is little wonder that the world is in a very ‘sorry state’ of affairs.
When the orbits of electrons was worked out by Thomson, then later by Bohr and others; what it was originally based upon was Boscovich’s theory, where this theory was treating the scenario as being like music. Boscovich’s theory is a Pythagorean theory of physics, and Pythagoras based his description of the universe as being based upon maths and upon musical harmony (the music of the spheres etc.). Within this description one has waves that form into standing patterns around the nucleus, and hence giving the appearance of allowed and forbidden positions around the nucleus.
Thomson used Boscovich’s theory to get the ‘allowed’ and ‘forbidden’ orbits of an electron round a nucleus.
Book Reference: Roger Boscovich,S J (1711 - 1787): the forerunner of Modern Physical Theories, H G Gill, S J, M H Gill and Sons Ltd., Dublin 1941, p 18 - 19, 30
"Between 1903 and 1906 Thomson gave a course of lectures at the Royal Institution of London, which were published in the following year under the title The Corpuscular Theory of Matter. Much work had been done during these years in investigating the number of electrons in an atom. In the preface of this work we read :"
"There was, then, about this time-1906-an effort to devise a theory in which the electron could only revolve in what we shall call " allowed " orbits. It may be said at once that no theory has ever yet been devised in which, according to the recognised laws of electro-dynamics, electrified particles can be restricted to or excluded from any orbit. J. J. Thomson deducted his hypothesis directly from the theory and curve of Boscovich, and showed that the notion of " allowed " and " forbidden " orbits follows from it, and thus laid the foundations of the theory developed later by Bohr and others."
The relevant point to Boscovich is:
"...........J. J. Thomson deducted his hypothesis directly from the theory and curve of Boscovich, and showed that the notion of " allowed " and " forbidden " orbits follows from it, and thus laid the foundations of the theory developed later by Bohr and others."
i.e. Bohr and others Quantum Theorising arises from Boscovich’s Theory.
The strange thing to note above is:
"It may be said at once that no theory has ever yet been devised in which, according to the recognised laws of electro-dynamics, electrified particles can be restricted to or excluded from any orbit."
But one must bear in mind that Gill’s book was in 1941, and the situation is now not quite like that.
Back to the main issue: Boscovich’s theory unifies Relativistic and Quantum ideas. But the theory from Bohr and others, namely Modern Quantum Theory is not unified with Relativity. So, there is some difference between Modern Quantum Theory and Boscovich’s Theory, i.e. Modern Quantum Theory does not adopt all the assumptions of Boscovich’s theory. So, although Boscovich’s theory gave rise to being developed as Modern Quantum Theory, they are NOT the same theory.
7. Musical Appreciation of the Universe
Boscovich’s Theory is a Unified Pythagorean theory of physics, and the Pythagoreans viewed the universe as obeying the rules of music and number, so it in other words Boscovich’s Theory is a Musical description of the universe. Waves play a very big part in music, and resonance has a very big part to play with waves. Tesla’s physics is based on resonance. So, all is interconnected: Tesla, Boscovich, Pythagoras, Music.
8. The Founders of Modern Physics were working from a Unified Physics
The Founders of Modern Physics (in the 1920s), were working from a Unified Theory (i.e. Boscovich). But this Unified Theory is no longer taught to Students. It has been deleted from their education, because of a strange philosophical movement (logical Positivism) that has rejected such a unified approach to physics, and making modern Physics (from the 1940s) a collection of unconnected theories.
Niels Bohr was one of the main founders of Quantum Mechanics, and he was working from Boscovich’ Unified Theory. This can be inferred from the praises that Niels Bohr gave for Boscovich (also spelt ‘Boskovic.’) At the International Symposium in 1958, attended by many of the top physicists, Niels Bohr gave this speech:
"Ruder Boskovic, whose life-work is receiving greater and greater attention in the scientific world of today, was one of the most prominent figures among the 18th century philosophers who enthusiastically elaborated the fundamental conceptions of Newtonian mechanics. Indeed, he did not only make important contributions to mathematics and astronomy, but strove with remarkable imagination and logical power to develop a systematic account of the properties of matter on the basis of interactions of mass points through central forces. In respect, Boskovic’s ideas exerted a deep influence on the work of the next following generation of physicists, resulting in the general mechanistic views which inspired Laplace and, perhaps less directly, even Faraday and Maxwell."
Bohr is downplaying Boskovic’s contributions; other sources refer to Boskovic as being the 18th Century’s version of Newton. But he says that Boskovic is receiving greater attention in the scientific world, indicating Boskovic’s importance to Physics. This speech was in 1958, and the West did not pursue that interest. Bohr waffles on :
"It is true in our days the approach to such problems has undergone essential changes. Above all, it has been recognised that the consistent description of atomic processes demands a feature of indivisibility, symbolised by the quantum of action and which goes far beyond the old, much debated doctrine of a limited divisibility of matter. This development has revealed an unsuspected limitation of the scope of mechanical pictures and even of the deterministic description of physical phenomena. However, it has been possible, through a most efficient collaboration between physicists from many countries, gradually to develop a rational generalisation of the classical theories of mechanics and electrodynamics, which has proved capable of accounting for an ever increasing wealth of experimental data concerning the properties of matter."
When, against this background, one reflects on the development of natural philosophy through the ages, one appreciates the wisdom of the curious attitude towards atomic problems, which reigned until the last century. I think not only of the belief that, owing to the coarseness of our tools and sense organs, it would never be possible to obtain direct evidence of phenomena on the atomic scale, but also of the often expressed skepticism as to the adequacy of pictorial models in a domain so far removed from ordinary experience. Although the marvellous development of experimental technique has permitted us to record effects of single atomic objects, we are here in a novel situation which has necessitated a radical revision of the fundaments for the unambiguous use of the elementary conceptions, like space and time, and cause and effect, embodied in the language adapted to our orientation in practical life.
The elucidation of the situation with which we are confronted in atomic physics has been obtained by raising anew the old problem of what answers we can receive to questions put to nature in the form of experiments. Of course, no physicist from earlier times has ever thought that he could augment physical knowledge in any other way than by accounting for recordings obtained under well-defined experimental conditions. While, in this respect, there is no change of attitude since Boskovic’s time, we have in our days, as is well known, received a new lesson regarding our position as to analysis and synthesis of such knowledge.
Now, this is the important bit about Boskovic:
"Our esteem for the purposefulness of Boskovic’s great scientific work, and the inspiration behind it, increases the more as we realise the extent to which it served to pave the way for later developments. In friendly and fruitful international co-operation physicists are working today, in Yugoslavia as in all other countries, for the progress of our knowledge of the atomic constitution of matter and for the application of this knowledge, which holds out promises surpassing even those of the technology based on classical physics. In the pursuit of such novel developments, it is essential that we not only keep an open mind for unforeseen discoveries, but that we are conscious of standing on the foundations laid by the pioneers of our science."
Boskovic was the main pioneer for what became Modern Physics (as created in 1920s) by Bohr and his contemporaries. But Bohr is trying to be rather ‘vague’ in saying this. He finishes his speech by saying:
"The 200th anniversary of the publication of Boskovic’s famous Theoria Philosophiae Naturalis could hardly be commemorated in a more fitting manner than by an international congress in the country of his birth, convened on the occasion of the opening of the museum in Dubrovnik with its historical treasures. In pointing to the future, it is also a most fortunate omen that the great occasion could be combined with the inauguration of the modern research institute in Zagreb, which bears Ruder Boskovic’s name and where Mestrovic’s impressive statue will daily remind students of the traditions on which they are building and inspire them to fruitful contributions to common human knowledge."
There is a Physics Research Institute in Yugoslavia, which is dedicated to Boskovic. This speech was given in 1958. Yugoslavia was in the Soviet Union then, and the Soviets were well aware of the importance of Boskovic to modern Physics, but the West decided to ignore him. This is suggestive of some Cold War Cover-up in Physics. We can see why Bohr in 1958 thought that the scientists were getting more interested in Boskovic, and the West’s subsequent lack of interest, as indicating that the West was curtailing certain physics information.
In the USSR, there was less personal freedom, and it appears that there might have been no suppression of information on Boskovic in connection with Modern Physics. But in the West, where there is personal freedom, it appears that this freedom requires certain information to be denied people, else they know too much and present too big a security risk.
In WWII, scientists were placed into a compartmentalisation approach to scientific research, because of national security reasons they were not allowed to communicate with scientists outside of the speciality they were working on. This was to try to keep scientists with no overall picture of any science project that they were working on, so as to prevent them leaking too much information if they were to defect. If they had knowledge of a Unified Theory of physics (a la Boskovic) then they could have worked out all of the details of the projects they were working on, and presented a bigger security risk. Hence giving people personal freedom, meant that people must not be allowed to know too much, or they could present too big a danger, if they did deviate and go ‘bad’.
One wonders how much of this is still going on today. From certain Conspiracy Theorists, we are told that Secret Agencies are often engaged in deliberate Disinformation Campaigns. There is freedom of information, so there must be a lot of truth out there, which if people believed in, would make them dangerous, and so in order to combat this, the Secret Agencies then engage in spreading disinformation. A person then seeking the truth, has the truth hidden within layers of lies. Personal freedom in the West leads to these sorts of actions by the Authorities. There seems a positive and negative aspect to all matters. Personal freedom entails a dark side.
Actes Du Symposium International R J Boskovic 1958, Beograd, Zagreb, Ljubljana, 1959, p 27 - 28